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Jim Jeffords

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Subject: Ted Kennedy, United States Senate election in Vermont, 1994, United States Senate election in Vermont, 2000, United States Senate election in Vermont, 1988, Bernie Sanders
Collection: 1934 Births, 2014 Deaths, American Congregationalists, American Prosecutors, Deaths from Alzheimer's Disease, Harvard Law School Alumni, Independent United States Senators, Members of the United States House of Representatives from Vermont, Republican Party Members of the United States House of Representatives, Republican Party United States Senators, United States Navy Officers, United States Senators from Vermont, Vermont Attorneys General, Vermont Independents, Vermont Republicans, Vermont State Senators, Writers from Vermont, Yale University Alumni
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Jim Jeffords

Jim Jeffords
United States Senator
from Vermont
In office
January 3, 1989 – January 3, 2007
Preceded by Robert Stafford
Succeeded by Bernie Sanders
Chairman of the Senate Environment and Public Works Committee
In office
June 6, 2001 – January 3, 2003
Preceded by Bob Smith
Succeeded by Jim Inhofe
Chairman of the Senate Health, Education, Labor, and Pensions Committee
In office
January 20, 2001 – June 6, 2001
Preceded by Ted Kennedy
Succeeded by Ted Kennedy
In office
January 3, 1997 – January 3, 2001
Preceded by Nancy Kassebaum
Succeeded by Ted Kennedy
Member of the U.S. House of Representatives
from Vermont's at-large district
In office
January 3, 1975 – January 3, 1989
Preceded by Richard W. Mallary
Succeeded by Peter Plympton Smith
Personal details
Born James Merrill Jeffords
(1934-05-11)May 11, 1934
Rutland, Vermont, U.S.
Died August 18, 2014(2014-08-18) (aged 80)
Washington, D.C., U.S.
Resting place

Northam Cemetery

Shrewsbury, Vermont
Political party Republican (before 2001)
Independent (after 2001)
Spouse(s) Liz Daley (1961–1978; 1986–2007)
Children Leonard
Alma mater Yale University
Harvard University
Religion Congregationalism
Military service
Allegiance  United States
Service/branch  United States Navy
Years of service 1956–1959
Rank Captain
Unit Navy Reserves (1959–1990)

James Merrill "Jim" Jeffords (May 11, 1934 – August 18, 2014) was a U.S. Senator from Vermont. Sworn in to the Senate in 1989, he served as a Republican until 2001, when he left the party to become an Independent and began caucusing with the Democrats. He retired from the Senate in 2007. Prior to the Senate, he served as the U.S. Representative for Vermont's at-large congressional district from 1975 to 1989.


  • Background 1
  • Political career 2
  • Departure from the GOP 3
  • Senate record 4
  • Retirement and death 5
  • See also 6
  • References 7
  • Further reading 8
  • External links 9


Jeffords was born in

Legal offices
Preceded by
James L. Oakes
Attorney General of Vermont
Succeeded by
Kimberly B. Cheney
United States House of Representatives
Preceded by
Richard W. Mallary
Member of the U.S. House of Representatives
from Vermont's At-large congressional district

Succeeded by
Peter Plympton Smith
Party political offices
Preceded by
Robert Stafford
Republican nominee for U.S. Senator from Vermont
(Class 1)

1988, 1994, 2000
Succeeded by
Richard Tarrant
United States Senate
Preceded by
Robert Stafford
United States Senator (Class 1) from Vermont
Served alongside: Patrick Leahy
Succeeded by
Bernie Sanders
Preceded by
Nancy Kassebaum
Chairmanof the Senate Health, Education, Labor, and Pensions Committee
Succeeded by
Ted Kennedy
Preceded by
Ted Kennedy
Chairman of the Senate Health, Education, Labor, and Pensions Committee
Preceded by
Bob Smith
Chairman of the Senate Environment and Public Works Committee
Succeeded by
Jim Inhofe

External links

  • James M. Jeffords, My Declaration of Independence (Simon & Schuster, 2001). ISBN 0-7432-2842-1
  • James M. Jeffords, An Independent Man (Simon & Schuster, 2003). ISBN 0-7432-2843-X

