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JEL classification codes

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JEL classification codes

Articles in economics journals are usually classified according to the JEL classification codes, a system originated by the Journal of Economic Literature. The JEL is published quarterly by the American Economic Association (AEA) and contains survey articles and information on recently published books and dissertations. The AEA maintains EconLit, a searchable data base of citations for articles, books, reviews, dissertations, and working papers classified by JEL codes for the years from 1969. A recent addition to EconLit is indexing of economics-journal articles from 1886 to 1968[1] parallel to the print series Index of Economic Articles.[2]

There are 20 primary JEL categories:

Each JEL primary category has secondary and tertiary subcategories, for example, under JEL: D – Microeconomics:

JEL: D1Household Behavior and Family Economics
JEL: D11Consumer Economics: Theory.[3]

JEL code (sub)categories, including periodic updates, are referenced at Journal of Economic Literature (JEL) Classification System. Links to definitions of (sub)categories are at JEL Classification Codes Guide with corresponding examples of article titles linked to publication information, such as abstracts.

Articles in economics journals also list JEL codes (for example JEL: B12), facilitating their use across search engines. Comprehensive uses of JEL (sub)classifications include:

The New Palgrave Dictionary of Economics, 2008, v. 8, Appendix IV, pp. 854–69, and for the online version by drilling to the primary, secondary, or tertiary JEL code of interest here and pressing the Search button below it for article-preview links .
National Bureau of Economic Research Working Papers abstracts by year via links
Research Papers in Economics via links.


  • General economics and teaching JEL: A Subcategories 1
  • History of economic thought, methodology, and heterodox approaches JEL: B Subcategories 2
  • Mathematical and quantitative methods JEL: C Subcategories 3
  • Microeconomics JEL: D Subcategories 4
  • Macroeconomics and monetary economics JEL: E Subcategories 5
  • International economics JEL: F Subcategories 6
  • Financial economics JEL: G Subcategories 7
  • Public economics JEL: H Subcategories 8
  • Health, education, and welfare JEL: I Subcategories 9
  • Labor and demographic economics JEL: J Subcategories 10
  • Law and economics JEL: K Subcategories 11
  • Industrial organization JEL: L Subcategories 12
  • Business administration and business economics; marketing; accounting JEL: M Subcategories 13
  • Economic history JEL: N Subcategories 14
  • Economic development, technological change, and growth JEL: O Subcategories 15
  • Economic systems JEL: P Subcategories 16
  • Agricultural and natural resource economics; environmental and ecological economics JEL: Q Subcategories 17
  • Urban, rural, and regional economics JEL: R Subcategories 18
  • Miscellaneous categories (economics) JEL: Y Subcategories 19
  • Other special topics (economics) JEL: Z Subcategories 20
  • Notes 21
  • External links 22

General economics and teaching JEL: A Subcategories

Category:General economics

JEL: A1 – General Economics

JEL: A10 – General
JEL: A11 – Role of Economics; Role of Economists; Market for Economists
JEL: A12 – Relation of Economics to Other Disciplines
JEL: A13Relation of Economics to Social Values
JEL: A14 – Sociology of Economics
JEL: A19 – Other

JEL: A2Economic Education and Teaching of Economics

JEL: A20 – General
JEL: A21 – Pre-college
JEL: A22 – Undergraduate
JEL: A23 – Graduate
JEL: A29 – Other

JEL: A3 – Collective Works

JEL: A30 – General
JEL: A31 – Collected Writings of Individuals
JEL: A32 – Volumes
JEL: A33 – Handbooks
JEL: A39 – Other

History of economic thought, methodology, and heterodox approaches JEL: B Subcategories

Category:History of economic thought, methodology, and heterodox approaches

JEL: B0 – General

JEL: B00 – General

JEL: B1History of Economic Thought through 1925

JEL: B10 – General
JEL: B11 – Preclassical
JEL: B12Classical
JEL: B13 – Neoclassical through 1925
JEL: B14 – Socialist; Marxist
JEL: B15 – Historical; Institutional
JEL: B16 – History of Economic Thought: Quantitative and Mathematical
JEL: B19 – Other

JEL: B2History of Economic Thought since 1925

JEL: B20 – General
JEL: B21 – Microeconomics
JEL: B22 – Macroeconomics
JEL: B23 – History of Economic Thought: Econometrics; Quantitative & Mathematical Studies
JEL: B24 – Socialist; Marxist; Sraffian
JEL: B25 – Historical; Institutional; Evolutionary; Austrian
JEL: B29 – Other

JEL: B3 – History of Thought: Individuals

JEL: B30 – General
JEL: B31 – Individuals
JEL: B32 – Obituaries

JEL: B4Economic methodology

JEL: B40 – General
JEL: B41 – Economic methodology
JEL: B49 – Other

JEL: B5Current Heterodox Approaches

JEL: B50 – General
JEL: B51 – Socialist; Marxian; Sraffian
JEL: B52 – Institutional; Evolutionary
JEL: B53Austrian
JEL: B54 – Feminist Economics
JEL: B59 – Other

Mathematical and quantitative methods JEL: C Subcategories

Category:Mathematical and quantitative methods (economics)

JEL: C0 – General

JEL: C00 – General
JEL: C01 – Econometrics
JEL: C02 – Mathematical Methods

JEL: C1Econometric and Statistical Methods: General

JEL: C10 – General
JEL: C11Bayesian analysis
JEL: C12Hypothesis testing
JEL: C13Estimation
JEL: C14Semiparametric and nonparametric methods
JEL: C15 – Statistical Simulation methods
JEL: C16Statistical distributions
JEL: C16 – Specific Distributions
JEL: C19 – Other

JEL: C2Econometric methods: Single equation models;Single variables

JEL: C20 – General
JEL: C21Cross-Sectional Models; Spatial models; Treatment effect models
JEL: C22Time-Series Models
JEL: C23Panel data
JEL: C34 – Truncated and censored models
JEL: C25 – Discrete regression; Qualitative choice models
JEL: C29 – Other

