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Jackson Pollock

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Title: Jackson Pollock  
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Subject: Abstract expressionism, Western painting, 20th-century Western painting, Hedda Sterne, Federal Art Project
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Jackson Pollock

American_Saga" id="whe_lnki_105" title="Jackson Pollock: An American Saga">Jackson Pollock: An American Saga, directed by and starring Ed Harris was released. Marcia Gay Harden won the Academy Award for Best Supporting Actress for her portrayal of Lee Krasner. The movie was the project of Ed Harris, who portrayed Pollock. He was nominated for the Academy Award for Best Actor. Harris himself painted the works seen in the film.[44] The Pollock-Krasner Foundation did not authorize or collaborate with any production.[43]

In September 2009, the art historian Henry Adams claimed in Smithsonian (magazine) that Pollock had written his name in his famous painting Mural (1943).[45] The painting is now insured for $140 million. In 2011, the Republican Iowa State Representative Scott Raecker introduced a bill to force the sale of the artwork, held by The University of Iowa, in order to fund scholarships, but his bill created such controversy that it was quickly withdrawn.[14][46]

Critical debate

Pollock's work has been the subject of important critical debates. The critic

  • Jackson Pollock at the Museum of Modern Art
  • Pollock collection at Guggenheim NY site
  • Los Angeles County Museum of Art (LACMA), Los Angeles, California
  • Museum of Contemporary Art (MoCA), Los Angeles, California
  • Jackson Pollock at the Israel Museum, Jerusalem


  • Pollock-Krasner House and Study Center
  • Pollock-Krasner Foundation
  • Paintings at WikiArt
  • Jackson Pollock at The Art Story Foundation
  • Pollock on Museum Web Paris
  • Pollock and The Law
  • .Lavender MistNational Gallery of Art web feature, includes highlights of Pollock's career, numerous examples of his work, photographs and motion footage of Pollock, plus an in-depth discussion of his 1950 painting
  • Blue Poles at the NGA
  • Smarthistory videos
    • Pollock's Painting Techniques
    • Why Is That Important?: Looking at Jackson Pollock on YouTube, Number 1A, 1948
    • Pollock's One: Number 31, 1950
  • Jackson Pollock's Number One 1948; How Can We Be Abandoned and Accurate at the Same Time? by Lore Mariano
  • Fractal Expressionism – the fractal qualities of Pollock's drip paintings.
  • Understanding Abstract Art by Harley Hahn
  • Ed Pilkington, "Pollock cache may have been painted after artist's death", The Guardian, November 30, 2007
  • Jackson Pollock Papers at the Smithsonian's Archives of American Art
  • Works by Jackson Pollock (public domain in Canada)
  • "Jackson Pollock, John Cage and William Burroughs", talk at MOMA
  • pictures of Pollock, slideshow Life Magazine

External links

  • Herskovic, Marika (2009). American Abstract and Figurative Expressionism Style Is Timely Art Is Timeless An Illustrated Survey With Artists' Statements, Artwork and Biographies. New York School Press. pp. 127; 196–9.  
  • Herskovic, Marika (2003). American Abstract Expressionism of the 1950s An Illustrated Survey. New York School Press. pp. 262–5.  
  • Herskovic, Marika (2000). New York School Abstract Expressionists Artists Choice by Artists. New York School Press. pp. 18; 38; 278–81.  
  • Karmel, Pepe;  
  • O'Connor, Francis V. (1967). This pag. New York: Museum of Modern Art.  
  • Taylor, Richard; Micolich, Adam; Jonas, David (October 1999). "Fractal Expressionism". Physics World. 
  • Naifeh, Steven; Smith, Gregory White (1989). Jackson Pollock: an American saga. Clarkson N. Potter.  
  • Smith, Roberta (February 15, 2002). "ART IN REVIEW".  


