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Hebrew: יהודים‎ (Yehudim)
Baruch Spinoza
Sholem Aleichem
Albert Einstein
Emmy Noether
David Ben-Gurion
Marc Chagall
George Gershwin
Natalie Portman
Total population
Regions with significant populations
 Israel 6,042,000[2][3]
 United States 5,425,000 (2011)[4] – 6,800,000[5]
 France 480,000[4]
 Canada 375,000[4]
 United Kingdom 291,000[4]
 Russia 194,000 – over 500,000[6][4]
 Argentina 182,300[4]
 Germany 119,000[4]
 Australia 107,500[4]
 Hungary 100,000 – 120,000[7][8]
 Brazil 95,300[4]
 South Africa 70,800[4]
 Ukraine 67,000- 200,000[9][4]
 Mexico 39,400[4]
 Belgium 30,300[4]
 Netherlands 30,000[4]
 Italy 28,400[4]
 Chile 18,500[4]
 Iran 8,756[11]
All other countries 250,200[4]
Predominant spoken languages:
Historical languages:
Sacred languages:
Related ethnic groups
other Levantines,[12][13][14][15] Samaritans,[14] Arabs,[14][16] Assyrians[14][15]

The Jews (Hebrew: יְהוּדִים ISO 259-3 Yehudim, Israeli pronunciation ), also known as the Jewish people, are an ethnoreligious group[17] originating from the Historical Israelites of the Ancient Near East.[18][19][20][21][22][23][24][25]

According to Jewish tradition, Jewish ancestry is traced back to the Biblical patriarchs such as Abraham, Isaac and Jacob, and the Biblical matriarchs Sarah, Rebecca, Leah, and Rachel, who lived in Canaan around the 18th century BCE. Jacob and his family migrated to Ancient Egypt after being invited to live with Joseph (who rose to the rank of Pharaoh's Vizier) in the Land of Goshen region by Pharaoh himself. The patriarchs' descendants were later enslaved until the Exodus led by Moses, which is commonly dated to the 13th century BCE. Historically, Jews have descended mostly from the tribes of Judah and Simeon, and partially from the tribes of Benjamin and Levi, who had all together formed the ancient Kingdom of Judah (alongside the remnants of the Northern Kingdom of Israel who migrated to their Southern counterpart and assimilated there).[26] A closely related group is the Samaritans, who claim descent from the Israelite tribes of Ephraim and Manasseh, while according to the Bible their origin is in the people brought to Israel by the Neo-Assyrian Empire and some Cohanim (Jewish priests) who taught them how to worship the "native God".[27]

The Jewish ethnicity, nationality and religion are strongly interrelated, as Judaism is the traditional faith of the Jewish nation.[28][29][30] Converts to Judaism typically have a status within the Jewish ethnos equal to those born into it.[31] Conversion is not encouraged by mainstream Judaism, and is considered a tough task, mainly applicable for cases of mixed marriages.[32]

The modern State of Israel was established as a Jewish nation-state and defines itself as such in its Basic Laws. Its Law of Return grants the right of citizenship to any Jew who requests it.[33] Israel is the only country where Jews are a majority of the population. Jews had also enjoyed political independence twice before in ancient history. The first of these periods lasted from 1350[34] to 586 BCE,[35] and encompassed the periods of the Judges, the United Monarchy, and the Divided Monarchy of the Kingdoms of Israel and Judah, ending with the destruction of the First Temple. The second was the period of the Hasmonean Kingdom spanning from 140 to 37 BCE and to some degree under Herodians from 37 BCE to 6 CE. Since the destruction of the Second Temple in 70 CE, most Jews have lived in diaspora.[36] As an ethnic minority in every country in which they live (except Israel), they have frequently experienced persecution throughout history, resulting in a population that has fluctuated both in numbers and distribution over the centuries.

The world Jewish population reached a peak of 16.7 million prior to World War II,[37] but 6 million Jews were killed in the Holocaust. Since then the population has risen again, and as of 2012 was estimated at 13.75 million by the North American Jewish Data Bank,[37] or less than 0.2% of the total world population (roughly one in every 514 people).[38] According to this report, about 43% of all Jews reside in Israel (6 million), and 39% in the United States (5.3–6.8 million), with most of the remainder living in Europe (1.5 million) and Canada (0.4 million).[37] These numbers include all those who self-identified as Jews in a socio-demographic study or were identified as so by a respondent in the same household.[39] The exact world Jewish population, however, is difficult to measure. In addition to issues with census methodology, there are halakhic disputes regarding who is a Jew and secular, political, and ancestral identification factors that may affect the figure considerably.[40]


  • Name and etymology 1
  • Origins 2
  • Judaism 3
  • Who is a Jew? 4
  • Ethnic divisions 5
  • Languages 6
  • Genetic studies 7
  • Demographics 8
    • Population centers 8.1
      • Israel 8.1.1
      • Diaspora (outside Israel) 8.1.2
    • Demographic changes 8.2
      • Assimilation 8.2.1
      • War and persecution 8.2.2
      • Migrations 8.2.3
      • Growth 8.2.4
  • Leadership 9
  • Notable individuals 10
  • See also 11
  • References 12
  • Further reading 13
  • External links 14

Name and etymology

The English word Jew continues Middle English Gyw, Iewe. These terms derive from Old French giu, earlier juieu, which had elided (dropped) the letter "d" from the Medieval Latin Iudaeus, which, like the New Testament Greek term Ioudaios, meant both Jews and Judeans / "of Judea".[41]

The Greek term was originally a loan from Aramaic Y'hūdāi, corresponding to Hebrew: יְהוּדִי, Yehudi (sg.); יְהוּדִים, Yehudim (pl.), in origin the term for a member of the tribe of Judah or the people of the kingdom of Judah. The name of both the tribe and kingdom derive from Judah, the fourth son of Jacob.[42]

The Hebrew word for Jew, יְהוּדִי ISO 259-3 Yhudi, is pronounced , with the stress on the final syllable, in Israeli Hebrew, in its basic form.[43] The Ladino name is ג׳ודיו, Djudio (sg.); ג׳ודיוס, Djudios (pl.); Yiddish: ייִד Yid (sg.); ייִדן, Yidn (pl.).

