World Library  
Flag as Inappropriate
Email this Article

John Buchan

Article Id: WHEBN0000084935
Reproduction Date:

Title: John Buchan  
Author: World Heritage Encyclopedia
Language: English
Subject: Greenmantle, List of fictional Prime Ministers of the United Kingdom, John Macnab, The Dancing Floor, The Gap in the Curtain
Collection: 1875 Births, 1940 Deaths, 19Th-Century British Novelists, 20Th-Century Biographers, 20Th-Century British Novelists, Alumni of Brasenose College, Oxford, Alumni of the University of Glasgow, Barons in the Peerage of the United Kingdom, British Army Personnel of World War I, Burials in Oxfordshire, Chancellors of the University of Edinburgh, Chief Scouts of Canada, Elders of the Church of Scotland, Governors General of Canada, Intelligence Corps Officers, James Tait Black Memorial Prize Recipients, Knights Grand Cross of the Order of St Michael and St George, Knights Grand Cross of the Royal Victorian Order, Lords High Commissioner to the General Assembly of the Church of Scotland, Members of the Order of the Companions of Honour, Members of the Parliament of the United Kingdom for Scottish Constituencies, Members of the Parliament of the United Kingdom for University Constituencies, Members of the Privy Council of the United Kingdom, Ordained Peers, People Associated with the Scottish Borders, People Educated at Hutchesons' Grammar School, People from Kirkcaldy, People from Perth, Scotland, People of the Edwardian Era, Presidents of the Oxford Union, Recipients of the Silver Wolf Award, Scottish Biographers, Scottish Historical Novelists, Scottish Nationalists, Scottish Novelists, Scottish Presbyterians, Scottish Soldiers, Scottish Thriller Writers, Uk Mps 1924–29, Uk Mps 1929–31, Uk Mps 1931–35, Unionist Party (Scotland) Mps, Victorian Novelists
Publisher: World Heritage Encyclopedia

John Buchan

His Excellency the Right Honourable
the Lord Tweedsmuir
15th Governor General of Canada
In office
2 November 1935 – 11 February 1940
Prime Minister
Preceded by The Earl of Bessborough
Succeeded by The Earl of Athlone
Personal details
Born (1875-08-26)26 August 1875
Perth, Scotland
Died 11 February 1940(1940-02-11) (aged 64)
Montreal, Quebec
Spouse(s) Susan Buchan, Baroness Tweedsmuir
Profession Author
Religion Free Church of Scotland, United Free Church of Scotland, Church of Scotland

John Buchan, 1st Baron Tweedsmuir GCMG GCVO CH PC (; 26 August 1875 – 11 February 1940) was a Scottish novelist, historian and Unionist politician who served as Governor General of Canada, the 15th since Canadian Confederation.

After a brief legal career, Buchan simultaneously began his writing career and his political and diplomatic careers, serving as a private secretary to the colonial administrator of various colonies in southern Africa. He eventually wrote propaganda for the British war effort in the Prime Minister of Canada R. B. Bennett, to replace the Earl of Bessborough. He occupied the post until his death in 1940. Buchan proved to be enthusiastic about literacy, as well as the evolution of Canadian culture, and he received a state funeral in Canada before his ashes were returned to the United Kingdom.


  • Early life and education 1
  • Life as an author and politician 2
  • Governor General of Canada 3
  • Legacy 4
  • Titles, styles and honours 5
    • Titles 5.1
    • Honours 5.2
      • Honorary military appointments 5.2.1
      • Honorary degrees 5.2.2
      • Honorific eponyms 5.2.3
  • See also 6
  • References 7
  • Further reading 8
  • External links 9

Early life and education

Buchan was the first child of John Buchan—a Free Church of Scotland minister—and Helen Jane Buchan. Born in Perth,[1] Buchan was brought up in Kirkcaldy, Fife, and spent many summer holidays with his grandparents in Broughton, in the Scottish Borders. There he developed a love of walking, as well as for the local scenery and wildlife, which often featured in his novels; the name of a protagonist in several of Buchan's books—Sir Edward Leithen—is borrowed from the Leithen Water, a tributary of the River Tweed.