JEL: C3Econometric Methods: Multiple or Simultaneous Equation Models

JEL: C30 – General
JEL: C31Cross-Sectional Models; Spatial Models; Treatment effect models
JEL: C32Time-Series Models
JEL: C33 – Models with Panel data
JEL: C34 – Truncated and censored models
JEL: C35 – Discrete regression and Qualitative choice models
JEL: C39 – Other

JEL: C4 – Econometric and Statistical Methods: Special Topics

JEL: C40 – General
JEL: C41 – Duration analysis
JEL: C42 – Survey methods
JEL: C43Index numbers and Aggregation
JEL: C44 – Operations research; Statistical decision theory
JEL: C45Neural Networks and Related Topics
JEL: C46 – Specific Distributions
JEL: C49 – Other

JEL: C5Econometric Modeling

JEL: C50 – General
JEL: C51 – Model construction and estimation
JEL: C52 – Model evaluation and testing
JEL: C53 – Forecasting and Prediction Methods; Simulation
[JEL: C53 –
JEL: C59 – Other

JEL: C6Mathematical Methods; Programming Models; Mathematical and Simulation Modeling

JEL: C60 – General
JEL: C61 – Optimization techniques; Programming models; Dynamic analysis
JEL: C62 – Existence and stability conditions of equilibrium
JEL: C63Computational techniques; Simulation modeling
JEL: C65 – Miscellaneous Mathematical Tools
JEL: C67 – Input–output models
JEL: C68 – Computable General Equilibrium models
JEL: C69 – Other

JEL: C7Game theory and Bargaining theory

JEL: C70 – General
JEL: C71Cooperative games
JEL: C72Noncooperative games
JEL: C73Stochastic and Dynamic games; Evolutionary games; Repeated Games
JEL: C78Bargaining theory; Matching theory
JEL: C79 – Other

JEL: C8Data Collection and Data Estimation Methodology; Computer Programs

JEL: C80 – General
JEL: C81 – Methodology for collecting, estimating, and organizing microeconomic data
JEL: C82 – Methodology for collecting, estimating, and organizing macroeconomic data
JEL: C87Econometric software
JEL: C88Other Computer Software
JEL: C89 – Other

JEL: C9Design of experiments

JEL: C90 – General
JEL: C91 – Laboratory, Individual Behavior
JEL: C92 – Laboratory, Group Behavior
JEL: C93 – Field experiments
JEL: C99 – Other

Microeconomics JEL: D Subcategories


JEL: D0 – General

JEL: D00 – General
JEL: D01Microeconomic Behavior: Underlying Principles
JEL: D02 – Institutions: Design, Formation, and Operations
JEL: D03Behavioral Economics; Underlying Principles

JEL: D1Household Behavior and Family Economics

JEL: D10 – General
JEL: D11Consumer Economics: Theory
JEL: D12 – Consumer economics: empirical analysis
JEL: D13 – Household production and Intrahousehold allocation
JEL: D14Personal finance
JEL: D18Consumer protection
JEL: D19 – Other

JEL: D2 – Production and Organizations

JEL: D20 – General
JEL: D21Firm behavior
JEL: D23 – Transaction Costs; Property rights
JEL: D24Production; Cost; Capital, Multifactor and Total Factor Productivity; Capacity
JEL: D29 – Other

JEL: D3Distribution

JEL: D30 – General
JEL: D31 – Personal Income, Wealth, and Their Distributions
JEL: D33Factor Income Distribution
JEL: D39 – Other

JEL: D4Market structure and pricing

JEL: D40 – General
JEL: D41Perfect competition
JEL: D42Monopoly
JEL: D43Oligopoly and Other Forms of Market Imperfection
JEL: D44Auctions
JEL: D45Rationing; Licensing
JEL: D46Value Theory
JEL: D47 – Market Design
JEL: D49 – Other

JEL: D5General equilibrium and Disequilibrium

JEL: D50 – General
JEL: D51 – Exchange and Production Economies
JEL: D52 – Incomplete Markets
JEL: D57 – Input–Output Tables and Analysis
JEL: D58 – Computable and Other Applied General Equilibrium Models
JEL: D59 – Other

JEL: D6Welfare economics

JEL: D60 – General
JEL: D61Allocative efficiency; Cost-benefit analysis
JEL: D62Externalities
JEL: D63Equity, Justice, Inequality, and Other Normative Criteria and Measurement
JEL: D64Altruism; Philanthropy
JEL: D69 – Other

JEL: D7 – Analysis of Collective Decision-Making

JEL: D70 – General
JEL: D71Social choice; Clubs; Committees; Associations
JEL: D72Economic Models of Political Processes: Rent-Seeking, Elections, Legislatures, and Voting Behavior
JEL: D73 – Bureaucracy; Administrative Processes in Public Organizations; Corruption
JEL: D74Conflict; Conflict Resolution; Alliances
JEL: D78 – Positive Analysis of Policy-Making and Implementation
JEL: D79 – Other

JEL: D8Information, Knowledge, and Uncertainty

JEL: D80 – General
JEL: D81 – Criteria for Decision-Making under Risk and Uncertainty
JEL: D82Asymmetric and Private information; Market Design
JEL: D83 – Search; Learning; Information and Knowledge
JEL: D84 – Expectations; Speculation
JEL: D85 – Network Formation and Analysis: Theory
JEL: D86 – Economics of Contract: Theory
JEL: D87 – Neuroeconomics
JEL: D89 – Other

JEL: D9Intertemporal choice and Growth

JEL: D90 – General
JEL: D91 – Intertemporal Consumer Choice; Life cycle models and Saving
JEL: D92 – Intertemporal Firm Choice and Growth, Investment, or Financing
JEL: D99 – Other

Macroeconomics and monetary economics JEL: E Subcategories

Category:Macroeconomics and monetary economics

JEL: E – Macroeconomics and Monetary Economics

JEL: E0 – General

JEL: E00 – General
JEL: E01Measurement and Data on National Income and Product Accounts and Wealth
JEL: E02 – Institutions and the Macroeconomy

JEL: E1 – General Aggregative Models

JEL: E10 – General
JEL: E11 – Marxian; Sraffian; Institutional; Evolutionary
JEL: E12 – Keynes; Keynesian; Post-Keynesian
JEL: E13 – Neoclassical
JEL: E16 – Social Accounting Matrix
JEL: E17 – Forecasting and Simulation
JEL: E19 – Other