The etymological equivalent is in use in other languages, e.g., يَهُودِيّ yahoudiy (sg.); al-yahoud (pl.), and بَنُو اِسرَائِيل banoo israa'eel in Arabic, "Jude" in German, "judeu" in Portuguese, "juif" in French, "jøde" in Danish and Norwegian, "judío" in Spanish, "jood" in Dutch, etc., but derivations of the word "Hebrew" are also in use to describe a Jew, e.g., in Italian (Ebreo), in Persian ("Ebri/Ebrani" (Persian: عبری/عبرانی‎)) and Russian (Еврей, Yevrey).[44] The German word "Jude" is pronounced , the corresponding adjective "jüdisch" (Jewish) is the origin of the word "Yiddish".[45] (See Jewish ethnonyms for a full overview.)

According to The American Heritage Dictionary of the English Language, Fourth Edition (2000):

It is widely recognized that the attributive use of the noun Jew, in phrases such as Jew lawyer or Jew ethics, is both vulgar and highly offensive. In such contexts Jewish is the only acceptable possibility. Some people, however, have become so wary of this construction that they have extended the stigma to any use of Jew as a noun, a practice that carries risks of its own. In a sentence such as There are now several Jews on the council, which is unobjectionable, the substitution of a circumlocution like Jewish people or persons of Jewish background may in itself cause offense for seeming to imply that Jew has a negative connotation when used as a noun.[46]


Map of Canaan

According to the Hebrew Bible, all Israelites descend from Abraham, Isaac and Jacob. Abraham was born in the Sumerian city of Ur Kaśdim, and migrated to Canaan (commonly known as the Land of Israel) with his family. Aristotle believed that the Jews came from India, where he said that they were known as the Kalani.[47] Genetic studies on Jews show that most Jews worldwide bear a common genetic heritage which originates in the Middle East, and that they bear their strongest resemblance to the peoples of the Fertile Crescent.[48][49][50] According to archaeologists, however, Israelite culture did not overtake the region, but rather grew out of Canaanite culture.[51][52][53][54]


Judaism guides its adherents in both practice and belief, and has been called not only a religion, but also a "way of life,"[55] which has made drawing a clear distinction between Judaism, Jewish culture, and Jewish identity rather difficult. Throughout history, in eras and places as diverse as the ancient Hellenic world,[56] in Europe before and after The Age of Enlightenment (see Haskalah),[57] in Islamic Spain and Portugal,[58] in North Africa and the Middle East,[58] India,[59] China,[60] or the contemporary United States[61] and Israel,[62] cultural phenomena have developed that are in some sense characteristically Jewish without being at all specifically religious. Some factors in this come from within Judaism, others from the interaction of Jews or specific communities of Jews with their surroundings, others from the inner social and cultural dynamics of the community, as opposed to from the religion itself. This phenomenon has led to considerably different Jewish cultures unique to their own communities, each as authentically Jewish as the next.[63]

Who is a Jew?

Judaism shares some of the characteristics of a nation, an ethnicity,[17] a religion, and a culture, making the definition of who is a Jew vary slightly depending on whether a religious or national approach to identity is used.[64][65] Generally, in modern secular usage Jews include three groups: people who were born to a Jewish family regardless of whether or not they follow the religion, those who have some Jewish ancestral background or lineage (sometimes including those who do not have strictly matrilineal descent), and people without any Jewish ancestral background or lineage who have formally converted to Judaism and therefore are followers of the religion.[66]

Historical definitions of Jewish identity have traditionally been based on halakhic definitions of matrilineal descent, and halakhic conversions. Historical definitions of who is a Jew date back to the codification of the Oral Torah into the Babylonian Talmud, around 200 CE. Interpretations of sections of the Tanakh, such as Deuteronomy 7:1–5, by Jewish sages, are used as a warning against intermarriage between Jews and Canaanites because "[the non-Jewish husband] will cause your child to turn away from Me and they will worship the gods (i.e., idols) of others." Leviticus 24:10 says that the son in a marriage between a Hebrew woman and an Egyptian man is "of the community of Israel." This is complemented by Ezra 10:2–3, where Israelites returning from Babylon vow to put aside their gentile wives and their children.[67][68] Since the Haskalah, these halakhic interpretations of Jewish identity have been challenged.[69]

According to historian Shaye J. D. Cohen, the status of the offspring of mixed marriages was determined patrilineally in the Bible. He brings two likely explanations for the change in Mishnaic times: first, the Mishnah may have been applying the same logic to mixed marriages as it had applied to other mixtures (kilayim). Thus, a mixed marriage is forbidden as is the union of a horse and a donkey, and in both unions the offspring are judged matrilineally.[70] Second, the Tannaim may have been influenced by Roman law, which dictated that when a parent could not contract a legal marriage, offspring would follow the mother.[70]

By the first century, Babylonia, to which Jews migrated to after the Babylonian conquest as well as after the Bar Kokhba revolt in 135 CE, already held a speedily growing[71] population of an estimated 1,000,000 Jews, which increased to an estimated 2 million [72] between the years 200 CE – 500 CE, both by natural growth and by immigration of more Jews from the Land of Israel, making up about 1/6 of the world Jewish population at that era.[72] At times conversion has accounted for a part of Jewish population growth. Some have claimed that in the first century of the Christian era, for example, the population more than doubled, from four to 8–10 million within the confines of the Roman Empire, in good part as a result of a wave of conversion.[73]

Other historians believe that conversion during the Roman era was limited in number and did not account for much of the Jewish population growth, due to various factors such as the illegality of male conversion to Judaism in the Roman world from the mid second century. Another factor that would have made conversion difficult in the Roman world was the halakhic requirement of circumcision, a requirement that proselytizing Christianity quickly dropped. The Fiscus Judaicus, a tax imposed on Jews in 70 CE and relaxed to exclude Christians in 96 CE, also limited Judaism's appeal.[74] In addition, historians argue the very figure (4 million) that had been guessed to account for the population of Jews in the ancient Roman Empire is an error that has long been disproven and thus the assumption that conversion impacted Jewish population growth in ancient Rome on a large scale is false.[74] The 8 million figure is also in doubt as it may refer to a census of total Roman citizens.[75]

Aside from the Jewish communities of Babylonia and Rome, other Jewish communities were also to be found during that era in North Africa, across the Middle East, in Northern Europe, and in other places.

Ethnic divisions

Within the world's Jewish population there are distinct ethnic divisions, most of which are primarily the result of geographic branching from an originating Israelite population, and subsequent independent evolutions. An array of Jewish communities was established by Jewish settlers in various places around the Old World, often at great distances from one another resulting in effective and often long-term isolation from each other. During the millennia of the Jewish diaspora the communities would develop under the influence of their local environments; political, cultural, natural, and populational. Today, manifestation of these differences among the Jews can be observed in Jewish cultural expressions of each community, including Jewish linguistic diversity, culinary preferences, liturgical practices, religious interpretations, as well as degrees and sources of genetic admixture.[76]

Sephardi Jewish couple from Sarajevo in traditional clothing. Photo taken in 1900.

