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Johns Hopkins University

The Johns Hopkins University
Seal of The Johns Hopkins University
Motto Veritas vos liberabit (Latin)
Motto in English The Truth Will Set You Free
Established 1876 (1876)
Type Private
Endowment $2.99 billion (2013)[1]
President Ronald J. Daniels
Provost Robert C. Lieberman
Academic staff 3,100 (full time)[2]
Admin. staff 15,000 (full time)[2]
Undergraduates 6,023[3]
Postgraduates 14,848[3]
Location Baltimore, Maryland, USA

State of Maryland (MD):

Washington, D.C.
Bologna, Italy
Nanjing, China
Newspaper The Johns Hopkins News-Letter
Colors Old gold and sable
Columbia blue and black
Athletics NCAA Div IIICentennial Conference
Div IBig Ten/Indep. (lacrosse)[4]
Sports 24 varsity teams
Nickname Blue Jays
Affiliations AAU
Website .edu.jhuwww
The Johns Hopkins University Logo

The Johns Hopkins University (commonly referred to as Johns Hopkins, JHU, or simply Hopkins) is a private research university in Baltimore, Maryland. Founded in 1876, the university was named for its first benefactor, the American entrepreneur, abolitionist, and philanthropist Johns Hopkins.[5] His $7 million bequest—of which half financed the establishment of The Johns Hopkins Hospital—was the largest philanthropic gift in the history of the United States at the time.[6] Daniel Coit Gilman, who was inaugurated as the institution's first president on February 22, 1876,[7] led the university to revolutionize higher education in the U.S. by integrating teaching and research and is considered one of the most prestigious universities in the world.[8]

The first research university in the Western Hemisphere and one of the founding members of the American Association of Universities, Johns Hopkins has ranked among the world’s top universities throughout its history. The National Science Foundation has ranked the university #1 among U.S. academic institutions in total science, medical, and engineering research and development spending for 31 consecutive years.[9] Johns Hopkins is also ranked #12 in the U.S. News and World Report undergraduate program rankings for 2014 [10] and was also ranked 11th in the U.S. News and World Report Best Global University Rankings of 2014,[11] outranking Princeton University, Yale University, University of Pennsylvania, and Cornell University.

Over the course of almost 140 years, 36 Nobel Prize winners have been affiliated with Johns Hopkins (the first was U.S. President Woodrow Wilson, who received his Ph.D. in history and political science from the university).[12] Founded in 1883, the Blue Jays men’s lacrosse team has captured 44 national titles[13] and joined the Big Ten Conference as an affiliate member in 2014.[4]

Johns Hopkins is organized into ten divisions on campuses in Maryland and Washington, D.C. with international centers in Italy, China, and Singapore.[14] The two undergraduate divisions, the Krieger School of Arts and Sciences and the Whiting School of Engineering, are located on the Homewood campus in Baltimore's Charles Village neighborhood. The medical school, the nursing school, and the Bloomberg School of Public Health are located on the Medical Institutions campus in East Baltimore. The university also consists of the Peabody Institute, the Applied Physics Laboratory, the Paul H. Nitze School of Advanced International Studies, the education school, the Carey Business School, and various other facilities.


  • History 1
    • The philanthropist and the founding 1.1
    • Early years and Daniel Coit Gilman 1.2
    • Move to Homewood and early 20th century history 1.3
    • The post-war era 1.4
    • In the twenty-first century 1.5
    • Civil rights 1.6
      • African-Americans 1.6.1
      • Women 1.6.2
      • Freedom of speech 1.6.3
  • Campuses 2
    • Homewood 2.1
    • East Baltimore 2.2
    • Downtown Baltimore 2.3
    • Washington, D.C. 2.4
    • Laurel, Maryland 2.5
    • Other campuses 2.6
      • Domestic 2.6.1
      • International 2.6.2
  • Organization 3
  • Academics 4
    • Undergraduate admissions 4.1
    • Rankings 4.2
    • Libraries 4.3
    • Johns Hopkins University Press 4.4
  • Research 5
    • Research centers and institutes 5.1
      • Divisional 5.1.1
      • Medical 5.1.2
      • Others 5.1.3
  • Student life 6
    • Student Organizations 6.1
    • Traditions 6.2
    • Housing 6.3
  • Athletics 7
    • Men's lacrosse 7.1
    • Women's lacrosse 7.2
    • Other teams 7.3
  • Noted people 8
    • Nobel laureates 8.1
  • See also 9
  • References 10
  • External links 11


The philanthropist and the founding

On his death in 1873, Johns Hopkins, a Quaker entrepreneur and childless bachelor, bequeathed $7 million (between $140 million to $1.6 billion in 2011 dollars, by varying estimates) to fund a hospital and university in Baltimore, Maryland.[15] At that time this fortune, generated primarily from the Baltimore and Ohio Railroad,[16] was the largest philanthropic gift in the history of the United States.[6]

The first name of philanthropist Johns Hopkins is the surname of his great-grandmother, Margaret Johns, who married Gerard Hopkins. They named their son Johns Hopkins, who named his own son Samuel Hopkins. Samuel named one of his sons after his father and that son would be the university's benefactor. Milton Eisenhower, a former university president, once spoke at a convention in Pittsburgh where the Master of Ceremonies introduced him as "President of John Hopkins." Eisenhower retorted that he was "glad to be here in Pittburgh."[17]

The original board opted for an entirely novel university model dedicated to the discovery of knowledge at an advanced level, extending that of contemporary Germany. Johns Hopkins thereby became the model of the modern research university in the United States. Its success eventually shifted higher education in the United States from a focus on teaching revealed and/or applied knowledge to the scientific discovery of new knowledge. The founders intended the university to be national in scope to strengthen ties across a divided country in the aftermath of the

Media related to at Wikimedia Commons

  • Official website
  • Official athletics website

External links

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  121. ^ "The Nobel Prize in Physics 2011".  