JEL: E2 – Macroeconomics: Consumption, Saving, Production, Employment, and Investment

JEL: E20 – General
JEL: E21 – Consumption; Saving; Wealth
JEL: E22 – Capital; Investment (including Inventories); Capacity
JEL: E23 – Production
JEL: E24 – Employment; Unemployment; Wages; Intergenerational Income Distribution; Aggregate Human Capital
JEL: E25 – Aggregate Factor Income Distribution
JEL: E26Informal economy; Underground Economy
JEL: E27 – Forecasting and Simulation
JEL: E29 – Other

JEL: E3 – Prices, Business Fluctuations, and Cycles

JEL: E30 – General
JEL: E31 – Price Level; Inflation; Deflation
JEL: E32Business Fluctuations; Cycles
JEL: E37 – Forecasting and Simulation
JEL: E39 – Other

JEL: E4 – Money and Interest Rates

JEL: E40 – General
JEL: E41Demand for Money
JEL: E42 – Monetary Systems; Standards; Regimes; Government and the Monetary System; Payment Systems
JEL: E43 – Determination of Interest Rates; Term Structure of Interest Rates
JEL: E44 – Financial Markets and the Macroeconomy
JEL: E47 – Forecasting and Simulation
JEL: E49 – Other

JEL: E5 – Monetary Policy, Central Banking, and the Supply of Money and Credit

JEL: E50 – General
JEL: E51 – Money Supply; Credit; Money multipliers
JEL: E52 – Monetary Policy
JEL: E58Central Banks and Their Policies
JEL: E59 – Other

JEL: E6 – Macroeconomic Policy Formation, Macroeconomic Aspects of Public Finance, Macroeconomic Policy, and General Outlook

JEL: E60 – General
JEL: E61 – Policy Objectives; Policy Designs and Consistency; Policy Coordination
JEL: E62Fiscal Policy; Public Expenditures, Investment, and Finance; Taxation
JEL: E63 – Comparative or Joint Analysis of Fiscal and Monetary Policy; Stabilization
JEL: E64 – Incomes policy; Price policy
JEL: E65 – Studies of Particular Policy Episodes
JEL: E66 – General Outlook and Conditions
JEL: E69 – Other

International economics JEL: F Subcategories

Category:International economics

JEL: F – International Economics

JEL: F0 – General

JEL: F00 – General
JEL: F01 – Global Outlook
JEL: F02 – International Economic Order; Noneconomic International Organizations •Economic Integration and Globalization: General

JEL: F1Trade

JEL: F10 – General
JEL: F11 – Neoclassical Models of Trade
JEL: F12 – Models of Trade with Imperfect Competition and Scale Economies
JEL: F13 – Commercial Policy; Protection; Promotion; Trade Negotiations; International Organizations
JEL: F14 – Empirical Studies of Trade
JEL: F15 – Economic Integration
JEL: F16 – Trade and Labor Market Interactions
JEL: F17 – Trade Forecasting and Simulation
JEL: F18 – Trade and Environment
JEL: F19 – Other

JEL: F2International Factor Movements and International Business

JEL: F20 – General
JEL: F21International Investment; Long-Term Capital Movements
JEL: F22International Migration
JEL: F23Multinational Firms; International Business
JEL: F24Remittances
JEL: F29 – Other

JEL: F3International Finance

JEL: F30 – General
JEL: F31 – Foreign Exchange
JEL: F32 – Current Account Adjustment; Short-Term Capital Movements
JEL: F33 – International Monetary Arrangements and Institutions
JEL: F34 – International Lending and Debt Problems
JEL: F35Foreign aid
JEL: F36 – Financial Aspects of Economic Integration
JEL: F37 – International Finance Forecasting and Simulation
JEL: F39 – Other

JEL: F4 – Macroeconomic Aspects of International Trade and Finance

JEL: F40 – General
JEL: F41Open economy macroeconomics
JEL: F42 – International Policy Coordination and Transmission
JEL: F43 – Economic Growth of Open Economies
JEL: F47 – Forecasting and Simulation
JEL: F49 – Other

JEL: F5International Relations and International Political Economy

JEL: F50 – General
JEL: F51 – International Conflicts; Negotiations; Sanctions
JEL: F52 – National Security; Economic Nationalism
JEL: F53 – International Agreements and Observance; International Organizations
JEL: F54 – Colonialism; Imperialism; Postcolonialism
JEL: F55 – International Institutional Arrangements
JEL: F59 – International Relations and International Political Economy: Other

Financial economics JEL: G Subcategories

Category:Financial economics

JEL: G – Financial Economics

JEL: G0 – General

JEL: G00 – General
JEL: G01Financial crisis
JEL: G02 – Behavioral Finance: Underlying Principles

JEL: G1General Financial Markets

JEL: G10 – General
JEL: G11Portfolio choice; Investment decisions
JEL: G12 – Asset pricing; Trading volume; Bond interest rates
JEL: G13 – Contingent pricing; Futures Pricing
JEL: G14 – Information and Market Efficiency; Event Studies
JEL: G15 – International financial markets
JEL: G17 – Financial Forecasting
JEL: G18 – Government Policy and Regulation
JEL: G19 – Other

JEL: G2Financial institutions and Services

JEL: G20 – General
JEL: G21Banks; Depository Institutions; Micro Finance Institutions; Mortgages
JEL: G22Insurance; Insurance companies
JEL: G23Non-bank Financial Institutions; Financial Instruments; Institutional Investors
JEL: G24 – Investment banking; Venture capital; Brokerage; Ratings and Ratings Agencies
JEL: G28 – Government Policy and Regulation
JEL: G29 – Other

JEL: G3Corporate finance and Governance

JEL: G30 – General
JEL: G31 – Capital budgeting; Fixed Investment and Inventory Studies
JEL: G32 – Financing Policy; Financial Risk and Risk Management; Capital and Ownership Structure; Goodwill
JEL: G33Bankruptcy; Liquidation
JEL: G34 – Mergers; Acquisitions; Restructuring; Corporate governance
JEL: G35 – Payout Policy
JEL: G38 – Government Policy and Regulation
JEL: G39 – Other