Jews are often identified as belonging to one of two major groups: the Ashkenazim, and the Sephardim, or "Hispanics" (Sefarad meaning "Spain/Hispania" or "Iberia" in Hebrew, denoting their Spanish, and Portuguese, base). The Mizrahim, or "Easterners" (Mizrach being "East" in Hebrew), that is, the diverse collection of Middle Eastern and North African Jews, constitute a third major group, although they are sometimes termed Sephardi for liturgical reasons.[77]

Smaller groups include, but are not restricted to, Indian Jews such as the Bene Israel, Bnei Menashe, Cochin Jews, and Bene Ephraim; the Romaniotes of Greece; the Italian Jews ("Italkim" or "Bené Roma"); the Teimanim from Yemen; various African Jews, including most numerously the Beta Israel of Ethiopia; and Chinese Jews, most notably the Kaifeng Jews, as well as various other distinct but now almost extinct communities.[78]

The divisions between all these groups are approximate and their boundaries are not always clear. The Iranian Jews and various others. The Teimanim from Yemen are sometimes included, although their style of liturgy is unique and they differ in respect to the admixture found among them to that found in Mizrahim. In addition, there is a differentiation made between Sephardi migrants who established themselves in the Middle East and North Africa after the expulsion of the Jews from Spain and Portugal in the 1490s and the pre-existing Jewish communities in those regions.[78]

Yemenite Jew blows shofar, 1947

Despite this diversity, Ashkenazi Jews represent the bulk of modern Jewry, with at least 70% of Jews worldwide (and up to 90% prior to World War II and the Holocaust). As a result of their emigration from Europe, Ashkenazim also represent the overwhelming majority of Jews in the New World continents, in countries such as the United States, Canada, Argentina, Australia, and Brazil. In France, emigration of Jews from North Africa has led them to outnumber the Ashkenazim .[79] Only in Israel is the Jewish population representative of all groups, a melting pot independent of each group's proportion within the overall world Jewish population.[80]


A page from Elia Levita's (right to left) Yiddish-Hebrew-Latin-German dictionary (1542) contains a list of nations, including an entry for Jew: Hebrew: יְהוּדִי‎, Yiddish: יוּד, German: Jud, Latin: Iudaeus

Hebrew is the liturgical language of Judaism (termed l'shon ha-kodesh, "the holy tongue"), the language in which most of the Hebrew scriptures (Tanakh) were composed, and the daily speech of the Jewish people for centuries. By the 5th century BCE, Aramaic, a closely related tongue, joined Hebrew as the spoken language in Judea.[81] By the third century BCE, some Jews of the diaspora were speaking Greek.[82] Others, such as in the Jewish communities of Babylonia, were speaking Hebrew and Aramaic, the languages of the Babylonian Talmud. These languages were also used by the Jews of Israel at that time.

For centuries, Jews worldwide have spoken the local or dominant languages of the regions they migrated to, often developing distinctive Judæo-Arabic, Judæo-Berber, Krymchak, Judæo-Malayalam and many others, have largely fallen out of use.[83]

For over sixteen centuries Hebrew was used almost exclusively as a liturgical language, and as the language in which most books had been written on Judaism, with a few speaking only Hebrew on the Sabbath.[84] Hebrew was revived as a spoken language by Eliezer ben Yehuda, who arrived in Palestine in 1881. It had not been used as a mother tongue since Tannaic times.[81] Modern Hebrew is now one of the two official languages of the State of Israel along with Arabic.[85]

Despite efforts to revive Hebrew as the national language of the Jewish people, knowledge of the language is not commonly possessed by Jews worldwide and English has emerged as the lingua franca of the Jewish people.[86][87][88][89][90] Although many Jews once had sufficient knowledge of Hebrew to study the classic literature, and Jewish languages like Yiddish and Ladino were commonly used as recently as the early 20th century, most Jews lack such knowledge today and English has by and large superseded most Jewish vernaculars. According to scholar Moshe Davis, "English has in fact become the most common language of the Jews. It is the mother tongue for the majority of world Jewry and a secondary language for growing numbers in the other countries where Jews live."[91]

The three most commonly spoken languages among Jews today are English, Hebrew, and Russian. Some Romance languages, particularly French and Spanish, are also widely used.[83] Yiddish has been spoken by more Jews in history than any other language,[92] but it is far less used today, following the Holocaust and the adoption of Modern Hebrew by the Zionist movement and the State of Israel.

In some places, the mother language of the Jewish community differs from that of the general population or the dominant group. For example, in