After attending Hutchesons' Grammar School, Buchan was awarded a scholarship to the University of Glasgow at age 17, where he studied classics, wrote poetry, and became a published author. With a junior Hulme scholarship, he moved on in 1895 to study Literae Humaniores (the Oxonian term for the Classics) at Brasenose College, Oxford,[2] where his friends included Hilaire Belloc, Raymond Asquith, and Aubrey Herbert. Buchan won both the Stanhope essay prize, in 1897, and the Newdigate Prize for poetry the following year,[2] as well as being elected as the president of the Oxford Union and having six of his works published.[3] It was at around the time of his graduation from Oxford that Buchan had his first portrait painted, done in 1900 by a young Sholto Johnstone Douglas.[4]

Life as an author and politician

Buchan entered into a career in diplomacy and government after graduating from Oxford, becoming in 1901 the private secretary to Alfred Milner, who was then the High Commissioner for Southern Africa, Governor of Cape Colony, and colonial administrator of Transvaal and the Orange Free State, putting Buchan in what came to be known as Milner's Kindergarten. He also gained an acquaintance with a country that would feature prominently in his writing, which he resumed upon his return to London, at the same time entering into a partnership in the Thomas Nelson & Son publishing company and becoming editor of The Spectator.[5] Buchan also read for and was called to the bar in the same year,[6] though he did not practise as a lawyer,[7] and on 15 July 1907 married Susan Charlotte Grosvenor—daughter of Norman Grosvenor and a cousin of the Duke of Westminster. Together, Buchan and his wife had four children, Alice, John, William, and Alastair, two of whom would spend most of their lives in Canada.[6]

John Buchan, circa 1936

In 1910, Buchan wrote

Government offices
Preceded by
The Earl of Bessborough
Governor General of Canada
Succeeded by
The Earl of Athlone
Parliament of the United Kingdom
Preceded by
Henry Craik
George Berry
Dugald Cowan
Member of Parliament for Combined Scottish Universities
April 1927June 1935
With: George Berry to 1931
Dugald Cowan to 1934
George Alexander Morrison from 1934
Succeeded by
John Graham Kerr
Noel Skelton
George Alexander Morrison
Academic offices
Preceded by
J. M. Barrie
Chancellor of the University of Edinburgh
Succeeded by
The Marquess of Linlithgow
Peerage of the United Kingdom
New title Baron Tweedsmuir
3 June 1935 – 11 February 1940
Succeeded by
John Buchan
  • Hansard 1803–2005: contributions in Parliament by John Buchan
  • Website of the Governor General of Canada entry for Lord Tweedsmuir
  • The Canadian Encyclopedia entry for Lord Tweedsmuir
  • The John Buchan Society
  • John Buchan Museum
  • Works by John Buchan at Project Gutenberg
  • Works by John Buchan at Project Gutenberg Australia
  • Works by or about John Buchan at Internet Archive
  • Works by John Buchan at LibriVox (public domain audiobooks)
  • John Buchan at the Internet Movie Database

External links

  • Daniell, David, The Interpreter's House: A Critical Assessment of John Buchan (Nelson, 1975) ISBN 0-17-146051-0
  • Lownie, Andrew, John Buchan: The Presbyterian Cavalier (David R. Godine Publisher, 2003) ISBN 1-56792-236-8
  • Macdonald, Kate, John Buchan: A Companion to the Mystery Fiction (McFarland & Company, 2009) ISBN 978-0-7864-3489-3
  • Macdonald, Kate (ed.), Reassessing John Buchan: Beyond 'The Thirty-Nine Steps' (Pickering & Chatto, 2009) ISBN 978-1-85196-998-2
  • Smith, Janet Adam, John Buchan: A Biography (1965) (Oxford University Press, reissue 1985) ISBN 0-19-281866-X
  • Waddell, Nathan, Modern John Buchan: A Critical Introduction (Cambridge Scholars Publishing, 2009) ISBN 978-1-4438-1370-9
  • Brinckman, John, Down North: John Buchan and Margaret-Bourke on the Mackenzie ISBN 978-0-9879163-3-4
  • Galbraith, J. William, "John Buchan: Model Governor General" (Dundurn, Toronto, 2013) ISBN 978-1-45970-937-9