Public economics JEL: H Subcategories

Category:Public economics

JEL: H – Public Economics

JEL: H0 – General

JEL: H00 – General

JEL: H1 – Structure and Scope of Government

JEL: H10 – General
JEL: H11 – Structure, Scope, and Performance of Government
JEL: H12 – Crisis management
JEL: H19 – Other

JEL: H2Taxation, Subsidies, and Revenue

JEL: H20 – General
JEL: H21 – Efficiency; Optimal taxation
JEL: H22Incidence
JEL: H23 – Externalities; Redistributive Effects; Environmental taxes and Subsidies
JEL: H24 – Personal Income and Other Nonbusiness Taxes and Subsidies
JEL: H25 – Business Taxes and Subsidies
JEL: H26Tax Evasion
JEL: H27 – Other Sources of Revenue
JEL: H29 – Other

JEL: H3 – Fiscal Policies and Behavior of Economic Agents

JEL: H30 – General
JEL: H31 – Household
JEL: H32 – Firm
JEL: H39 – Other

JEL: H4 – Publicly provided goods

JEL: H40 – General
JEL: H41 – Public goods
JEL: H42 – Publicly Provided Private Goods
JEL: H43 – Project evaluation; Social discount rate
JEL: H44 – Publicly Provided Goods: Mixed Markets
JEL: H49 – Other

JEL: H5 – National Government Expenditures and Related Policies

JEL: H50 – General
JEL: H51 – Government Expenditures and Health
JEL: H52 – Government Expenditures and Education
JEL: H53 – Government Expenditures and Welfare Programs
JEL: H54 – Infrastructures; Other Public Investment and Capital Stock
JEL: H55 – Social security and Public pensions
JEL: H56 – National Security and War
JEL: H57Government Procurement
JEL: H59 – Other

JEL: H6 – National Budget, Deficit, and Debt

JEL: H60 – General
JEL: H61Budget; Budget Systems
JEL: H62 – Deficit; Surplus
JEL: H63Debt; Debt Management
JEL: H63 – Debt; Debt Management; Sovereign debt
JEL: H68 – Forecasts of Budgets, Deficits, and Debt
JEL: H69 – Other

JEL: H7 – State and Local Government; Intergovernmental Relations

JEL: H70 – General
JEL: H71 – State and Local Taxation, Subsidies, and Revenue
JEL: H72 – State and Local Budget and Expenditures
JEL: H73 – Interjurisdictional Differentials and Their Effects
JEL: H74 – State and Local Borrowing
JEL: H75 – State and Local Government: Health; Education; Welfare; Public pensions
JEL: H76 – State and Local Government: Other Expenditure Categories
JEL: H77 – Intergovernmental Relations; Federalism; Secession
JEL: H79 – Other

JEL: H8 – Miscellaneous Issues

JEL: H80 – General
JEL: H81 – Governmental Loans, Loan Guarantees, Credits, and Grants; Bailouts
JEL: H82 – Governmental Property
JEL: H83Public administration; Public Sector Accounting and Audits
JEL: H84 – Disaster Aid
JEL: H87 – International Fiscal Issues; International Public Goods
JEL: H89 – Other

Health, education, and welfare JEL: I Subcategories

Category:Health, education, and welfare economics

JEL: I – Health, Education, and Welfare

JEL: I0 – General

JEL: I00 – General

JEL: I1Health

JEL: I10 – General
JEL: I11 – Analysis of Health Care Markets
JEL: I12 – Health Production: Nutrition, Mortality, Morbidity, Substance abuse and Addiction, Disability, and Economic Behavior
JEL: I18Government Policy; Regulation; Public health
JEL: I19 – Other

JEL: I2Education

JEL: I20 – General
JEL: I21 – Analysis of Education
JEL: I22Educational finance
JEL: I23 – Higher Education Research Institutions
JEL: I28Government Policy
JEL: I29 – Other

JEL: I3 – Welfare and Poverty

JEL: I30 – General
JEL: I31 – General Welfare; Basic needs; Living standards; Quality of life; Happiness
JEL: I32Measurement and Analysis of Poverty
JEL: I38 – Government Policy; Provision and Effects of Welfare Programs
JEL: I39 – Other

Labor and demographic economics JEL: J Subcategories

Category:Labor and demographic economics

JEL: J – Labor and Demographic Economics


Category:Demographic economics

JEL: J0 – General

JEL: J00 – General

JEL: J1Demographic Economics

JEL: J10 – General
JEL: J11 – Demographic Trends and Forecasts
JEL: J12 – Marriage; Marital Dissolution; Family Structure
JEL: J13 – Fertility; Family Planning; Child Care; Children; Youth
JEL: J14 – Economics of the Elderly; Economics of the Handicapped
JEL: J15 – Economics of Minorities and Races; Non-labor Discrimination
JEL: J16 – Economics of gender; Non-labor Discrimination
JEL: J17 – Value of life; Foregone Income
JEL: J18 – Public Policy
JEL: J19 – Other

JEL: J2 – Time Allocation, Work Behavior, and Employment Determination and Creation; Human capital

JEL: J20 – General
JEL: J21 – Labor force and Employment, Size, and Structure
JEL: J22 – Time allocation and Labor supply
JEL: J23 – Employment Determination; Job creation; Demand for labor; Self-employment
JEL: J24 – Human capital; Skills; Occupational choice; Labor productivity
JEL: J26Retirement; Retirement policies
JEL: J28 – Safety; Accidents; Industrial Health; Job Satisfaction; Related Public Policy
JEL: J29 – Other

JEL: J3Wages, Compensation, and Labor Costs

JEL: J30 – General
JEL: J31 – Wage Level and Structure; Wage differentials by Skill, Training, Occupation, etc.
JEL: J32 – Nonwage labor costs and Benefits; Private pensions
JEL: J33 – Compensation Packages; Payment Methods
JEL: J38 – Public Policy
JEL: J39 – Other

JEL: J4 – Particular Labor Markets

JEL: J40 – General
JEL: J41 – Contracts: Specific Human Capital, Matching models, Efficiency wage Models, and Internal labor markets
JEL: J42 – Monopsony; Segmented Labor Markets
JEL: J43 – Agricultural Labor Markets
JEL: J44 – Professional Labor Markets and Occupations
JEL: J45 – Public Sector Labor Markets
JEL: J48 – Public Policy
JEL: J49 – Other