External links

  • Baron, Salo Wittmayer (1952). A Social and Religious History of the Jews, Volume II, Ancient Times, Part II. Philadelphia: Jewish Publication Society of America.
  • Carr, David R. (2003) [2000]. "Judaism in Christendom". In Neusner, Jacob; Avery-Peck, Alan J. The Blackwell Companion to Judaism. Malden, Massachusetts: Blackwell Publishing.  
  • Cowling, Geoffrey (2005). Introduction to World Religions. Singapore: First Fortress Press.  
  • Danzger, M. Herbert (2003) [2000]. "The "Return" to Traditional Judaism at the End of the Twentieth Century: Cross-Cultural Comparisons". In Neusner, Jacob; Avery-Peck, Alan J. The Blackwell Companion to Judaism. Malden, Massachusetts: Blackwell Publishing.  
  • Dekmejian, R. Hrair (1975). Patterns of Political Leadership: Egypt, Israel, Lebanon. State University of New York Press.  
  • de Lange, Nicholas (2002) [2000]. An Introduction to Judaism. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.  
  • Dosick, Wayne (2007). Living Judaism. New York: HarperCollins.  
  • Elazar, Daniel J. (2003) [2000]. "Judaism as a Theopolitical Phenomenon". In  
  • Feldman, Louis H. (2006). Judaism and Hellenism Reconsidered. Leiden, The Netherlands: Brill.  
  • Gartner, Lloyd P. (2001). History of the Jews in Modern Times. Oxford: Oxford University Press.  
  • Goldenberg, Robert (2007). The Origins of Judaism: From Canaan to the Rise of Islam. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.  
  • Goldstein, Joseph (1995). Jewish History in Modern Times. Sussex Academic Press.  
  • Kaplan, Dana Evan (2003) [2000]. "Reform Judaism". In Neusner, Jacob; Avery-Peck, Alan J. The Blackwell Companion to Judaism. Malden, Massachusetts: Blackwell Publishing.  
  • Katz, Shmuel (1974). Battleground: Fact and Fantasy in Palestine. Taylor Productions.  
  • Lewis, Bernard (1984). The Jews of Islam. Princeton: Princeton University Press. ISBN 0-691-00807-8
  • Lewis, Bernard (1999). Semites and Anti-Semites: An Inquiry into Conflict and Prejudice. W. W. Norton & Co. ISBN 0-393-31839-7
  • Neusner, Jacob (1991). Studying Classical Judaism: A Primer. Westminster John Knox Press.  
  • Poliakov, Leon (1974). The History of Anti-semitism. New York: The Vanguard Press.
  • Ruderman, David B. Early Modern Jewry: A New Cultural History (Princeton University Press; 2010) 326 pages. Examines print culture, religion, and other realms in a history emphasizing the links among early modern Jewish communities from Venice and Kraków to Amsterdam and Smyrna.
  • Sharot, Stephen (1997). "Religious Syncretism and Religious Distinctiveness: A Comparative Analysis of Pre-Modern Jewish Communities". In Endelman, Todd M. Comparing Jewish Societies. Ann Arbor, Mich.: University of Michigan Press.  
  • Stillman, Norman (1979). The Jews of Arab Lands: A History and Source Book. Philadelphia: Jewish Publication Society of America. ISBN 0-8276-0198-0
  • Sweeney, Marvin A. (2003) [2000]. "The Religious World of Ancient Israel to 586 BCE". In Neusner, Jacob; Avery-Peck, Alan J. The Blackwell Companion to Judaism. Malden, Massachusetts: Blackwell Publishing.  