Further reading

  1. ^ "Scottish politician, diplomat, author and publisher". National Archives. Retrieved 1 March 2010. 
  2. ^ a b "Queen's University Archives > Exhibits > John Buchan > Oxford, 1895–1899: Scholar Gypsy". Queen's University. Retrieved 30 March 2009. 
  3. ^ a b Hillmer, Norman. "Biography > Governors General of Canada > Buchan, John, 1st Baron Tweedsmuir". In Marsh, James H. The Canadian Encyclopedia. Toronto: Historica Foundation of Canada. Retrieved 31 March 2009. 
  4. ^ Lee, Sidney, ed. (1950). The Dictionary of National Biography. New York: Oxford University Press. p. 113. 
  5. ^ "Queen's University Archives > Exhibits > John Buchan > Home and Family". Queen's University. Retrieved 30 March 2009. 
  6. ^ a b c d e f Office of the Governor General of Canada. "Governor General > Former Governors General > Lord Tweedsmuir of Elsfield". Queen's Printer for Canada. Retrieved 14 April 2010. 
  7. ^ "John Buchan Society > The Man". The Buchan Society. Retrieved 27 March 2009. 
  8. ^ Parry, J. P. (2002). "From the Thirty-Nine Articles to the Thirty-Nine Steps: reflections on the thought of John Buchan". In Bentley, Michael. Public and Private Doctrine: Essays in British History presented to Maurice Cowling. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. p. 226. 
  9. ^ Parry 2002, p. 227
  10. ^ "Queen's University Archives > Exhibits > John Buchan > World War 1: The Department of Information". Queen's University. Retrieved 30 March 2009. 
  11. ^ Sanders, M. L. (1975). Culbert, David, ed. The Historical Journal (18) (London: Carfax Publishing). pp. 119–146.  
  12. ^ "Debate on the Address".  
  13. ^ "Debate on the Address".  
  14. ^ Parry 2002, p. 234
  15. ^ Christopher Hitchens (March 2004). "Between Kipling and Fleming stands John Buchan, the father of the modern spy thriller". The Atlanic. Retrieved 13 August 2014. 
  16. ^ Defries, Harry (2001). Conservative Party Attitudes to Jews, 1900–1950. London: Routledge. p. 148.  
  17. ^ Anthony Storr (1997). Feet of Clay: A Study of Gurus. HarperCollins. p. 168. 
  18. ^ Roger Kimball. "Catching up with John Buchan". The Fortnightly Review. Retrieved 13 August 2014. 
  19. ^ The London Gazette: no. 33785. p. 12. 29 December 1931. Retrieved 29 March 2009.
  20. ^ The London Gazette: no. 34164. p. 3443. 28 May 1935. Retrieved 29 March 2009.
  21. ^ The London Gazette: no. 34167. p. 3620. 4 June 1935. Retrieved 26 March 2009.
  22. ^ Reynolds, Louise (2005). Mackenzie King: Friends & Lovers. Victoria: Trafford Publishing. p. 124.  
  23. ^ Reynolds 2005, p. 125
  24. ^ House of Commons (Canada) Debates, March 27, 1935, page 2144.
  25. ^ House of Commons (Canada) Debates, March 27, 1935, page 2144. Cited with other details in Galbraith, J. William, "John Buchan: Model Governor General", Dundurn, Toronto, 2013. p.19.
  26. ^ Smith, Janet Adam (1979). John Buchan and his world. Thames & Hudson. p. 89.  
  27. ^ The Champlain Society. "Former Officer's of The Champlain Society (1905–2012)". Retrieved 19 October 2014. 
  28. ^ The first governor-general to travel to the Canadian Arctic was Lord Byng (GG 1921-1926) in 1925. Cited in Galbraith, William, "The Literary Governor-General" in "The Literary Review of Canada", October 1996, page 19.
  29. ^ Smith, Janet Adam (1965). John Buchan: a Biography. Boston: Little Brown and Company. p. 423. 
  30. ^ "Royal Visit". Time (New York: Time Inc.) IXX (17). 21 October 1957.  
  31. ^ Saunders, Doug (27 June 2009). "Canada's mistaken identity". The Globe and Mail. Retrieved 28 June 2009. 
  32. ^ Hubbard, R.H. (1977). Rideau Hall. Montreal and London: McGill-Queen's University Press. p. 187.  
  33. ^ Tony O'Donohue v. Her Majesty the Queen in Right of Canada and Her Majesty the Queen in Right of the United Kingdom, 01-CV-217147CM, s. 34 (Ontario Superior Court of Justice 26 June 2006).
  34. ^ Library and Archives Canada (2007). "The Diaries of William Lyon Mackenzie King". Queen's Printer for Canada. p. 562. Retrieved 14 August 2012. 
  35. ^ a b c d Galbraith, William (1989). "Fiftieth Anniversary of the 1939 Royal Visit". Canadian Parliamentary Review (Ottawa: Commonwealth Parliamentary Association) 12 (3). Retrieved 29 March 2009. 
  36. ^ Buchan, John (1918). Mr Standfast. Hodder & Stoughton. 
  37. ^ Buchan, John (1928). Montrose – A History. Houghton Mifflin. 
  38. ^ Ministry of the Environment. "BC Parks > Find a Park > Tweedsmuir South Provincial Park > History". Queen's Printer for British Columbia. Retrieved 27 May 2009. 
  39. ^ a b c d e "Material relating to John Buchan, first Lord Tweedsmuir (1875–1940)" (PDF). National Library of Scotland. ACC 12329. Retrieved 29 March 2009. 
  40. ^ a b Honorary Degree Recipients 1850 – 2008 (PDF). Toronto: University of Toronto. 30 June 2008. p. 8. 
  41. ^ "Canadian Mountain Encyclopedia > Tweedsmuir Peak". Mountain Equipment Co-op. Retrieved 27 May 2009. 
  42. ^ "Find a Walk > The John Buchan Way (Peebles to Broughton)". Walking Scotland. Retrieved 26 March 2009. 
  43. ^ "John Buchan Centre". John Buchan Society. Retrieved 26 March 2009. 