JEL: J5 – Labor–Management Relations, Trade Unions, and Collective Bargaining

JEL: J50 – General
JEL: J51Trade unions: Objectives, Structure, and Effects
JEL: J52 – Dispute Resolution: Strikes, Arbitration, and Mediation; Collective bargaining
JEL: J53 – Labor-management relations; Industrial Jurisprudence
JEL: J54 – Producer cooperatives; Labor managed firms
JEL: J58 – Public Policy
JEL: J59 – Other

JEL: J6Mobility, Unemployment, and Vacancies

JEL: J60 – General
JEL: J61 – Geographic Labor Mobility; Immigrant Workers
JEL: J62 – Job, Occupational, and Intergenerational mobility
JEL: J63 – Turnover; Vacancies; Layoffs
JEL: J64 – Unemployment: Models, Duration, Incidence, and Job Search
JEL: J65 – Unemployment insurance; Severance pay; Plant closings
JEL: J68 – Public Policy
JEL: J69 – Other

JEL: J7 – Labor Discrimination

JEL: J70 – General
JEL: J71 – Discrimination
JEL: J78 – Public Policy
JEL: J79 – Other

JEL: J8 – Labor Standards: National and International

JEL: J80 – General
JEL: J81 – Working conditions
JEL: J82 – Labor Force Composition
JEL: J83 – Workers' Rights
JEL: J88 – Public Policy
JEL: J89 – Other

Law and economics JEL: K Subcategories

Category:Law and economics

JEL: K – Law and Economics

JEL: K0 – General

JEL: K00 – General

JEL: K1 – Basic Areas of Law

JEL: K10 – General
JEL: K11 – Property Law
JEL: K12 – Contract Law
JEL: K13 – Tort Law and Product Liability
JEL: K14 – Criminal Law
JEL: K19 – Other

JEL: K2 – Regulation and Business Law

JEL: K20 – General
JEL: K21Antitrust Law
JEL: K22 – Business and Securities Law
JEL: K23 – Regulated Industries and Administrative Law
JEL: K29 – Other

Intermediate edit, cont.:

JEL: K3 – Other Substantive Areas of Law

JEL: K30 – General
JEL: K31 – Labor Law
JEL: K32 – Environmental, Health, and Safety Law
JEL: K33 – International Law
JEL: K34 – Tax Law
JEL: K35 – Personal Bankruptcy Law
JEL: K37 – Immigration Law
JEL: K39 – Other

JEL: K4 – Legal Procedure, the Legal System, and Illegal Behavior

JEL: K40 – General
JEL: K41 – Litigation Process
JEL: K42 – Illegal Behavior and the Enforcement of Law
JEL: K49 – Other

Industrial organization JEL: L Subcategories

Category:Industrial organization

JEL: L – Industrial Organization

JEL: L0 – General

JEL: L00 – General

JEL: L1Market Structure, Firm Strategy, and Market Performance

JEL: L10 – General
JEL: L11 – Production, Pricing, and Market structure; Size Distribution of Firms
JEL: L12Monopoly; Monopolization Strategies
JEL: L13Oligopoly and Other Imperfect Markets
JEL: L14 – Transactional Relationships; Contracts and Reputation; Networks
JEL: L15 – Information and Product Quality; Standardization and Compatibility
JEL: L16 – Industrial Organization and Macroeconomics: Industrial Structure and Structural Change; Industrial Price Indices
JEL: L17 – Open Source Products and Markets
JEL: L19 – Other

JEL: L2 – Firm Objectives, Organization, and Behavior

JEL: L20 – General
JEL: L21 – Business Objectives of the Firm
JEL: L22 – Firm Organization and Market Structure
JEL: L23 – Organization of Production
JEL: L24 – Contracting out; Joint ventures; Technology licensing
JEL: L25 – Firm Performance: Size, Diversification, and Scope
JEL: L26Entrepreneurship
JEL: L29 – Other

JEL: L3 – Public enterprise

JEL: L30 – General
JEL: L31 – Nonprofit Institutions; NGOs
JEL: L32Public enterprises; Public-Private Enterprises
JEL: L33 – Comparison of Public and Private Enterprises; Privatization; Contracting out
JEL: L39 – Other

JEL: L4 – Antitrust Issues and Policies

JEL: L40 – General
JEL: L41 – Monopolization; Horizontal Anticompetitive Practices
JEL: L42 – Vertical Restraints; Resale Price Maintenance; Quantity Discounts
JEL: L43 – Legal Monopolies and Regulation or Deregulation
JEL: L44 – Antitrust Policy and Public Enterprise, Nonprofit Institutions, and Professional Organizations
JEL: L49 – Other

JEL: L5 – Regulation and Industrial policy

JEL: L50 – General
JEL: L51Economics of Regulation
JEL: L52 – Industrial Policy; Sectoral Planning Methods
JEL: L53 – Enterprise Policy
JEL: L59 – Other

JEL: L6 – Industry Studies: Manufacturing

JEL: L60 – General
JEL: L61 – Metals and Metal Products; Cement; Glass; Ceramics
JEL: L62 – Automobiles; Other Transportation Equipment
JEL: L63 – Microelectronics; Computers; Communications Equipment
JEL: L64 – Other Machinery; Business Equipment; Armaments
JEL: L65 – Chemicals; Rubber; Drugs; Biotechnology
JEL: L66 – Food; Beverages; Cosmetics; Tobacco; Wine and Spirits
JEL: L67 – Other Consumer Nondurables: Clothing, Textiles, Shoes, and Leather
JEL: L68 – Appliances; Other Consumer Durables
JEL: L69 – Other

JEL: L7 – Industry Studies: Primary Products and Construction

JEL: L70 – General
JEL: L71 – Mining, Extraction, and Refining: Hydrocarbon Fuels
JEL: L72 – Mining, Extraction, and Refining: Other Nonrenewable Resources
JEL: L73 – Forest Products
JEL: L74 – Construction
JEL: L78 – Government Policy
JEL: L79 – Other