  1. ^ Naifeh, Steven W.; Smith, Gregory White (24 December 1989). Jackson Pollock: an American saga. C.N. Potter.  
  2. ^ Varnedoe, Kirk; Karmel, Pepe (1998). Jackson Pollock: Essays, Chronology, and Bibliography. Exhibition catalog. New York:  
  3. ^ Horsley, Carter B., Mud Pies, Jackson Pollock, Museum of Modern Art, November 1, 1998 to February 2, 1999, The Tate Gallery, London, March 11 to June 6, 1999 "While it is de rigueur to concentrate on the signature works that define an artist’s "style," it is very important to understand its evolution..."
  4. ^ a b c d Piper, David (2000). The illustrated history of art. London: Chancellor Press. pp. 460–461.  
  5. ^ Friedman, B.H. (1995). Jackson Pollock : energy made visible (1 ed.). New York: Da Capo Press. p. 4.  
  6. ^ "Our Lady of Loretto Elementary School: Local History Timeline". Retrieved 2011-06-24. 
  7. ^ Sickels, Robert (2004). The 1940s. Greenwood Publishing Group. p. 223.  
  8. ^ "Glen Rounds". North Carolina Literary Hall of Fame. Retrieved 15 September 2014. 
  9. ^ "Malcolm Blue Society Celebrates 40 Years". 8 July 2013. Retrieved 15 September 2014. 
  10. ^ "Jackson Pollock". The American Museum of Beat Art. Retrieved 2007-09-28. 
  11. ^ "Abstract Expressionism, Jackson Pollock's "Psychoanalytic Drawings" Paintings". 
  12. ^ Stockstad, Marilyn (2005). Art History. Upper Saddle River, New Jersey: Pearson Education, Inc.  
  13. ^ Rothenberg, A. (2001). "Bipolar illness, creativity, and treatment". The Psychiatric quarterly 72 (2): 131–147.  
  14. ^ a b Finkel, Jori (June 26, 2012). "Pollock painting to get the Getty touch". Los Angeles Times. 
  15. ^ (1943)MuralJackson Pollock, University of Iowa Museum of Art, Iowa City.
  16. ^ a b Boddy-Evans, Marion. "What Paint Did Pollock Use?". Retrieved 2007-09-28. 
  17. ^
  18. ^ Mother of Invention | Picture This | Big Think
  19. ^ Karmel, Pepe (1999). Jackson Pollock: Interviews, Articles, and Reviews. In Conjunction with the Exhibition "Jackson Pollock" - The Museum of Modern Art, New York, November 1, 1998 to February 2, 1999. The Museum of Modern Art. p. 273.  
  20. ^ "The Wild Ones".  
  21. ^ Jackson Pollock, "My Painting", in Pollock: Painting (edited by Barbara Rose), Agrinde Publications Ltd: New York (1980), page 65; originally published in Possibilities I, New York, Winter 1947-8
  22. ^ JR Minkel, "Pollock or Not? Can Fractals Spot a Fake Masterpiece?", by for Scientific American, October 31, 2007. Retrieved January 29, 2009.
  23. ^ Taylor, Richard; Micolich, Adam P.; Jonas, David. "Can Science Be Used To Further Our Understanding Of Art?". Retrieved 2008-09-15. 
  24. ^ Ouellette, Jennifer (2001-11-01). "Physicist Richard Taylor's study". Discover magazine. Retrieved January 28, 2009. 
  25. ^ Jerry Saltz. "The Tempest" (reprint). Retrieved 2009-08-30. 
  26. ^ a b "Biography". Retrieved 2007-09-28. 
  27. ^ "Downfall of Pollock", Jackson Pollock website, Retrieved July 23, 2010.
  28. ^ Abstract Expressionism in 1955. Retrieved August 28, 2009.
  29. ^ "Jackson Pollock & Tony Smith: Sculpture, An Exhibition on the Centennial of their Births, September 7 - October 27, 2012", Matthew Marks Gallery, New York.
  30. ^ Varnedoe, Kirk and Karmel, Pepe, Jackson Pollock: Essays, Chronology, and Bibliography, Exhibition catalog, New York: The Museum of Modern Art, Chronology, p.328, 1998, ISBN 0-87070-069-3
  31. ^ "The Pollock-Krasner Foundation website: Press Release page". Retrieved 2009-08-30. 
  32. ^ "Most frequently requested artists list of the Artists Rights Society". Retrieved 2009-08-30. 
  33. ^ Lesley M. M. Blume (September 2012), "The Canvas and the Triangle", Vanity Fair.
  34. ^ Randy Kennedy (May 29, 2005), "Is This a Real Jackson Pollock?", New York Times.
  35. ^ Schreyach, Michael (2007-08-01). "I am nature".  
  36. ^ Custer, Lee Ann W. (January 31, 2007), "Pigment Could Undo Pollock", The Harvard Crimson.