See also

Geographic locations

Honorific eponyms

Honorary degrees

Honorary military appointments

Non-national honours
Foreign honours
  • King George V Silver Jubilee Medal
  • King George VI Coronation Medal
Ribbon bars of the Lord Tweedsmuir


  • 2 November 1935 – 11 February 1940: His Excellency the Right Honourable the Lord Tweedsmuir, Governor General and Commander-in-Chief of the Militia and Naval and Air Forces of Canada
  • 25 August 1875 – 23 May 1935: John Buchan or John Buchan, Esquire
  • 23 May 1935 – 3 June 1935: Sir John Buchan
  • 3 June 1935 – 11 February 1940: The Right Honourable the Lord Tweedsmuir
United Kingdom
Viceregal styles of
the Lord Tweedsmuir
Reference style His Excellency the Right Honourable
Son Excellence le très honorable
Spoken style Your Excellency
Votre Excellence
Alternative style Sir


Titles, styles and honours

Tweedsmuir Provincial Park in British Columbia, now divided into Tweedsmuir South Provincial Park and Tweedsmuir North Provincial Park and Protected Area, was created in 1938 to commemorate Buchan's 1937 visit to the Rainbow Range and other nearby areas by horseback and floatplane. In the foreword to a booklet published to commemorate his visit, he wrote, "I have now travelled over most of Canada and have seen many wonderful things, but I have seen nothing more beautiful and more wonderful than the great park which British Columbia has done me the honour to call by my name".[38]

Buchan's 100 works include nearly thirty novels, seven collections of short stories, and biographies of Sir Walter Scott, Caesar Augustus, and Oliver Cromwell. Buchan was awarded the James Tait Black Memorial Prize for his biography of the Marquess of Montrose, but the most famous of his books were the spy thrillers, and it is for these that he is now best remembered. The "last Buchan" (as Graham Greene entitled his appreciative review) was the 1941 novel Sick Heart River (American title: Mountain Meadow), in which a dying protagonist confronts the questions of the meaning of life in the Canadian wilderness. The insightful quotation, "It's a great life, if you don't weaken," is famously attributed to Buchan,[36] as is, "No great cause is ever lost or won, The battle must always be renewed, And the creed must always be restated."[37]

In his last years, Buchan, amongst other works, wrote an autobiography, Memory Hold-the-Door, as well as works on the history and his views of Canada. He and Baroness Tweedsmuir together established the first proper library at Rideau Hall, and, with his wife's encouragement, Buchan founded the Governor General's Literary Awards, which remain Canada's premier award for literature.[6]


After lying in state in the Senate chamber on Parliament Hill, Buchan was given a state funeral at St. Andrew's Presbyterian Church in Ottawa. His ashes were returned to the UK aboard the cruiser HMS Orion for final burial at Elsfield, his estate in Oxfordshire.

