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Jarwanid dynasty


Jarwanid dynasty

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The Jarwanid Dynasty was a Shia dynasty that ruled the Province of Bahrain in the 14th century. It was founded by Jerwan I bin Nasser al-Maliki and was based in Qatif. The dynasty was a vassal of the Kingdom of Ormus.[1][2]

The Jarwanids belonged to the clan of Bani Malik. It is disputed whether they belonged to the Banu Uqayl—the tribe of their predecessors the Usfurids and their successors the Jabrids—or to the Banu Abdul Qays, to whom the Uyunid dynasty (1076-1235) belonged.[3] The Jarwanids came to power some time in the 14th century, after expelling the forces of Sa'eed ibn Mughamis, the chief of the Muntafiq tribe based in the Iraqi city of Basrah.

Contemporary sources such Ibn Battuta and Ibn Hajar[4] describe the Jarwanids as being "extreme Rawafidh," a term for Shi'ites who rejected the first three Caliphs, while a 15th-century Sunni scholar from Egypt describes them as being "remnants of the Qarmatians." Historian Juan Cole concludes from this that they were Isma'ilis.[5] However, the Twelver Shi'ite sect was promoted under their rule, and Twelver scholars held the judgeships and other important positions, including the chief of the hisba.[5] Also, unlike under the Qarmatians, Islamic prayers were held in the mosques under Jarwanid rule, and prayer was called under the Shi'ite formula. A Twelver scholar of the 14th century, Jamaluddeen Al-Mutawwa', belonged to the house of Jarwan.[5][6] According to Al-Humaydan, who specialized in the history of eastern Arabia, the Jarwanids were Twelvers, and the term "Qaramita" was used simply as an epithet for "Shi'ite."[7][8]

Jarwanid rule came to an end in the 15th century at the hands of the Jabrids, a clan of the Banu Uqayl bedouins.

See also


  1. ^ Sacred space and holy war: the politics, culture and history of Shi'ite Islam, By Juan Ricardo Cole, pg.35
  2. ^ Arabia
  3. ^ Abdulkhaliq Al-Janbi, an online article on the history of eastern Arabia (Arabic)
    عبدالخالق الجنبي، جروان الأحساء غير جروان القطيف
  4. ^ Ibn Hajar al-'Asqalani, al-Durar al-Kamina fi A'yan al-mi'a al-Thamina []
  5. ^ a b c Juan R. I. Cole, "Rival Empires of Trade and Imami Shiism in Eastern Arabia, 1300-1800", International Journal of Middle East Studies, Vol. 19, No. 2. (May, 1987), pp. 177-203, at p. 179, through JSTOR. [1]
  6. ^ 'Ali b. Hasan al-BahrHni, Anwar al-badrayn fi tarajim 'ulama' al-Qatif wa'l-Ahsa' wa'l-Bahrayn online version
    أنوار البدرين في تراجم علماء القطيف والإحساء والبحرين، الشيخ علي بن الشيخ حسن البلادي البحراني
  7. ^ Abdullatif Al-Humaydan, "The Usfurid Dynasty and its Political Role in the History of Eastern Arabia", Journal of the College of Literature, University of Basrah, Volume 15, 1979 (Arabic)
    عبداللطيف بن ناصر الحميدان، "إمارة العصفوريين ودورها السياسي في تاريخ شرق الجزيرة العربية"، مجلة كلية الآداب، جامعة البصرة، 1975
  8. ^ Al-Wasit Online Newspaper, Issue 2379, March 12, 2009, citing Al-Humaydan [2]
    الشيعة المتصوفون وقيادة في مسجد الخميس، حسين محمد حسين
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