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Johannes Itten

Johannes Itten
Johannes Itten (1954)
Born (1888-11-11)11 November 1888
Südern-Linden, Switzerland
Died 25 March 1967(1967-03-25) (aged 78)
Nationality Swiss
Education Academy of Arts, Stuttgart
Known for Painting, Drawing, Color theory, Architecture
Notable work Farbkreis (1961)
Movement Expressionism

Johannes Itten (11 November 1888 – 25 March 1967) was a Swiss expressionist painter, designer, teacher, writer and theorist associated with the Bauhaus (Staatliche Bauhaus) school. Together with German-American painter Lyonel Feininger and German sculptor Gerhard Marcks, under the direction of German architect Walter Gropius, Itten was part of the core of the Weimar Bauhaus.


  • Life and work 1
  • Influence 2
  • Bibliography 3
  • Notes 4
  • Further reading 5
  • External links 6

Life and work

He was born in Südern-Linden, Switzerland. From 1904 to 1908 he trained as an elementary school teacher. Beginning in 1908 he taught using methods developed by the creator of the kindergarten concept, Friedrich Fröbel, and was exposed to the ideas of psychoanalysis. In 1909 he enrolled at the École des Beaux-Arts in Geneva but was unimpressed with the educators there, and returned to Bern. Itten's studies at the Bern-Hofwil Teachers' Academy with Ernst Schneider proved seminal for his later work as a master at the Bauhaus. Itten adopted principles espoused by Schneider, including the practice of not correcting his students' creative work on an individual basis, for fear that this would crush the creative impulse. Rather, he selected certain common mistakes to correct for the class as a whole. In 1912, he returned to Geneva, where he studied under Eugène Gilliard, an abstract painter.

He was heavily influenced by Adolf Hölzel and Franz Cižek.[1] Itten opened a private art school in Vienna, using the work and textbook of Eugène Gilliard as a base. From Hölzel, Itten adopted a series of basic shapes (the line, the plane, the circle, the spiral) as a means from which to begin creation, and the use of gymnastic exercises to relax his students and prepare them for the experiences that were to occur in the class.[2]

Farbkreis by Johannes Itten (1961)

From 1919 to 1922, Itten taught at the Bauhaus, developing the innovative "preliminary course"[3] which was to teach students the basics of material characteristics, composition, and color. In 1920 Itten invited

  • Influence of Friedrich Froebel on Johannes Itten 1888 - 1967
  • Johannes Itten at Artcyclopedia - a list of galleries and online museum sites.
  • Johannes Itten - The art of color
  • Johannes Itten's preliminary course at the Bauhaus 1919-1922
  • MoMA Collection: Johannes Itten - House of the White Man: Greeting and salutation to hearts which live illuminated by the light of love and are not led astray either by hopes of a heaven or by fear of a hell, 1921

External links

  • Hal Foster, ed. (2004). "1923: The Bauhaus … holds its first public exhibition in Weimar, Germany". Art Since 1900: Volume 1 - 1900 to 1944. Rosalind Krauss, Yve-Alain Bois, Benjamin Buchloh. New York: Thames & Hudson. pp. 185–189.  
  • The Color Star

Further reading

  1. ^ Curtis, William (1987). "Walter Gropius, German Expressionism, and the Bauhaus". Modern Architecture Since 1900 (2nd ed.). Prentice-Hall. p. 121.  
  2. ^ a b Droste, Magdalena (2002). Bauhaus: 1919-1933, pp. 24-32. Taschen. ISBN 3-8228-2105-5.
  3. ^ Ruhrberg, Karl, and Walther, Ingo F. (2000). Art of the 20th Century, p. 177. Taschen. ISBN 3-8228-5907-9.
  4. ^ Frampton, Kenneth (1992). "The Bauhaus: the evolution of an idea 1919-32". Modern Architecture: a critical history (3rd ed. rev. ed.). New York, NY: Thames and Hudson, Inc. p. 124.  
  5. ^ Magdalena Droste and the Bauhaus Archive, Bauhaus, Taschen, 2006
  6. ^ Raizman, David (2003). A History of Modern Design, p. 184. London: Laurence King Publishing Ltd. ISBN 1-85669-348-1.


  • Itten, Johannes (1975). Design and form: the basic course at the Bauhaus. New York: Van Nostrand Reinhold.  
  • Itten, Johannes (1973). The Art of Color: the subjective experience and objective rationale of color. New York: Van Nostrand Reinhold.  
  • Itten, Johannes, and Birren, Faber (1970). The Elements of Color: A Treatise on the Color System of Johannes Itten Based on His Book The Art of Color. New York: Van Nostrand Reinhold. ISBN 0-442-24038-4


Itten's work on color is also said to be an inspiration for seasonal color analysis. Itten had been the first to associate color palettes with four types of people, and had designated those types with the names of seasons. His studies of color palettes and color interaction directly influenced the Op Art movement and other color abstraction base movements. Shortly after his death, his designations gained popularity in the cosmetics industry with the publication of Color Me A Season. Cosmetologists today continue to use seasonal color analysis, a tribute to the early work by Itten.


  • 1926–1934 Private art school in Berlin
  • 1932–1938 Director of the Textilfachschule in Krefeld
  • 1938–1954 Director at the Kunstgewerbeschule
  • 1943–1960 Director of the Textilfachschule in Zürich
  • 1949–1956 Director of the Museum Rietberg, Zürich, a museum for non-European art
  • 1955 works as freelance painter
  • 1955 colour courses at the HfG Ulm (Hochschule für Gestaltung Ulm)

Itten's works exploring the use and composition of color resemble the square op art canvases of artists such as Josef Albers, Max Bill and Bridget Riley, and the expressionist works of Wassily Kandinsky.

Itten was a follower of mass production rather than solely individual artistic expression. The rift led to Itten's resignation from the Bauhaus and his prompt replacement by László Moholy-Nagy in 1923.[5][6] From 1926 to 1934 he had a small art and architecture school in Berlin, in which Ernst Neufert, the former chief-architect of Walter Gropius at the Bauhaus, taught as well from 1932 to 1934.

. Gunta Stölzl, with the help of Bauhaus weaver Zurich" went on to include 12 colors. In 1924, Itten established the “Ontos Weaving Workshops” near color sphere, which describes these ideas as a furthering of Adolf Hölzel's color wheel. Itten's so called "The Art of Color He also published a book, [4]

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