  37. ^ McGuigan, Cathleen (August 20–27, 2007). "Seeing Is Believing? Is this a real Jackson Pollock? A mysterious trove of pictures rocks the art world". Newsweek. Retrieved 2009-08-30. 
  38. ^ Ellen G. Landau, Claude Cernuschi (2007). Pollock Matters. McMullen Museum of Art Boston College, published by the University of Chicago Press.
  39. ^ Michael Miller (December 7, 2007). "Pollock Matters, The McMullen Museum of Art, Boston College, September 1–December 9, 2007". The Berkshire Review, An International Journal for the Arts.
  40. ^ Michael Shnayerson (May 2012), "A Question of Provenance", Vanity Fair.
  41. ^ Patricia Cohen (October 21, 2012), "Lawsuits Claim Knoedler Made Huge Profits on Fakes", New York Times.
  42. ^ Squire, John (May 13, 2004). "Pollock, paint and me".  
  43. ^ a b Carol Strickland (July 25, 1993), Race Is On to Portray Pollock New York Times.
  44. ^ Interview with Ed Harris at DVDtalk
  45. ^ Henry Adams, "Decoding Jackson Pollock", Smithsonian Magazine, September 2009
  46. ^ Michael Winter (February 9, 2011), "Iowa lawmaker proposes selling Pollock masterpiece to fund scholarships", USA Today.
  47. ^ Steven McElroy, "If It’s So Easy, Why Don’t You Try It", New York Times, December 3, 2010
  48. ^ a b "Expression of an age". Retrieved 2009-08-30. 
  49. ^ Saunders, F. S. (2000), The Cultural Cold War. The CIA and the World of Arts and Letters, New York: Free Press.
  50. ^ Eva Cockcroft, "Abstract Expressionism, Weapon of the Cold War", Artforum, vol. 12, no. 10, June 1974, pp. 43–54.
  51. ^ "Male and Female" (jpeg). 
  52. ^
  53. ^
  54. ^ "UIMA: Mural". Retrieved 2009-08-30. 
  55. ^ Posted by University of Iowa Museum of Art (2012-07-01). "Pollock's "Mural" Moves to the Getty for a Makeover!". UIMA. Retrieved 2013-03-26. 
  56. ^ "The She-Wolf" (jpeg). 
  57. ^ "Blue (Moby Dick)" (jpeg). 
  58. ^ "Troubled Queen". 
  59. ^
  60. ^ "The Key" (jpeg). 
  61. ^ "The Tea Cup" (jpeg). 
  62. ^ "Shimmering Substance" (jpeg). 
  63. ^ "Portrait of H.M.". 
  64. ^ "Full Fathom Five" (jpeg). 
  65. ^ "Jackson Pollock - Painting - Cathedral". Retrieved 2009-08-30. 
  66. ^
  67. ^ Baker, Kenneth (June 14, 2011). "Anderson Gallery a major art donation to Stanford". San Francisco Chronicle. Retrieved 2011-06-14. 
  68. ^ "Painting" (jpeg). 
  69. ^ "New Orleans Museum of Art Educational Guide". 
  70. ^ France-Presse, Agence. "Jackson Pollock work "Number 19, 1948" sells for record $58.4 million at Christie's More Information:[/url] Copyright ©". Retrieved 18 May 2013. 
  71. ^
  72. ^ "Number 10". 
  73. ^ "Number 1, 1950 (Lavender Mist)" (jpeg). 
  74. ^ "Mural on indian red ground, 1950". 
  75. ^ "Autumn Rhythm (Number 30)". The Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York. Retrieved 2009-08-30. 
  76. ^ "Artist Page: Jackson Pollock". Retrieved 2009-08-30. 
  77. ^ No.32
  78. ^ "One: Number 31, 1950". MoMA. Retrieved 2009-08-30. 
  79. ^ A Pollock Restored, a Mystery Revealed May 27, 2013 NYT
  80. ^ "Number 7, 1951 - Image". Retrieved 2009-08-30. 
  81. ^ "Convergence". 
  82. ^ "Blue poles". Retrieved 2009-08-30. 
  83. ^ Jones, Jonathan (2003-07-05). "Portrait and a Dream". London: The Guardian. Retrieved 2009-08-30. 
  84. ^ "Easter and the Totem" (jpeg). 
  85. ^ "Ocean Greyness". Solomon R. Guggenheim Museum: Collection Online. 
  86. ^
  87. ^
  88. ^
  89. ^ (1949)No. 12Jackson Pollock, Christie's New York, 11 May 2004.
  90. ^ Carol Vogel (May 8, 2012), "Record Sales for a Rothko and Other Art at Christie’s", New York Times.
  91. ^ Vartanian, Hrag. "Historic Night at Christie’s as 12 Post-War Artists Set Records, Biggest Sale in History". Hyperallergic. Retrieved 18 May 2013. 
  92. ^ "Jackson Pollock's Unique Style". 
  93. ^ Higgins, Charlotte (2 December 2004). "Work of art that inspired a movement... a urinal".  