These duties would not burden Buchan for long. On 6 February 1940, he suffered a severe head injury when he fell after suffering a stroke at Rideau Hall. Two surgeries by Doctor Wilder Penfield of the Montreal Neurological Institute were insufficient to save him, and his death on 11 February drew a radio eulogy by Mackenzie King: "In the passing of His Excellency, the people of Canada have lost one of the greatest and most revered of their Governors General, and a friend who, from the day of his arrival in this country, dedicated his life to their service." The Governor General had formed a strong bond with his prime minister, even if it may have been built more on political admiration than friendship: Mackenzie King appreciated Buchan's "sterling rectitude and disinterested purpose."[3]

Another factor behind the tour was public relations: the presence of the royal couple in Canada and the United States, was calculated to shore up sympathy for Britain in anticipation of hostilities with commander-in-chief of the Canadian armed forces.

In May and June 1939, King George VI and [35] In Canada itself, the royal couple took part in public events such as the opening of the Lions Gate Bridge in May 1939.

The following year proved to be a tumultuous one for the monarchy that Buchan represented. In late January, George V died, and his eldest son, the popular Governor-in-Council, gave the government's consent to the British legislation formalising the abdication, and ratified this with finality when he granted Royal Assent to the Canadian Succession to the Throne Act in 1937 .[33] Upon receiving news from Mackenzie King of Edward's decision to abdicate, Tweedsmuir commented that, in his year in Canada as governor general, he had represented three kings.[34]

He brought to the post a longstanding knowledge of Canada. He had written many appreciative words about the country as a journalist on The Spectator and had followed the actions of the Canadian forces in World War I when writing his Nelson History of the War, helped by talks with Julian Byng, before first visiting Canada in 1924.[26] His knowledge and interest in increasing public awareness and accessibility to Canada's past resulted in Buchan being made the Champlain Society's second honorary president between 1938 and 1939.[27] Buchan continued writing during his time as governor general, but he also took his position as viceroy seriously and from the outset made it his goal to travel the length and breadth of Canada, as one way to promote Canadian unity. including, to the Arctic regions;[28] he said of his job: "a Governor General is in a unique position for it is his duty to know the whole of Canada and all the various types of her people." Buchan also encouraged a distinct Canadian identity and national unity, despite the ongoing Great Depression and the difficulty which it caused for the population.[6] Not all Canadians shared Buchan's views; he raised the ire of imperialists when he said in Montreal in 1937: "a Canadian's first loyalty is not to the British Commonwealth of Nations, but to Canada and Canada's King,"[29] a statement that the Montreal Gazette dubbed as "disloyal."[30] Buchan maintained and recited his idea that ethnic groups "should retain their individuality and each make its contribution to the national character," and "the strongest nations are those that are made up of different racial elements."[31]

It was announced in the Canadian parliament on 27 March 1935 that the King "has been graciously pleased to approve the appointment of Mr. John Buchan" as the viceregal representative.[24] Acting Prime Minister Sir George Perley made the announcement in the place of ailing Prime Minister R.B. Bennett who recommended Buchan's name to King George V who approved the appointment,[25] made by commission under the royal sign-manual and signet. Buchan then departed for Canada and was sworn in as the country's governor general in a ceremony on 2 November 1935 in the salon rouge of the parliament buildings of Quebec. Buchan was the first viceroy of Canada appointed since the enactment of the Statute of Westminster on 11 December 1931 and was thus the first to have been decided on solely by the monarch of Canada in his Canadian council.

The Lord Tweedsmuir in Native headdress, 1937
Mackenzie King delivers an address at the installation of Lord Tweedsmuir as Governor General of Canada, 2 November 1935

Governor General of Canada

Buchan's name had been earlier put forward by Mackenzie King to George V as a candidate for the governor generalcy: Buchan and his wife had been guests of Mackenzie King's at his estate, Kingsmere, in 1924 and Mackenzie King, who at that time was prime minister, was impressed with Buchan, stating, "I know no man I would rather have as a friend, a beautiful, noble soul, kindly & generous in thought & word & act, informed as few men in this world have ever been, modest, humble, true, man after God's own heart." One evening in the following year, the Prime Minister mentioned to Governor General the Lord Byng of Vimy that Buchan would be a suitable successor to Byng, with which the Governor General agreed, the two being friends. Word of this reached the British Cabinet, and Buchan was approached, but he was reluctant to take the posting; Byng had been writing to Buchan about the constitutional dispute that took place in June 1926 and spoke disparagingly of Mackenzie King.[23]

but George V insisted that he be represented by a peer. [22], had recommended that the King allow Buchan to serve as viceroy as a commoner,William Lyon Mackenzie King, Leader of His Majesty's Loyal Opposition about the appointment, the R. B. Bennett Canadian prime minister; when consulted by Canada's governor general This had been done in preparation for Buchan's appointment as [21] In 1935 Buchan's literary work was adapted to the

