World Library  
Flag as Inappropriate
Email this Article

Jayadratha

Article Id: WHEBN0003443946
Reproduction Date:

Title: Jayadratha  
Author: World Heritage Encyclopedia
Language: English
Subject: Sindhu Kingdom, Drona, Duhsala, Sauvira Kingdom, Drona Parva
Collection: Characters in the Mahabharata
Publisher: World Heritage Encyclopedia
Publication
Date:
 

Jayadratha

Arjuna Kills Jaydhratha with Pashupatastra

In the epic Mahābhārata, Jayadratha (Sanskrit: जयद्रथ) was the king of Sindhu Kingdom. He was married to Dushala, the only sister of the 100 Kaurava brothers. He was the son of the king Vridhakshtra.

Contents

  • Etymology 1
  • Abduction of Draupadi 2
  • The first boon from Shiva 3
  • The second boon from his father 4
  • In the Kurukshetra war 5
  • Arjuna's revenge 6
  • Aftermath 7
  • Notes and references 8
  • See also 9

Etymology

The word Jayadratha is derived from two Sanskrit words, jaya meaning 'victorious' and ratha meaning 'chariot'. Thus the word Jayadratha means, 'having victorious chariots'. His other names are-

Abduction of Draupadi

One day, during the time the Pandavas were in exile, the Pandavas needed to gather samitha and darbha (holy grass) for rituals and to gather food. They left Draupadi alone at the ashrama and requested Sage Trunabindu to watch over her. On that day Jayadratha saw Draupadi and sent his minister Kotikasya and asked him to inquire as to who she was. Kotikasya went over to her and after learning about her identity, informed Jayadratha that she is Draupadi, the wife of the Pandavas. Jayadratha in spite of learning her identity, went to Draupadi and proposed to marry her. Initially welcoming him as their brother-in-law, Draupadi vehemently refused the proposal. Infuriated, Jayadratha abducted Draupadi and started moving towards his kingdom. The Pandavas returned to their ashrama to find Draupadi missing and learnt about the event that had unfolded by the account of Draupadi's friend Dhaatreyika, who had witnessed Jayadratha forcefully carrying Draupadi away. Yudhisthira then ordered Arjuna and Bhima to rescue Draupadi. Both of them defeated Jayadratha and brought him before Yudhisthira. Draupadi begged for Jayadratha to be pardoned and not killed, in order to prevent Dushala from becoming a widow. She suggested that he be treated like a slave. So, Bhima shaved Jayadratha's head leaving him with just five spots of hair on his head, before setting him free. [1]

The first boon from Shiva

Jayadratha desires to avenge his humiliation from the Pandavas by defeating them in the battle field. So, Jayadratha performs a rigorous tapasya in order to please Lord Shiva. When Lord Shiva appears before him, Jayadratha in turn asks for the ability to defeat the Pandavas. Shiva replies that such a boon is impossible, as the Pandavas are too mighty. However, he gives Jayadratha the ability to check the advance of the Pandavas and their forces for one whole day. However, Shiva warns Jayadratha that Arjuna is an exception to this boon.

The messages of the encounter are manifold. One, that Lord Shiva is known to love all of his devotees equally and does not ignore the tapasya of anyone. Two, that God must return prayer with something. Three, that God, or any giver of boon, should only promise what is within his limits.

The second boon from his father

Years before abdicating his throne, Jayadratha's father, Vridhakshtra, hears a prophecy that his son is going to be killed. Scared for his lineage, Vridhakshtra leaves for the forest and becomes a sage. Through penance, he attempts to gain enough spiritual power to grant his son immortality or the equivalent of Bhishma's boon. However, he only manages enough to curse that whoever causes Jayadratha's head to fall to the ground will turn to ash.

In the Kurukshetra war

Naturally, Jayadratha fights on the side of Duryodhana in the Kurukshetra War. On the 13th day of the Mahabharata war, when the chakravyuha is launched by Dronacharya, Jayadratha makes use of Lord Shiva's boon. Arjuna's son Abhimanyu manages to enter the formation; he intends for the Pandava forces to follow after him and smash the formation from the inside. Jayadratha moves to close the gap, and is able to hold all the Pandava brothers and their forces at bay. As part of Drona's strategy, Arjuna and Krishna are busy battling Susharma and the Trigata Army elsewhere. Abhimanyu, who does not know how to exit from the chakravyuha, is trapped and brutally killed by the Kaurava Warriors in a combined attack.