JEL: L8 – Industry Studies: Services

JEL: L80 – General
JEL: L81 – Retail and Wholesale Trade; e-Commerce
JEL: L82 – Entertainment; Media (Performing Arts, Visual Arts, Broadcasting, Publishing, etc.)
JEL: L83 – Sports; Gambling; Recreation; Tourism
JEL: L84 – Personal, Professional, and Business Services
JEL: L85 – Real Estate Services
JEL: L86 – Information and Internet Services; Computer Software
JEL: L87 – Postal and Delivery Services
JEL: L88 – Government Policy
JEL: L89 – Other

JEL: L9 – Industry Studies: Transportation and Utilities

JEL: L90 – General
JEL: L91 – Transportation: General
JEL: L92 – Railroads and Other Surface Transportation
JEL: L93 – Air transportation
JEL: L94 – Electric utilities
JEL: L95 – Gas Utilities; Pipelines; Water Utilities
JEL: L96Telecommunications
JEL: L97 – Utilities: General
JEL: L98 – Government Policy
JEL: L99 – Other

Business administration and business economics; marketing; accounting JEL: M Subcategories


JEL: M – Business administration and business economics; marketing; accounting

JEL: M0 – General

JEL: M00 – General

JEL: M1 – Business Administration

JEL: M10 – General
JEL: M11 – Production Management
JEL: M12 – Personnel Management
JEL: M13 – New firms and Startup companies
JEL: M14Corporate culture; Social Responsibility
JEL: M15IT Management
JEL: M16 – International Business Administration
JEL: M19 – Other

JEL: M2 – Business Economics

JEL: M20 – General
JEL: M21 – Business economics
JEL: M29 – Other

JEL: M3 – Marketing and Advertising

JEL: M30 – General
JEL: M31Marketing
JEL: M37Advertising
JEL: M38 – Government Policy and Regulation
JEL: M39 – Other

JEL: M4 – Accounting and Auditing

JEL: M40 – General
JEL: M41Accounting scholarship
JEL: M42Auditing
JEL: M48 – Government Policy and Regulation
JEL: M49 – Other

JEL: M5Personnel economics

JEL: M50 – General
JEL: M51 – Firm Employment Decisions; Promotions (hiring, firing, turnover, part-time, temporary workers, seniority issues)
JEL: M52 – Compensation and Compensation Methods and Their Effects (stock options, fringe benefits, incentives, family support programs, seniority issues)
JEL: M53 – Training
JEL: M54 – Labor Management (team formation, worker empowerment, job design, tasks and authority, job satisfaction)
JEL: M55 – Labor Contracting Devices: Outsourcing; Franchising; Other
JEL: M59 – Other

Economic history JEL: N Subcategories

Category:Economic history

JEL: N – Economic History

JEL: N0 – General

JEL: N00 – General
JEL: N01 – Development of the Discipline: Historiographical; Sources and Methods

JEL: N1 – Macroeconomics and Monetary Economics; Growth and Fluctuations

JEL: N10 – General, International, or Comparative
JEL: N11 – U.S.; Canada: Pre-1913
JEL: N12 – U.S.; Canada: 1913–
JEL: N13 – Europe: Pre-1913
JEL: N14 – Europe: 1913–
JEL: N15 – Asia including Middle East
JEL: N16 – Latin America; Caribbean
JEL: N17 – Africa; Oceania

JEL: N2 – Financial Markets and Institutions

JEL: N20 – General, International, or Comparative
JEL: N21 – U.S.; Canada: Pre-1913
JEL: N22 – U.S.; Canada: 1913–
JEL: N23 – Europe: Pre-1913
JEL: N24 – Europe: 1913–
JEL: N25 – Asia including Middle East
JEL: N26 – Latin America; Caribbean
JEL: N27 – Africa; Oceania

JEL: N3 – Labor and Consumers, Demography, Education, Income, and Wealth

JEL: N30 – General, International, or Comparative
JEL: N31 – U.S.; Canada: Pre-1913
JEL: N32 – U.S.; Canada: 1913–
JEL: N33 – Europe: Pre-1913
JEL: N34 – Europe: 1913–
JEL: N35 – Asia including Middle East
JEL: N36 – Latin America; Caribbean
JEL: N37 – Africa; Oceania

JEL: N4 – Government, War, Law, and Regulation

JEL: N40 – General, International, or Comparative
JEL: N41 – U.S.; Canada: Pre-1913
JEL: N42 – U.S.; Canada: 1913–
JEL: N43 – Europe: Pre-1913
JEL: N44 – Europe: 1913–
JEL: N45 – Asia including Middle East
JEL: N46 – Latin America; Caribbean
JEL: N47 – Africa; Oceania

JEL: N5 – Agriculture, Natural Resources, Environment, and Extractive Industries

JEL: N50 – General, International, or Comparative
JEL: N51 – U.S.; Canada: Pre-1913
JEL: N52 – U.S.; Canada: 1913–
JEL: N53 – Europe: Pre-1913
JEL: N54 – Europe: 1913–
JEL: N55 – Asia including Middle East
JEL: N56 – Latin America; Caribbean
JEL: N57 – Africa; Oceania

JEL: N6 – Manufacturing and Construction

JEL: N60 – General, International, or Comparative
JEL: N61 – U.S.; Canada: Pre-1913
JEL: N62 – U.S.; Canada: 1913–
JEL: N63 – Europe: Pre-1913
JEL: N64 – Europe: 1913–
JEL: N65 – Asia including Middle East
JEL: N66 – Latin America; Caribbean
JEL: N67 – Africa; Oceania

JEL: N7 – Transport, International and Domestic Trade, Energy, Technology, and Other Services

JEL: N70 – General, International, or Comparative
JEL: N71 – U.S.; Canada: Pre-1913
JEL: N72 – U.S.; Canada: 1913–
JEL: N73 – Europe: Pre-1913
JEL: N74 – Europe: 1913–
JEL: N75 – Asia including Middle East
JEL: N76 – Latin America; Caribbean
JEL: N77 – Africa; Oceania