Pollock's staining into raw canvas was adapted by the Color Field painters Helen Frankenthaler and Morris Louis. Frank Stella made "all-over composition" a hallmark of his works of the 1960s. The Happenings artist Allan Kaprow, sculptors Richard Serra, Eva Hesse and many contemporary artists have retained Pollock’s emphasis on the process of creation; they were influenced by his approach to process, rather than the look of his work.[92] In 2004, One: Number 31 was ranked the 8th most influential piece of modern art in a poll of 500 artists, curators, critics, and dealers.[93]


In 2013 Pollock's "Number 19" (1948) was sold by Christies for a reported $58,363,750 during an auction that ultimately reached $495 million total sales in one night which Christies reports as a record to date as the most expensive auction of contemporary art.[91]

In November 2006, Pollock's No. 5, 1948 became the world's most expensive painting, when it was sold privately to an undisclosed buyer for the sum of $140,000,000. Another artist record was established in 2004, when No. 12 (1949), a medium-sized drip painting that had been shown in the United States Pavilion at the 1950 Venice Biennale, fetched $11.7 million at Christie's, New York.[89] In 2012, Number 28, 1951, one of the artist’s combinations of drip and brushwork in shades of silvery gray with red, yellow and shots of blue and white, also sold at Christie's, New York, for $20.5 million—$23 million with fees—within its estimated range of $20 million to $30 million.[90]

In 1973, Blue Poles (Blue Poles: Number 11, 1952), was purchased by the Australian Whitlam Government for the National Gallery of Australia for US $2 million (A$1.3 million at the time of payment). At the time, this was the highest price ever paid for a modern painting. The painting is now one of the most popular exhibits in the gallery.[88] It was a centerpiece of the Museum of Modern Art's 1998 retrospective in New York, the first time the painting had been shown in America since its purchase.

Art market

Number 1, 1950 (Lavender Mist), National Gallery of Art, Washington, D.C.

List of major works

The CIA, sponsored exhibitions of Pollock's work. Certain left-wing scholars, most prominently Eva Cockcroft, have argued that the U.S. government and wealthy elite embraced Pollock and abstract expressionism in order to place the United States in the forefront of global art and devalue socialist realism.[48][49] Cockcroft wrote that Pollock became a "weapon of the Cold War".[50]

Reynold's News in a 1959 headline said, "This is not art—it's a joke in bad taste."[48]

Clement Greenberg supported Pollock's work on formalistic grounds. It fit well with Greenberg's view of art history as a progressive purification in form and elimination of historical content. He considered Pollock's work to be the best painting of its day and the culmination of the Western tradition via Cubism and Cézanne to Manet.

In a famous 1952 article in ARTnews, Harold Rosenberg coined the term "action painting," and wrote that "what was to go on the canvas was not a picture but an event. The big moment came when it was decided to paint 'just to paint.' The gesture on the canvas was a gesture of liberation from value—political, aesthetic, moral." Many people assumed that he had modeled his "action painter" paradigm on Pollock.


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