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Title: Jiva  
Author: World Heritage Encyclopedia
Language: English
Subject: Reincarnation, Ajiva, Karma in Hinduism, Brahman, Jim Woodring
Collection: Jain Philosophical Concepts
Publisher: World Heritage Encyclopedia


Jiva atma in different material bodies


  • 'Jiva' - usage in Bhagavata Purana
  • Terms 'jiva' and 'soul' in Western and Eastern philosophy and religion (English)(Czech)

External links

  • by Bhagavan DasThe Science of the Emotions
  1. ^ Bhagavad-gita As It Is Chapter 7 Verse 5 at the Wayback Machine (archived October 21, 2013) Bhagavad Gita 7.5 — "Besides these, O mighty-armed Arjuna, there is another, superior energy of Mine, which comprises the living entities [jiva] who are exploiting the resources of this material, inferior nature."
  2. ^ Brahma Samhita 5.21 "The same jiva is eternal and is for eternity and without a beginning"
  3. ^ Maharishi Mahesh Yogi on the Bhagavad-Gita, a New Translation and Commentary, Chapter 1-6. Penguin Books, 1969, p 98 (v 18)
  4. ^ The Philosophy of Person: Solidarity and Cultural Creativity, Jozef Tichner and George McClean, 1994, p. 32
  5. ^ Katha Upanisad 1.2.18, 2.2.13
  6. ^ Bhagavad gita 2.12, 2.16-21, 2.23-25, 2.30
  7. ^ Bhagavata Purana 7.7.43, 11.31.13
  8. ^ Vedanta sutra 2.3, 4.4
  9. ^ Bhagavad Gita 7.5
  10. ^ Samkhyapravacanasutra 4.63
  11. ^ Samkhyasutravrtti 6.59
  12. ^ Adi Shankara’s Bhashya on Brahma Sutra 2. 2.3


See also

  • 'liberation' from material existence (moksha)
  • obtaining pure love of God (bhakti)
  • becoming liberated from the happiness and distress of the world, while still being existent within it (jivanmukta).

Some Jain and Hindu scriptures describe the ultimate goal of the jiva as being one or more of the following (depending on the particular philosophical tradition):


Aniruddha defines the Jiva, the empirical self, as the self determined by the body, the external sense-organs, mind, intellect, and egoism; the self which is devoid of empirical cognition, merit, demerit, and other mental modes is the transcendental Atman.[10] When the Jiva breaks the shackles of Prakrti it becomes the transcendental self.[11] Isvara and the jivas are both empirical realities; the former is the ruler and the impeller, and the latter are the ruled, the ones who are impelled.[12]

In the Bhagavad Gita, the jiva is described as immutable, eternal, numberless and indestructible.[5][6][7][8] It is said not to be a product of the material world (Prakrti), but of a higher 'spiritual' nature.[9] At the point of physical death the jiva takes a new physical body depending on the karma and the individual desires and necessities of the particular jiva in question.



  • Definition 1
  • Goals 2
  • See also 3
  • References 4
  • External links 5

The word itself originates from the Sanskrit jivás, with the root jīv- 'to breathe'. It has the same Indo-European root as the Latin word vivus: "alive".

) are used. jeevatma (also commonly spelled jivatma and paramatma To avoid confusion, the terms [4] is used to denote an individual 'living entity' or 'living being' specifically.jiva refers to "the cosmic self", atma, but whereas atma It has a very similar usage to [3][2]

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