Further reading

  1. ^ 13.74 million (core Jewish population) according to:
    14 - 14.5 million according to:
    • "Worldwide Jewry numbers 14 million". Ynet. Retrieved 21 October 2013. 
    • "Jewish Population". Judaism101. Retrieved 20 September 2013. 
    • Daniel J. Elazar. "How Strong is Orthodox Judaism -- Really? The Demographics of Jewish Religious Identification".  
    • "The Global Religious Landscape — Jews".  
    17.93 million (the enlarged Jewish population worldwide, which includes a wider definition of the term) according to:
  2. ^ "Israel's population crosses 8 million mark". Ynetnews. April 14, 2013. Retrieved April 14, 2013. 
  3. ^ This figure does not include 300,000 Israeli ethnic Jews not considered to be Jewish under halakha
  4. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q  
  5. ^ An estimated figure, the following sources claim the number to be either slightly higher or lower:
    • "American Jewish Population Estimates: 2012".  
    • "Jewish Population in the United States, by State". JVL. Retrieved 21 October 2013. 
    • Naomi Zeveloff (January 17, 2012). "U.S. Jewish Population Pegged at 6 Million". Forward. Retrieved February 5, 2013. 
    • American Jewish Year Book 2012 - Google Books
    • US Jewish Population is Anywhere Between 5.425 Million and 6.722 Million - Gestetner Updates | Gestetner Updates
    • "A portrait of Jewish Americans Chapter 1: Population Estimates".  
  6. ^ DellaPergola, Sergio (November 2, 2012). "World Jewish Population, 2012". North American Jewish Data Bank. Retrieved 21 July 2013. 
  7. ^ "Hungary".  
  8. ^ ADL Says Strong Showing For Anti-Semitic Party In Hungarian Elections 'A Vote For Hate'. Anti-Defamation League. Retrieved 2014-08-09.
  9. ^ Aliyah from Ukraine Spikes, By AFP and Arutz Sheva, First Publish: 5/4/2014
  10. ^
  11. ^ "Jewish woman brutally murdered in Iran over property dispute". The Times of Israel. November 28, 2012. Retrieved Aug 16, 2014. A government census published earlier this year indicated there were a mere 8,756 Jews left in Iran.  See Persian Jews#Iran.
  12. ^ Wade, Nicholas (June 9, 2010). "Studies Show Jews’ Genetic Similarity". New York Times. 
  13. ^ Nebel, Almut; Filon, Dvora; Weiss, Deborah A.; Weale, Michael; Faerman, Marina; Oppenheim, Ariella; Thomas, Mark G. (2000). "High-resolution Y chromosome haplotypes of Israeli and Palestinian Arabs reveal geographic substructure and substantial overlap with haplotypes of Jews". Human Genetics 107 (6): 630–41.  
  14. ^ a b c d Shen, P; Lavi, T; Kivisild, T; Chou, V; Sengun, D; Gefel, D; Shpirer, I; Woolf, E; Hillel, J (2004). "Reconstruction of patrilineages and matrilineages of Samaritans and other Israeli populations from Y-chromosome and mitochondrial DNA sequence variation". Human Mutation 24 (3): 248–60.  
  15. ^ a b "Jews Are The Genetic Brothers Of Palestinians, Syrians, And Lebanese". 2000-05-09. Retrieved 2013-04-12. 
  16. ^ Atzmon, G; Hao, L; Pe'Er, I; Velez, C; Pearlman, A; Palamara, PF; Morrow, B; Friedman, E; Oddoux, C (2010). "Abraham's Children in the Genome Era: Major Jewish Diaspora Populations Comprise Distinct Genetic Clusters with Shared Middle Eastern Ancestry". American Journal of Human Genetics 86 (6): 850–859.  
  17. ^ a b
    • Ethnic minorities in English law – Google Books. Retrieved on 2010-12-23.
    • Edgar Litt (1961). "Jewish Ethno-Religious Involvement and Political Liberalism". Social Forces 39 (4): 328–332.  
    • "Are Jews a Religious Group or an Ethnic Group?". Institute for Curriculum Services. Retrieved 21 October 2013. 
    • Sean Ireton (2003). "The Samaritans – A Jewish Sect in Israel: Strategies for Survival of an Ethno-religious Minority in the Twenty First Century". Anthrobase. Retrieved 2009-12-30. 
    • Levey, Geoffrey Brahm. "Toward a Theory of Disproportionate American Jewish Liberalism". 
    • J. Alan Winter (March 1996). "Symbolic Ethnicity or Religion Among Jews in the United States: A Test of Gansian Hypotheses". Review of Religious Research 37 (3). 
  18. ^ Tubb 1998, pp. 13–14
  19. ^ Biblical Peoples And Ethnicity: An Archaeological Study of Egyptians, Canaanites, Philistines, And Early Israel 1300-1100 B.C.E.
  20. ^  
  21. ^
    • "In the broader sense of the term, a Jew is any person belonging to the worldwide group that constitutes, through descent or conversion, a continuation of the ancient Jewish people, who were themselves descendants of the Hebrews of the Old Testament."
    • "The Jewish people as a whole, initially called Hebrews (ʿIvrim), were known as Israelites (Yisreʾelim) from the time of their entrance into the Holy Land to the end of the Babylonian Exile (538 BC)."
    Jew at Encyclopedia Britannica
  22. ^ "Israelite, in the broadest sense, a Jew, or a descendant of the Jewish patriarch Jacob" Israelite at Encyclopedia Britannica
  23. ^ "Hebrew, any member of an ancient northern Semitic people that were the ancestors of the Jews." Hebrew (People) at Encyclopedia Britannica
  24. ^ Michael Brenner. A Short History of the Jews. 
  25. ^ Raymond P. Scheindlin. A Short History of the Jewish People: From Legendary Times to Modern Statehood. 
  26. ^ According to the Books of Chronicles chapter 9 line 3, the Israelites, who took part in The Return to Zion, are stated to be from the Tribe of Judah alongside the Tribe of Simeon that was absorbed into it, the Tribe of Benjamin, the Tribe of Levi (Levites and Priests) alongside the tribes of Ephraim and Manasseh, which according to the 2 Kings 7 were exiled by the Assyrians.
  27. ^ Knoppers, G.N. Jews and Samaritans: The origins and history of their early relations. "Although interactions of Jews and Samaritans had become contentious by the 1st century CE, the two groups actually shared much in common... Both groups could be found both in the land and outside of the land in diasporic communities. Each groups developed its own synagogues which were so similar architecturally that it can be challenging to tell them apart. Members of both groups professed a pedigree in the same eponymous ancestor (Jacob/Israel). Samaritans claimed to be descendants from the northern tribes of Joseph, representing Jacob's progeny of Ephraim and Menasseh ('eprayim and menasseh), while Judeans (yehudim) claimed to be descendants of the southern tribes of Judah (yehuda)." [1]
  28. ^  
  29. ^  
  30. ^  
  31. ^ """BBC Religions/Converting to Judaism: "A person who converts to Judaism becomes a Jew in every sense of the word, and is just as Jewish as someone born into Judaism.. Retrieved 2013-10-02. 
  32. ^ "Paul Golin: The Complicated Relationship Between Intermarriage and Jewish Conversion". Retrieved 2013-10-02. 
  33. ^ A 1970 amendment to Israel's  
  34. ^ Dillard, Raymond Bryan (1994). An Introduction to the Old Testament. Zondervan. p. 111.  
  35. ^ Edwin Thiele, The Mysterious Numbers of the Hebrew Kings, (1st ed.; New York: Macmillan, 1951; 2d ed.; Grand Rapids: Eerdmans, 1965; 3rd ed.; Grand Rapids: Zondervan/Kregel, 1983). ISBN 0-8254-3825-X, 9780825438257.
  36. ^ Johnson (1987), p. 82.
  37. ^ a b c d "The Jewish Population of the World (2010)".  
  38. ^ "Jews make up only 0.2% of mankind".  
  39. ^ Jewish Virtual Library. World Jewish Population. "Refers to the Core Jewish Population. The concept of core Jewish population includes all persons who, when asked in a socio-demographic survey, identify themselves as Jews; or who are identified as Jews by a respondent in the same household, and do not have another monotheistic religion." [2]
  40. ^ Pfeffer, Anshel (September 12, 2007). "Jewish Agency: 13.2 million Jews worldwide on eve of Rosh Hashanah, 5768". Haaretz. Archived from the original on March 19, 2009. Retrieved January 24, 2009. 
  41. ^ Encyclopedia of the Peoples of Africa and the Middle East, Facts On File Inc., Infobase Publishing, 2009, p.336
  42. ^ "Jew", Oxford English Dictionary.
  43. ^ Grintz, Yehoshua M. (2007). "Jew". In Fred Skolnik.  
  44. ^  
  45. ^ "Yiddish". Merriam-Webster's Collegiate Dictionary (11th ed.). Springfield, Massachusetts: Merriam-Webster. 2004. p. 1453.  
  46. ^ "Jew".  
  47. ^ Josephus, Flavius. Contra Apionem, I.176-183. Retrieved 6/16/2012 from
  48. ^ Jared Diamond (1993). "Who are the Jews?". Retrieved November 8, 2010.  Natural History 102:11 (November 1993): 12-19.
  49. ^ "Jewish and Middle Eastern non-Jewish populations share a common pool of Y-chromosome biallelic haplotypes". Retrieved 11 October 2012. 
  50. ^ Wade, Nicholas (9 May 2000). "Y Chromosome Bears Witness to Story of the Jewish Diaspora". The New York Times. Retrieved 10 October 2012. 
  51. ^ Tubb, 1998. pg-13-14
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See also

Jews have made a myriad contributions in a broad and diverse range of fields, including the sciences, arts, politics, and business.[221] Although Jews comprise only 0.2% of the world's population, over 20%[222][223][224][225][226][227] of Nobel Prize laureates have been Jewish, with multiple winners in each category.

Notable individuals

There is no single governing body for the Jewish community, nor a single authority with responsibility for religious doctrine.[219] Instead, a variety of secular and religious institutions at the local, national, and international levels lead various parts of the Jewish community on a variety of issues.[220]


There is also a trend of Orthodox movements pursuing secular Jews in order to give them a stronger Jewish identity so there is less chance of intermarriage. As a result of the efforts by these and other Jewish groups over the past 25 years, there has been a trend (known as the Baal Teshuva movement) for secular Jews to become more religiously observant, though the demographic implications of the trend are unknown.[217] Additionally, there is also a growing rate of conversion to Jews by Choice of gentiles who make the decision to head in the direction of becoming Jews.[218]

Orthodox and Conservative Judaism discourage proselytism to non-Jews, but many Jewish groups have tried to reach out to the assimilated Jewish communities of the Diaspora in order for them to reconnect to their Jewish roots. Additionally, while in principle Reform Judaism favors seeking new members for the faith, this position has not translated into active proselytism, instead taking the form of an effort to reach out to non-Jewish spouses of intermarried couples.[216]