The Pandavas are startled after finding that Jayadratha was able to hold the world's most powerful warriors at bay. In particular, Draupadi, Yudhishthira, and Bhima feel very guilty for not killing Jayadratha when they did have the chance. Arjuna blames Jayadratha to be the cause for Abhimanyu's death. He vows to kill him the very next day before sunset, failing which Arjuna would kill himself by jumping in a pyre of fire. This sets the stage for the epic 14th day of battle.

Arjuna's revenge

Dronacharya arranges a combination of 3 vyuhas in order to protect Jayadratha from Arjuna.

Jayadratha's head falls in his father's lap

Bhima, Satyaki and Arjuna tear through the Kaurava army. At a climactic moment, with the sun nearly set and thousands of warriors still between Arjuna and Jayadratha, Krishna sends his Sudarshana Chakra in order to mask the sun and create an illusion of sunset. The Kaurava warriors rejoice over Arjuna's defeat and look forward for his imminent suicide. Jayadratha comes before Arjuna and taunts him. Krishna orders Arjuna to kill Jayadratha. With unflinching belief in his friend, Arjuna beheads Jayadratha with the Aindrastra. The astra carries the head of Jayadratha to Vridhakshtra. When the head falls, his father gets up in shock. The head of his son falls on the ground, and Vridhakshtra's head bursts into 100 pieces. Thus, Vridhakshtra becomes the victim of his own boon granted to his son. Krishna then removes the illusion. Thus, Lord Krishna saves Arjuna and sees to it that both Jayadratha and Vridhakshtra are killed in the same stroke.

In some versions of the story, Arjuna does not use a divine weapon to send the head to Vridhakshtra. Instead, he puts on a show of archery to move the head further and further away.

When Arjuna killed Jayadratha is also a source of debate. In some versions, Krishna removes the illusion before he tells Arjuna to kill a surprised Jayadratha, not after.

Aftermath

After the war, Arjuna fights with the Sindhu army when it refuses to honor Yudhisthira as the Emperor of Bharatvarsha. When Dushala (his cousin) comes and begs to spare the life of her son Suratha's son, Arjuna complies.

Notes and references

  1. Mahabharata by C Rajagopalachari. 2008 (52nd) Edition by Bhavan's Book University. ISBN 81-7276-368-9

The reference from the:

  • Mahabharata book is prefixed by ''Mahabharata''
  1. ^ http://ltrc.iiit.ac.in/gwiki/Mahabharata:Jayadratha

See also

This article was sourced from Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License; additional terms may apply. World Heritage Encyclopedia content is assembled from numerous content providers, Open Access Publishing, and in compliance with The Fair Access to Science and Technology Research Act (FASTR), Wikimedia Foundation, Inc., Public Library of Science, The Encyclopedia of Life, Open Book Publishers (OBP), PubMed, U.S. National Library of Medicine, National Center for Biotechnology Information, U.S. National Library of Medicine, National Institutes of Health (NIH), U.S. Department of Health & Human Services, and USA.gov, which sources content from all federal, state, local, tribal, and territorial government publication portals (.gov, .mil, .edu). Funding for USA.gov and content contributors is made possible from the U.S. Congress, E-Government Act of 2002.
 
Crowd sourced content that is contributed to World Heritage Encyclopedia is peer reviewed and edited by our editorial staff to ensure quality scholarly research articles.
 
By using this site, you agree to the Terms of Use and Privacy Policy. World Heritage Encyclopedia™ is a registered trademark of the World Public Library Association, a non-profit organization.
 



Copyright © World Library Foundation. All rights reserved. eBooks from World eBook Library are sponsored by the World Library Foundation,
a 501c(4) Member's Support Non-Profit Organization, and is NOT affiliated with any governmental agency or department.