Further reading

  1. ^ Vermont Secretary of State, Vermont Legislative Directory and State Manual, 1985, page 446
  2. ^ James M. Jeffords, An Independent Man: Adventures of a Public Servant, 2003, page 12
  3. ^
  4. ^ Marquis Who's Who, Who's Who in Government, Volume 3, 1977, page 300
  5. ^ James M. Jeffords, An Independent Man: Adventures of a Public Servant, 2003, page 291
  6. ^
  7. ^
  8. ^ a b c
  9. ^ 'Did the Democrats Sucker Jim Jeffords?', by Timothy Noah, Slate.
  10. ^
  11. ^ Rutland Herald, Obituary, James Merrill "Jim" Jeffords, August 20, 2014
  12. ^


See also

Jeffords died of Alzheimer's disease on August 18, 2014, at Knollwood, a military retirement facility in Washington, D.C., where he had lived for eight years. He was 80 years old.[10] He was buried at Northam Cemetery in North Shrewsbury.[11]

In April 2005, Jeffords announced his decision not to run for re-election in 2006. Jeffords said his wife's cancer and his own growing health concerns caused him to decide it was time to retire. On September 27, 2006, Jeffords delivered his farewell speech on the Senate floor. Floor speeches by and in tribute to retiring senators are a Senate tradition, but only one Republican senator, Chuck Grassley of Iowa, spoke on the floor in praise of Jeffords. The 70-year-old incumbent decided to retire despite consensus within the political community that he had good opportunity to win re-election in 2006. Governor Jim Douglas opted not to run, and Richard Tarrant won the Republican nomination. Bernie Sanders, then the only independent in the U.S. House, ran as an independent. Sanders also won the Democratic nomination by write-in, but declined it. In the general election, Sanders defeated Tarrant and four minor candidates, receiving 65 percent of the vote.

Retirement and death

On October 11, 2002, Jeffords was one of 23 senators to vote against authorizing the use of military force in Iraq. Shortly after that, he was one of only nine senators to vote against the bill establishing the United States Department of Homeland Security. On November 11, 2003 Jeffords was one of only four senators to vote against the Syria Accountability and Lebanese Sovereignty Restoration Act, a bill that received strong support from politicians from across the aisle.

Jeffords consistently voted against the ban on George W. Bush, and the vast majority of the Republican Party.

By the time of his switch, no Republican Senator had a lower lifetime score from the establish a national healthcare plan. Jefford's voting record and positions on environmental issues put further distance between himself and his Republican Party colleagues.

(The Aiken-Gibson wing of the Vermont Republican Party were those party activists and office holders identified with progressive policies. The party's conservatives comprised a pro-business wing, which was led by the Proctor, Fairbanks, and Smith families. In addition to Aiken and Gibson, other members of their wing of the party in the 1950s and 1960s included Jeffords and Robert Stafford. Members of the party's conservative wing included Harold J. Arthur, Lee E. Emerson, and Winston L. Prouty.)

Even before switching parties, Jeffords' voting record was moderate-to-liberal, which was typical of Republicans affiliated with Vermont's Aiken-Gibson wing.

Senate record

Jeffords' party switch made him only the second Senator from Vermont to caucus with the Democrats. The seat that Jeffords occupied had been held by a Republican from 1857, when Solomon Foot became a Republican, until 2001 when Jeffords became an Independent.

Jeffords agreed to vote with the Democrats on all procedural matters except with permission of the whip, which would be rarely asked and rarely granted, in exchange for the committee seats that would have been available to Jeffords had he been a Democrat during his entire Senate tenure. He was free to vote as he pleased on policy matters, but more often than not voted with the Democrats.