JEL: N8 – Micro-Business History

JEL: N80 – General, International, or Comparative
JEL: N81 – U.S.; Canada: Pre-1913
JEL: N82 – U.S.; Canada: 1913–
JEL: N83 – Europe: Pre-1913
JEL: N84 – Europe: 1913–
JEL: N85 – Asia including Middle East
JEL: N86 – Latin America; Caribbean
JEL: N87 – Africa; Oceania

JEL: N9 – Regional and Urban History

JEL: N90 – General, International, or Comparative
JEL: N91 – U.S.; Canada: Pre-1913
JEL: N92 – U.S.; Canada: 1913–
JEL: N93 – Europe: Pre-1913
JEL: N94 – Europe: 1913–
JEL: N95 – Asia including Middle East
JEL: N96 – Latin America; Caribbean
JEL: N97 – Africa; Oceania

Economic development, technological change, and growth JEL: O Subcategories

Category:Economic development, technological change, and growth

JEL: O – Economic Development, Technological Change, and Growth

JEL: O1Economic development

JEL: O10 – General
JEL: O11 – Macroeconomic Analyses of Economic Development
JEL: O12 – Microeconomic Analyses of Economic Development
JEL: O13 – Agriculture; Natural Resources; Energy; Environment; Other Primary Products
JEL: O14 – Industrialization; Manufacturing and Service Industries; Choice of Technology
JEL: O15 – Human Resources; Human Development; Income Distribution; Migration
JEL: O16 – Financial Markets; Saving and Capital Investment
JEL: O17 – Formal and Informal Sectors; Shadow Economy; Institutional Arrangements: Legal, Social, Economic, and Political
JEL: O18 – Regional, Urban, and Rural Analyses, Transportation
JEL: O19 – International Linkages to Development; Role of International Organizations

JEL: O2 – Development Planning and Policy

JEL: O20 – General
JEL: O21 – Planning Models; Planning Policy
JEL: O22 – Project Analysis
JEL: O23 – Fiscal and Monetary Policy in Development
JEL: O24 – Trade Policy; Factor Movement Policy; Foreign Exchange Policy
JEL: O25Industrial policy
JEL: O29 – Other

JEL: O3Technological Change; Research and Development

JEL: O30 – General
JEL: O31 – Innovation and Invention: Processes and Incentives
JEL: O32 – Management of Technological Innovation and R&D
JEL: O33 – Technological Change: Choices and Consequences; Diffusion Processes
JEL: O34 – Intellectual Property Rights: National and International Issues
JEL: O38 – Government Policy
JEL: O39 – Other

JEL: O4Economic Growth and Aggregate Productivity

JEL: O40 – General
JEL: O41 – One, Two, and Multisector Growth Models
JEL: O42 – Monetary Growth Models
JEL: O43 – Institutions and Growth
JEL: O44 – Environment and Growth
JEL: O47 – Measurement of Economic Growth; Aggregate Productivity
JEL: O49 – Other

JEL: O5 – Economywide Country Studies

JEL: O50 – General
JEL: O51 – U.S.; Canada
JEL: O52 – Europe
JEL: O53 – Asia including Middle East
JEL: O54 – Latin America; Caribbean
JEL: O55 – Africa
JEL: O56 – Oceania
JEL: O57 – Comparative Studies of Countries

Economic systems JEL: P Subcategories

Category:Economic systems

JEL: P – Economic Systems

JEL: P0 – General

JEL: P00 – General

JEL: P1Capitalist Systems

JEL: P10 – General
JEL: P11Planning, Coordination, and Reform
JEL: P12 – Capitalist Enterprises
JEL: P13 – Cooperative Enterprises
JEL: P14 – Property Rights
JEL: P16 – Political Economy
JEL: P17 – Performance and Prospects
JEL: P19 – Other

JEL: P2Socialist Systems and Transitional Economies

JEL: P20 – General
JEL: P21Planning, Coordination, and Reform
JEL: P22 – Prices
JEL: P23 – Factor and Product Markets; Industry Studies; Population
JEL: P24 – National Income, Product, and Expenditure; Money; Inflation
JEL: P25 – Urban, Rural, and Regional Economics; Housing; Transportation
JEL: P26 – Political Economy; Property Rights
JEL: P27 – Performance and Prospects
JEL: P28 – Natural Resources; Energy; Environment
JEL: P29 – Other

JEL: P3 – Socialist Institutions and Their Transitions

JEL: P30 – General
JEL: P31 – Socialist Enterprises and Their Transitions
JEL: P32 – Collectives; Communes; Agriculture
JEL: P33 – International Trade, Finance, Investment, Business, and Aid
JEL: P34 – Financial Economics
JEL: P35 – Public Economics
JEL: P36 – Consumer Economics; Health, Education, Welfare, and Poverty
JEL: P37 – Legal Institutions; Illegal Behavior
JEL: P39 – Other

JEL: P4 – Other Economic Systems

JEL: P40 – General
JEL: P41 – Planning, Coordination, and Reform
JEL: P42 – Productive Enterprises; Factor and Product Markets; Prices; Population
JEL: P43 – Public Economics; Financial Economics
JEL: P44 – National Income, Product, and Expenditure; Money; Inflation
JEL: P45 – International Trade, Finance, Investment, and Aid
JEL: P46 – Consumer Economics; Welfare and Poverty
JEL: P47 – Performance and Prospects
JEL: P48 – Political Economy; Legal Institutions; Property Rights, Natural Resources; Energy; Environment; Regional Studies
JEL: P49 – Other

JEL: P5Comparative Economic Systems

JEL: P50 – General
JEL: P51 – Comparative Analysis of Economic Systems
JEL: P52 – Comparative Studies of Particular Economies
JEL: P59 – Other

Agricultural and natural resource economics; environmental and ecological economics JEL: Q Subcategories

Category:Resource economics

JEL: Q – Agricultural and Natural Resource Economics; Environmental and Ecological Economics

JEL: Q0 – General

JEL: Q00 – General
JEL: Q01Sustainable development
JEL: Q02 – Global Commodity Crises