Israel is the only country with a Jewish population that is consistently growing through natural population increase, though the Jewish populations of other countries, in Europe and North America, have recently increased through immigration. In the Diaspora, in almost every country the Jewish population in general is either declining or steady, but Orthodox and Haredi Jewish communities, whose members often shun birth control for religious reasons, have experienced rapid population growth.[215]

A man praying at the Western Wall


  • The patriarch Abraham was a migrant to the land of Canaan from Ur of the Chaldees[194] after an attempt on his life by King Nimrod.[195]
  • The Children of Israel experienced the Exodus (meaning "departure" or "exit" in Greek) from ancient Egypt, as recorded in the Book of Exodus.[196]
  • The Kingdom of Israel was sent into permanent exile by Assyria, initially to the Upper Mesopotamian provinces of the Assyrian Empire,[197] from whence they scattered all over the world (or at least to unknown locations).[198]
  • The Kingdom of Judah was exiled by Babylonia,[199] then returned to Judea by Cyrus the Great of the Persian Achaemenid Empire,[200] and then many were exiled again by the Roman Empire.[201]
  • The 2,000 year dispersion of the Jewish diaspora beginning under the Roman Empire, as Jews were spread throughout the Roman world and, driven from land to land, settled wherever they could live freely enough to practice their religion. Over the course of the diaspora the center of Jewish life moved from Babylonia[202] to the Iberian Peninsula[203] to Poland[204] to the United States[205] and, as a result of Zionism, back to Israel.[206]
  • Many expulsions during the Middle Ages and Enlightenment in Europe, including: 1290, 16,000 Jews were expelled from England, see the (Statute of Jewry); in 1396, 100,000 from France; in 1421 thousands were expelled from Austria. Many of these Jews settled in Eastern Europe, especially Poland.[207]
  • Following the Spanish Inquisition in 1492, the Spanish population of around 200,000 Sephardic Jews were expelled by the Spanish crown and Catholic church, followed by expulsions in 1493 in Sicily (37,000 Jews) and Portugal in 1496. The expelled Jews fled mainly to the Ottoman Empire, the Netherlands, and North Africa, others migrating to Southern Europe and the Middle East.[208]
  • During the 19th century, France's policies of equal citizenship regardless of religion led to the immigration of Jews (especially from Eastern and Central Europe).[209]
  • The arrival of millions of Jews in the New World, including immigration of over two million Eastern European Jews to the United States from 1880–1925, see History of the Jews in the United States and History of the Jews in Russia and the Soviet Union.[210]
  • The Pogroms in Eastern Europe,[180] the rise of modern antisemitism,[211] the Holocaust,[212] and the rise of Arab nationalism[213] all served to fuel the movements and migrations of huge segments of Jewry from land to land and continent to continent, until they arrived back in large numbers at their original historical homeland in Israel.[206]
  • The Islamic Revolution of Iran caused many Iranian Jews to flee Iran. Most found refuge in the US (particularly Los Angeles, CA) and Israel. Smaller communities of Persian Jews exist in Canada and Western Europe.[214]
  • When the Soviet Union collapsed, many of the Jews in the affected territory (who had been refuseniks) were suddenly allowed to leave. This produced a wave of migration to Israel in the early 1990s.[143]

Throughout Jewish history, Jews have repeatedly been directly or indirectly expelled from both their original homeland and many of the areas in which they have settled. This experience as refugees has shaped Jewish identity and religious practice in many ways, and is thus a major element of Jewish history.[193] The incomplete list of major and other noteworthy migrations that follows includes numerous instances of expulsion or departure under duress:

Jews fleeing pogroms, 1882
Etching of the expulsion of the Jews from Frankfurt on August 23, 1614. The text says: "1380 persons old and young were counted at the exit of the gate"


The persecution reached a peak in Nazi Germany's Final Solution, which led to the Holocaust and the slaughter of approximately 6 million Jews.[184] Of the world's 15 million Jews in 1939, more than a third were killed in The Holocaust.[185][186] The Holocaust — the state-led systematic persecution and genocide of European Jews (and certain communities of North African Jews in European controlled North Africa) and other minority groups of Europe during World War II by Germany and its collaborators remains the most notable modern-day persecution of Jews.[187] The persecution and genocide were accomplished in stages. Legislation to remove the Jews from civil society was enacted years before the outbreak of World War II.[188] Concentration camps were established in which inmates were used as slave labour until they died of exhaustion or disease.[189] Where the Third Reich conquered new territory in eastern Europe, specialized units called Einsatzgruppen murdered Jews and political opponents in mass shootings.[190] Jews and Roma were crammed into ghettos before being transported hundreds of miles by freight train to extermination camps where, if they survived the journey, the majority of them were killed in gas chambers.[191] Virtually every arm of Germany's bureaucracy was involved in the logistics of the mass murder, turning the country into what one Holocaust scholar has called "a genocidal nation."[192]

Throughout history, many rulers, empires and nations have oppressed their Jewish populations or sought to eliminate them entirely. Methods employed ranged from expulsion to outright genocide; within nations, often the threat of these extreme methods was sufficient to silence dissent. The history of antisemitism includes the First Crusade which resulted in the massacre of Jews;[166] the Spanish Inquisition (led by Torquemada) and the Portuguese Inquisition, with their persecution and autos-da-fé against the New Christians and Marrano Jews;[178] the Bohdan Chmielnicki Cossack massacres in Ukraine;[179] the Pogroms backed by the Russian Tsars;[180] as well as expulsions from Spain, Portugal, England, France, Germany, and other countries in which the Jews had settled.[167] According to a 2008 study published in the American Journal of Human Genetics, 19.8% of the modern Iberian population has Sephardic Jewish ancestry,[181] indicating that the number of conversos may have been much higher than originally thought.[182][183]

Jews in Minsk, 1941. Before World War II some 40% of the population was Jewish. By the time the Red Army retook the city on 3 July 1944, there were only a few Jewish survivors.