After the Lord High Commissioner to the General Assembly of the Church of Scotland. Beginning in 1930 Buchan aligned himself with Zionism[15] and the related Palestine All Party Parliamentary Group.[16] (Despite this, Buchan was later described by Anthony Storr as being "overtly antisemitic",[17] though he has been defended by others such as Roger Kimball, who stated that Buchan's anti-Semitism was merely representative of society at that time and that Buchan denounced Hitler's anti-Semitic policies in 1934.[18]) In recognition of his contributions to literature and education, on 1 January 1932, Buchan was granted the personal gift of the sovereign of induction into the Order of the Companions of Honour.[19]

Following the close of the war, Buchan turned his attention to writing on historical subjects, along with his usual thrillers and novels. By the mid-1920s, he was living in Elsfield and had become president of the Scottish Historical Society and a trustee of the National Library of Scotland,[6] and he also maintained ties with various universities. Robert Graves, who lived in nearby Islip, mentioned his being recommended by Buchan for a lecturing position at the newly founded Cairo University and, in a 1927 by-election, Buchan was elected as the Unionist Party Member of Parliament for the Combined Scottish Universities. Politically, he was of the Unionist-Nationalist tradition, believing in Scotland's promotion as a nation within the British Empire. Buchan remarked in a speech to parliament: "I believe every Scotsman should be a Scottish nationalist. If it could be proved that a Scottish parliament were desirable ... Scotsmen should support it."[12] The effects of the Great Depression in Scotland, and the subsequent high emigration from that country, also led Buchan to reflect in the same speech: "We do not want to be like the Greeks, powerful and prosperous wherever we settle, but with a dead Greece behind us,"[13] and he found himself profoundly affected by John Morley's Life of Gladstone, which Buchan read in the early months of the Second World War. He believed that Gladstone had taught people to combat materialism, complacency, and authoritarianism; Buchan later wrote to Herbert Fisher, Stair Gillon, and Gilbert Murray that he was "becoming a Gladstonian Liberal."[14]

With the outbreak of the First World War, Buchan went to write for the British War Propaganda Bureau and worked as a correspondent in France for The Times. He continued to write fiction, and in 1915 published his most famous work, The Thirty-Nine Steps, a spy-thriller set just prior to World War I. The novel featured Buchan's oft used hero, Richard Hannay, whose character was based on Edmund Ironside, a friend of Buchan from his days in South Africa. A sequel, Greenmantle, came the following year. Buchan then enlisted in the British Army and was commissioned as a second lieutenant in the Intelligence Corps, where he wrote speeches and communiqués for Sir Douglas Haig. Recognised for his abilities, Buchan was appointed as the Director of Information in 1917, under Lord Beaverbrook[6]—which Buchan said was "the toughest job I ever took on"[10]—and also assisted Charles Masterman in publishing a monthly magazine that detailed the history of the war, the first edition appearing in February 1915 (and later published in 24 volumes as Nelson's History of the War). It was difficult, given his close connections to many of Britain's military leaders, for Buchan to be critical of the British Army's conduct during the conflict.[11]


This article was sourced from Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License; additional terms may apply. World Heritage Encyclopedia content is assembled from numerous content providers, Open Access Publishing, and in compliance with The Fair Access to Science and Technology Research Act (FASTR), Wikimedia Foundation, Inc., Public Library of Science, The Encyclopedia of Life, Open Book Publishers (OBP), PubMed, U.S. National Library of Medicine, National Center for Biotechnology Information, U.S. National Library of Medicine, National Institutes of Health (NIH), U.S. Department of Health & Human Services, and, which sources content from all federal, state, local, tribal, and territorial government publication portals (.gov, .mil, .edu). Funding for and content contributors is made possible from the U.S. Congress, E-Government Act of 2002.
Crowd sourced content that is contributed to World Heritage Encyclopedia is peer reviewed and edited by our editorial staff to ensure quality scholarly research articles.
By using this site, you agree to the Terms of Use and Privacy Policy. World Heritage Encyclopedia™ is a registered trademark of the World Public Library Association, a non-profit organization.

Copyright © World Library Foundation. All rights reserved. eBooks from World eBook Library are sponsored by the World Library Foundation,
a 501c(4) Member's Support Non-Profit Organization, and is NOT affiliated with any governmental agency or department.