JEL: Q1Agriculture

JEL: Q10 – General
JEL: Q11 – Aggregate Supply and Demand Analysis; Prices
JEL: Q12 – Micro Analysis of Farm Firms, Farm Households, and Farm Input Markets
JEL: Q13 – Agricultural markets and Marketing; Cooperatives; Agribusiness
JEL: Q14 – Agricultural finance
JEL: Q15 – Land Ownership and Tenure; Land reform; Land use; Irrigation; Agriculture and Environment
JEL: Q16 – R&D; Agricultural technology; Biofuels; Agricultural Extension Services
JEL: Q17 – Agriculture in International Trade
JEL: Q18Agricultural policy; Food policy
JEL: Q19 – Other

JEL: Q2Renewable Resources and Conservation

JEL: Q20 – General
JEL: Q21 – Demand and Supply
JEL: Q22 – Fishery; Aquaculture
JEL: Q23 – Forestry
JEL: Q24 – Land
JEL: Q25 – Water
JEL: Q26 – Recreational Aspects of Natural Resources
JEL: Q28 – Government Policy
JEL: Q29 – Other

JEL: Q3Nonrenewable Resources and Conservation

JEL: Q30 – General
JEL: Q31 – Demand and Supply
JEL: Q32 – Exhaustible Resources and Economic Development
JEL: Q34 – Natural Resources and Domestic and International Conflicts
JEL: Q33 – Resource Booms
JEL: Q38 – Government Policy
JEL: Q39 – Other

JEL: Q4Energy

JEL: Q40 – General
JEL: Q41 – Demand and Supply
JEL: Q42 – Alternative Energy Sources
JEL: Q43 – Energy and the Macroeconomy
JEL: Q47 – Energy Forecasting
JEL: Q48Government Policy
JEL: Q49 – Other

JEL: Q5Environmental economics

JEL: Q50 – General
JEL: Q51 – Valuation of Environmental Effects
JEL: Q52 – Pollution Control Adoption Costs; Distributional Effects; Employment Effects
JEL: Q53 – Air Pollution; Water Pollution; Noise; Hazardous Waste; Solid Waste; Recycling
JEL: Q54 – Climate; Natural Disasters, Global Warming
JEL: Q55 – Technological Innovation
JEL: Q56 – Environment and Development; Environment and Trade; Sustainability; Environment Accounts and Accounting; Environmental Equity; Population Growth
JEL: Q57Ecological economics: Ecosystem Services; Biodiversity Conservation; Bioeconomics; Industrial Ecology
JEL: Q58Government Policy
JEL: Q59 – Other

Urban, rural, and regional economics JEL: R Subcategories

Category:Urban, rural, and regional economics

JEL: R – Urban, Rural, and Regional economics

JEL: R0 – General

JEL: R00 – General

JEL: R1 – General Regional economics

JEL: R10 – General
JEL: R11 – Regional Economic Activity: Growth, Development, and Changes
JEL: R12 – Size and Spatial Distributions of Regional Economic Activity; Interregional Trade
JEL: R13 – General Equilibrium and Welfare Economic Analysis of Regional Economies
JEL: R14Land Use Patterns
JEL: R15 – Econometric and Input–Output Models; Other Models
JEL: R19 – Other

JEL: R2 – Household Analysis

JEL: R20 – General
JEL: R21 – Housing Demand
JEL: R22 – Other Demand
JEL: R23 – Regional Migration; Regional Labor Markets; Population
JEL: R29 – Other

JEL: R3 – Production Analysis and Firm Location

JEL: R30 – General
JEL: R31 – Housing Supply and Markets
JEL: R32 – Other Production and Pricing Analysis
JEL: R33 – Nonagricultural and Nonresidential Real Estate Markets
JEL: R34 – Input Demand Analysis
JEL: R38 – Government Policies; Regulatory Policies
JEL: R39 – Other

JEL: R4Transportation Systems

JEL: R40 – General
JEL: R41 – Transportation: Demand; Supply; Congestion; Safety and Accidents
JEL: R42 – Government and Private Investment Analysis
JEL: R48 – Government Pricing; Regulatory Policies
JEL: R49 – Other

JEL: R5 – Regional Government Analysis

JEL: R50 – General
JEL: R51 – Finance in Urban and Rural Economies
JEL: R52 – Land Use and Other Regulations
JEL: R53 – Public Facility Location Analysis; Public Investment and Capital Stock
JEL: R58 – Regional Development Policy
JEL: R59 – Other

Miscellaneous categories (economics) JEL: Y Subcategories

JEL: Y1 – Data: Tables and Charts

JEL: Y10 – Data: Tables and Charts

JEL: Y2 – Introductory Material

JEL: Y20 – Introductory Material

JEL: Y3 – Book Reviews (unclassified)

JEL: Y30 – Book Reviews (unclassified)

JEL: Y4 – Dissertations (unclassified)

JEL: Y40 – Dissertations (unclassified)

JEL: Y5 – Further Reading (unclassified)

JEL: Y50 – Further Reading (unclassified)

JEL: Y6 – Excerpts

JEL: Y60 – Excerpts

JEL: Y6 – No Author General Discussions

JEL: Y60 – No Author General Discussions

JEL: Y8 – JEL: Related Disciplines

JEL: Y80 – Related Disciplines

JEL: Y9 – Other

JEL: Y90 – Other
JEL: Y91 – Pictures and Maps

Other special topics (economics) JEL: Z Subcategories

Category:Other special topics (economics)

JEL: Z – Other special topics

JEL: Z0 – General

JEL: Z00 – General

JEL: Z1 – Cultural Economics; Economic Sociology; Economic Anthropology

JEL: Z10 – General
JEL: Z11 – Economics of the Arts and Literature
JEL: Z12Religion
JEL: Z13 – Economic Sociology; Economic Anthropology; Social and Economic Stratification
JEL: Z18 – Public Policy
JEL: Z19 – Other


  1. ^ EconLit – American Economic Association.
  2. ^ Works cited in the Index of Economic Articles are classified by author and subject. Coverage includes v. 1-7 for 1886–1965 and v. 8-36 for each year thereafter to 1996 (per Baylor University Libraries, "International Business Sources," p. 1).
  3. ^ An alphabetic list of category links constructed as corresponding JEL-code (sub)categories and listed below is at Category:Categories which are included in the JEL classification codes.

External links

  • Full list of JEL classifications
  • JEL Classification Codes Guide, which provides a more detailed explanation of the classification system
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