Notable exceptions include the massacre of Jews and/or forcible conversion of some Jews by the rulers of the Almohad dynasty in Al-Andalus in the 12th century,[174] as well as in Islamic Persia,[175] and the forced confinement of Moroccan Jews to walled quarters known as mellahs beginning from the 15th century and especially in the early 19th century.[176] In modern times, it has become commonplace for standard antisemitic themes to be conflated with anti-Zionist publications and pronouncements of Islamic movements such as Hezbollah and Hamas, in the pronouncements of various agencies of the Islamic Republic of Iran, and even in the newspapers and other publications of Turkish Refah Partisi."[177]

Islam and Judaism have a complex relationship. Traditionally Jews and Christians living in Muslim lands, known as dhimmis, were allowed to practice their religions and administer their internal affairs, but they were subject to certain conditions.[170] They had to pay the jizya (a per capita tax imposed on free adult non-Muslim males) to the Islamic state.[170] Dhimmis had an inferior status under Islamic rule. They had several social and legal disabilities such as prohibitions against bearing arms or giving testimony in courts in cases involving Muslims.[171] Many of the disabilities were highly symbolic. The one described by Bernard Lewis as "most degrading"[172] was the requirement of distinctive clothing, not found in the Quran or hadith but invented in early medieval Baghdad; its enforcement was highly erratic.[172] On the other hand, Jews rarely faced martyrdom or exile, or forced compulsion to change their religion, and they were mostly free in their choice of residence and profession.[173]

In the Papal States, which existed until 1870, Jews were required to live only in specified neighborhoods called ghettos.[168] In the 19th and (before the end of World War II) 20th centuries, the Roman Catholic Church adhered to a distinction between "good antisemitism" and "bad antisemitism". The "bad" kind promoted hatred of Jews because of their descent. This was considered un-Christian because the Christian message was intended for all of humanity regardless of ethnicity; anyone could become a Christian. The "good" kind criticized alleged Jewish conspiracies to control newspapers, banks, and other institutions, to care only about accumulation of wealth, etc.[169]

Later in medieval Western Europe, further persecutions of Jews in the name of Christianity occurred, notably during the Crusades—when Jews all over Germany were massacred—and a series of expulsions from England, Germany, France, and, in the largest expulsion of all, Spain and Portugal after the Reconquista (the Catholic Reconquest of the Iberian Peninsula), where both unbaptized Sephardic Jews and the ruling Muslim Moors were expelled.[166][167]

According to James Carroll, "Jews accounted for 10% of the total population of the Roman Empire. By that ratio, if other factors had not intervened, there would be 200 million Jews in the world today, instead of something like 13 million."[165]

The Jewish people and Judaism have experienced various persecutions throughout Jewish history. During late Antiquity and the early Middle Ages the Roman Empire (in its later phases known as the Byzantine Empire) repeatedly repressed the Jewish population, first by ejecting them from their homelands during the pagan Roman era and later by officially establishing them as second-class citizens during the Christian Roman era.[163][164]

World War I poster shows a soldier cutting the bonds from a Jewish man, who says, "You have cut my bonds and set me free - now let me help you set others free!"

War and persecution

Rates of interreligious marriage vary widely: In the United States, it is just under 50%,[158] in the United Kingdom, around 53%; in France; around 30%,[159] and in Australia and Mexico, as low as 10%.[160][161] In the United States, only about a third of children from intermarriages affiliate with Jewish religious practice.[162] The result is that most countries in the Diaspora have steady or slightly declining religiously Jewish populations as Jews continue to assimilate into the countries in which they live.

Since at least the time of the Ancient Greeks, a proportion of Jews have assimilated into the wider non-Jewish society around them, by either choice or force, ceasing to practice Judaism and losing their Jewish identity.[155] Assimilation took place in all areas, and during all time periods,[155] with some Jewish communities, for example the Kaifeng Jews of China, disappearing entirely.[156] The advent of the Jewish Enlightenment of the 18th century (see Haskalah) and the subsequent emancipation of the Jewish populations of Europe and America in the 19th century, accelerated the situation, encouraging Jews to increasingly participate in, and become part of, secular society. The result has been a growing trend of assimilation, as Jews marry non-Jewish spouses and stop participating in the Jewish community.[157]


Demographic changes

Outside Europe, the Americas, the Middle East, and the rest of Asia, there are significant Jewish populations in Australia (120,000) and South Africa (70,000).[154] There is also a 7,000-strong community in New Zealand.

Prior to 1948, approximately 800,000 Jews were living in lands which now make up the Arab world (excluding Israel). Of these, just under two-thirds lived in the French-controlled Maghreb region, 15–20% in the Kingdom of Iraq, approximately 10% in the Kingdom of Egypt and approximately 7% in the Kingdom of Yemen. A further 200,000 lived in Pahlavi Iran and the Republic of Turkey. Today, around 26,000 Jews live in Arab countries[152] and around 30,000 in Iran and Turkey. A small-scale exodus had begun in many countries in the early decades of the 20th century, although the only substantial aliyah came from Yemen and Syria.[153] The exodus from Arab and Muslim countries took place primarily from 1948. The first large-scale exoduses took place in the late 1940s and early 1950s, primarily in Iraq, Yemen and Libya, with up to 90% of these communities leaving within a few years. The peak of the exodus from Egypt occurred in 1956. The exodus in the Maghreb countries peaked in the 1960s. Lebanon was the only Arab country to see a temporary increase in its Jewish population during this period, due to an influx of refugees from other Arab countries, although by the mid-1970s the Jewish community of Lebanon had also dwindled. In the aftermath of the exodus wave from Arab states, an additional migration of Iranian Jews peaked in the 1980s when around 80% of Iranian Jews left the country.

Western Europe's largest Jewish community, and the third-largest Jewish community in the world, can be found in France, home to between 483,000 and 500,000 Jews, the majority of whom are immigrants or refugees from North African Arab countries such as Algeria, Morocco, and Tunisia (or their descendants).[148] The United Kingdom has a Jewish community of 292,000. In Eastern Europe, there are anywhere from 350,000 to one million Jews living in the former Soviet Union, but exact figures are difficult to establish. In Germany, the 102,000 Jews registered with the Jewish community are a slowly declining population,[149] despite the immigration of tens of thousands of Jews from the former Soviet Union since the fall of the Berlin Wall.[150] Thousands of Israelis also live in Germany, either permanently or temporarily, for economic reasons.[151]

More than half of the Jews live in the Diaspora (see Population table). Currently, the largest Jewish community outside Israel, and either the largest or second-largest Jewish community in the world, is located in the United States, with 5.2 million to 6.4 million Jews by various estimates. Elsewhere in the Americas, there are also large Jewish populations in Canada (315,000), Argentina (180,000-300,000), and Brazil (196,000-600,000), and smaller populations in Mexico, Uruguay, Venezuela, Chile, and several other countries (see History of the Jews in Latin America).[146] Demographers disagree on whether the United States has a larger Jewish population than Israel, with many maintaining that Israel surpassed the United States in Jewish population during the 2000s, while others maintain that the United States still has the largest Jewish population in the world. Currently, a major national Jewish population survey is planned to ascertain whether or not Israel has overtaken the United States in Jewish population.[147]