The 2000 Senate elections had left the Senate with a 50–50 split in partisan control, forcing Democrats and Republicans to negotiate an unusual power-sharing arrangement (although Republican Vice President Dick Cheney could break tie votes). Following the election, Democrats sought out a Republican to defect from the Republican caucus, which would give Democrats control of the chamber. Democratic whip Harry Reid courted Jeffords, Lincoln Chafee, and John McCain as potential party-switchers. After being promised the chairmanship of the Senate Environment and Public Works Committee to offset his loss of a committee chairmanship under Republican control, Jeffords decided to change parties, and gave up the chairmanship of the Health, Education, Labor, and Pensions Committee, which he had held since 1997. Jeffords' switch gave Democrats control of a chamber of Congress for the first time since the 1994 elections, and Jeffords is the only Senator in history to tip the balance of power in the Senate by switching parties.[8] However, the effects were not long-lasting: 18 months later, after Republican Jim Talent won a special election to the Senate from Missouri, the Senate switched back to GOP hands.

On May 24, 2001, Jeffords Bush tax cuts, motivated his party switch.[8] Jeffords' switch was also motivated by the refusal of Senate Republicans to fully fund the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act.[9] In his announcement speech he stated, "Increasingly, I find myself in disagreement with my party... I understand that many people are more conservative than I am and they form the Republican Party. Given the changing nature of the national party, it has become a struggle for our leaders to deal with me and for me to deal with them."[8]

Departure from the GOP

During part of his tenure in the Senate, Jeffords sat at the Candy Desk.

Jeffords was one of the founders of the Congressional Solar Coalition and the Congressional Arts Caucus. Jeffords was frequently recognized for his performance as a legislator, receiving Parenting magazine's "Legislator of the Year" award in 1999, and the Sierra Club's highest commendation in 2002.

Jeffords' work in Congress focused on legislation involving education, job training and individuals with disabilities. In his later years in the Senate, his emphasis shifted somewhat, as he pushed through Congress several important pieces of environmental legislations. He was, together with Paul Simon, credited by Canadian Lieutenant-General Roméo Dallaire, Force Commander of the United Nations Assistance Mission for Rwanda (UNAMIR) from 1993 to 1994, for actively lobbying the US administration into mounting a humanitarian mission to Rwanda during the Rwandan Genocide. According to Dallaire's book, Shake Hands with the Devil, he "owe(s) a great debt of gratitude" to both senators.

In 1974, after winning the Republican nomination with a plurality in a three-way race, he won Vermont's sole seat in the U.S. House of Representatives, where he served for 14 years and was the ranking Republican member of the House Education and Labor Committee. In 1988, Jeffords was elected to the U.S. Senate, and was reelected in 1994 and 2000.[7]

Jeffords sought the Republican Party nomination for Governor in 1972, but was defeated by Luther "Fred" Hackett.

Jeffords won a seat in the Vermont State Senate in 1966. He followed that success in 1968 with a victory in the race for attorney general of Vermont. He was a Presidential Elector for Vermont in 1972.[6]

Jeffords (right) with fellow senator Chris Dodd at the Pentagon, speaking on defense issues, May 2000.

Political career

Jeffords married his late wife, Elizabeth "Liz" Daley twice. Their first marriage was in 1961; in June 1978, the couple divorced. On August 26, 1986, they married again, 25 years after their first marriage. Liz Jeffords died on the morning of April 13, 2007, after a long struggle with ovarian cancer. Senator Jeffords and his wife had two children, Leonard and Laura, both of whom live and work in the Washington, D.C., area. After his wife's death, Jeffords resided in Washington, D.C., a move he made in order to live near his son and daughter.[5]

A longtime resident of Shrewsbury, Jeffords became active in politics and government in the 1960s as Shrewsbury's Grand Juror, Town Agent and Zoning Administrator, in addition to serving as Chairman of the town's Republican committee. He also served as Rutland County's Chairman of the Board of Property Tax Appeals.[4]

, afterwards practicing law in Rutland. United States District Court for the District of Vermont, Judge of the Ernest W. Gibson, Jr. in 1990. During 1962 and 1963 he was a law clerk for Captain (1956–1959), Jeffords served in the Naval Reserves until retiring as a United States Navy After three years of active duty in the [3] in 1962.Harvard Law School in 1956 and Yale University Jeffords graduated from [2]

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