In this Rosh Hashana greeting card from the early 1900s, Russian Jews, packs in hand, gaze at the American relatives beckoning them to the United States. Over two million Jews fled the pogroms of the Russian Empire to the safety of the U.S. between 1881 and 1924.[145]

The waves of immigration to the United States and elsewhere at the turn of the 19th century, the founding of Zionism and later events, including pogroms in Russia, the massacre of European Jewry during the Holocaust, and the founding of the state of Israel, with the subsequent Jewish exodus from Arab lands, all resulted in substantial shifts in the population centers of world Jewry by the end of the 20th century.[144]

Diaspora (outside Israel)

A trickle of immigrants from other communities has also arrived, including Indian Jews and others, as well as some descendants of Ashkenazi Holocaust survivors who had settled in countries such as the United States, Argentina, Australia, Chile, and South Africa. Some Jews have emigrated from Israel elsewhere, because of economic problems or disillusionment with political conditions and the continuing Arab-Israeli conflict. Jewish Israeli emigrants are known as yordim.[143]

Between 1948 and 1958, the Jewish population rose from 800,000 to two million.[136] Currently, Jews account for 75.4% of the Israeli population, or 6 million people.[137][138] The early years of the State of Israel were marked by the mass immigration of Holocaust survivors and Jews fleeing Arab lands.[139] Israel also has a large population of Ethiopian Jews, many of whom were airlifted to Israel in the late 1980s and early 1990s.[140] Between 1974 and 1979 nearly 227,258 immigrants arrived in Israel, about half being from the Soviet Union.[141] This period also saw an increase in immigration to Israel from Western Europe, Latin America, and North America.[142]

Israel, the Jewish nation-state, is the only country in which Jews make up a majority of the citizens.[132] Israel was established as an independent democratic and Jewish state on May 14, 1948.[133] Of the 120 members in its parliament, the Knesset,[134] currently, 12 members of the Knesset are Arab citizens of Israel, most representing Arab political parties. One of Israel's Supreme Court judges is also an Arab citizen of Israel.[135]


According to the 2007 estimates of The Jewish People Policy Planning Institute, the world's Jewish population is 13.2 million.[130] cites figures ranging from 12 to 18 million.[131] These statistics incorporate both practicing Jews affiliated with synagogues and the Jewish community, and approximately 4.5 million unaffiliated and secular Jews.

According to the Israel Central Bureau of Statistics there were 13,421,000 Jews worldwide in 2009, roughly 0.19% of the world's population at the time.[129]

Country[37] Jews, № Jews, %
Israel 5,916,200[128] 75.52%
United States 5,275,000 1.71%
France 483,500 0.77%
Canada 375,000 1.11%
United Kingdom 292,000 0.47%
Brazil 207,329 0.10%
Russia 205,000 0.15%
Argentina 182,300 0.45%
Germany 119,000 0.15%
Australia 107,500 0.50%
Ukraine 71,500 0.16%
South Africa 70,800 0.14%
Hungary 48,600 0.49%
Mexico 39,400 0.04%
Belgium 30,300 0.28%
Netherlands 30,000 0.18%
Italy 28,400 0.05%
World 13,558,300 0.21%

Population centers


Studies of autosomal DNA, which look at the entire DNA mixture, have become increasingly important as the technology develops. They show that Jewish populations have tended to form relatively closely related groups in independent communities, with most in a community sharing significant ancestry in common.[121] For Jewish populations of the diaspora, the genetic composition of Ashkenazi, Sephardi, and Mizrahi Jewish populations show a predominant amount of shared Middle Eastern ancestry. According to Behar, the most parsimonious explanation for this shared Middle Eastern ancestry is that it is "consistent with the historical formulation of the Jewish people as descending from ancient Hebrew and Israelite residents of the Levant" and "the dispersion of the people of ancient Israel throughout the Old World".[122] North African, Italian and others of Iberian origin show variable frequencies of admixture with non-Jewish historical host populations among the maternal lines. In the case of Ashkenazi and Sephardi Jews (in particular Moroccan Jews), who are apparently closely related, the non-Jewish component is mainly southern European. Behar et al. have remarked on an especially close relationship to modern Italians.[122][123][124] The studies show that the descendants of the Anusim of Iberia (19.8% of modern Iberia), the Bene Israel and Cochin Jews of India, Beta Israel of Ethiopia, and a portion of the Lemba people of southern Africa, while more closely resembling the local populations of their native countries, have some ancient Jewish descent.[125][126][127][120]

Y DNA studies tend to imply a small number of founders in an old population whose members parted and followed different migration paths.[113] In most Jewish populations, these male line ancestors appear to have been mainly Middle Eastern. For example, Ashkenazi Jews share more common paternal lineages with other Jewish and Middle Eastern groups than with non-Jewish populations in areas where Jews lived in Eastern Europe, Germany and the French Rhine Valley. This is consistent with Jewish traditions in placing most Jewish paternal origins in the region of the Middle East.[114][115] The maternal lineages of Jewish populations, studied by looking at mitochondrial DNA, are generally more heterogeneous.[116] Scholars such as Harry Ostrer and Raphael Falk believe this indicates that many Jewish males found new mates from European and other communities in the places where they migrated in the diaspora after fleeing ancient Israel.[117] In contrast, Behar has found evidence that about 40% of Ashkenazi Jews originate maternally from just four female founders, who were of Middle Eastern origin. The populations of Sephardi and Mizrahi Jewish communities "showed no evidence for a narrow founder effect."[116] Subsequent studies carried out by Feder et al. confirmed the large portion of non-local maternal origin among Ashkenazi Jews. Reflecting on their findings related to the maternal origin of Ashkenazi Jews, the authors conclude "Clearly, the differences between Jews and non-Jews are far larger than those observed among the Jewish communities. Hence, differences between the Jewish communities can be overlooked when non-Jews are included in the comparisons."[118] For other Jewish groups, there is fairly uncontested evidence for founder females of Middle Eastern origin.[119][120]

Genetic studies

while most North Africans continue to use Arabic as their mother tongue. [112][111] and the city of Tunis,[106] Morocco,[110] Although communities in North Africa today are small and dwindling, Jews there had shifted from multilingual group to a monolingual one (or nearly so), speaking French in Algeria,[109][108] and Tajikistan.[107]

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