See also

[121] in 2011. Adam Riess and [120] in 2002 Riccardo Giacconi Two Johns Hopkins laureates won Nobel Prizes in Physics, [119] won the 1981 Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine.Torsten N. Wiesel and David H. Hubel and [118] won the 1978 Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine,Hamilton O. Smith and Daniel Nathans [117] won the 1944 Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine,Herbert Spencer Gasser and Joseph Erlanger [116] Four Nobel Prizes were shared by Johns Hopkins laureates: [114] Eighteen Johns Hopkins laureates have won the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine.

As of 2011, there have been 37 Nobel Laureates who either attended the university as undergraduate or graduate students, or were faculty members.[114] Woodrow Wilson, who received his PhD from Johns Hopkins in 1886, was Hopkins' first affiliated laureate, winning the Nobel Peace Prize in 1919.[114][115] Twenty-three laureates were faculty members, five earned PhDs, eight earned M.D.s, and Francis Peyton Rous and Martin Rodbell earned undergraduate degrees.

Nobel laureates

Noted people

The Johns Hopkins squash team plays in the College Squash Association as a club team along with Division I and III varsity programs. In 2011-12m the squash team finished 30th in the ranking.[113]

The Swimming team ranked highly in NCAA Division III for the last 10 years, most recently placing second at DIII Nationals in 2008. The Water Polo team was number one in Division III for several of the past years, playing a full schedule against Division I opponents. Hopkins also has a century-old rivalry with McDaniel College (formerly Western Maryland College), playing the Green Terrors 83 times in football since the first game in 1894. In 2009 the football team reached the quarterfinals of the NCAA Division III tournament, with three tournament appearances since 2005. In 2008, the baseball team ranked second, losing in the final game of the DIII College World Series to Trinity College.[112]

Hopkins has an acclaimed fencing team, which ranked in the top three Division III teams in the past few years and in both 2008 and 2007 defeated the University of North Carolina, a Division I team. In 2008, they defeated UNC and won the MACFA championship.

Hopkins has notable Division III Athletic teams. JHU Men's Swimming won three consecutive NCAA Championships in 1977, 1978, and 1979.[111] In 2009–2010, Hopkins won 8 Centennial Conference titles in Women's Cross Country, Women's Track & Field, Baseball, Men's and Women's Soccer, Football, and Men's and Women's Tennis. The Women's Cross Country team became the first women's team at Hopkins to achieve a #1 National ranking. In 2006–2007 teams won Centennial Conference titles in Baseball, Men's and Women's Soccer, Men's and Women's Tennis and Men's Basketball. Women's soccer won their Centennial Conference title for 7 consecutive years from 2005-2011.

Other teams

The women's team is a member of the American Lacrosse Conference (ALC). The team is developing into a top twenty team. The Lady Blue Jays were ranked number 19 in the 2008 Inside Lacrosse Women's DI Media Poll (ILWDIMP). They ranked number 8 in both the 2007 Intercollegiate Women's Lacrosse Coaches Association (IWLCA) Poll for Division I and the ILWDIMP. In 2006, they were ranked 14th in the ILWDIMP, in 2005, they were 11th, and, in 2004, they were 9th. The team finished the 2012 season with a 9-9 record and finished the 2013 season with a 10-7 record.

Women's lacrosse

On June 3, 2013, it was announced that the Blue Jays would join the Big Ten Conference for lacrosse when that league begins sponsoring the sport in the 2015 season (2014–15 school year).

The school's most prominent team is its men's lacrosse team. The team has won 44 national titles – nine Division I (2007, 2005, 1987, 1985, 1984, 1980, 1979, 1978, 1974), 29 United States Intercollegiate Lacrosse Association (USILA), and six Intercollegiate Lacrosse Association (ILA) titles. Hopkins' primary national rivals are Princeton University, Syracuse University, and the University of Virginia; its primary intrastate rivals are Loyola University Maryland (competing in what is called the "Charles Street Massacre"), Towson University, the United States Naval Academy, and the University of Maryland. The rivalry with Maryland is the oldest. The schools have met 111 times since 1899, three times in playoff matches.

Johns Hopkins Men's Lacrosse at Homewood Field

Men's lacrosse

Athletic teams are called Blue Jays. Even though sable and gold are used for academic robes, the university's athletic colors are Columbia blue (PMS 284) and black.[110] Hopkins celebrates Homecoming in the spring to coincide with the height of the lacrosse season. The Men's and Women's lacrosse teams are in National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA) Division I. Other teams are in Division III and participate in the Centennial Conference. JHU is also home to the Lacrosse Museum and National Hall of Fame, maintained by US Lacrosse.

Athletics logo


Students determine where they will live during Sophomore more through a housing lottery. Juniors and seniors may choose between entering this lottery or moving into nearby apartments or row-houses. Non-freshmen in university housing occupy one of four buildings: McCoy Hall, the Bradford Apartments, the Homewood Apartments, and Charles Commons.[109] All are located in Charles Village within a block from the Homewood campus

[108], subunits named for figures from the university's early history. Freshmen are also housed in Wolman Hall and the terrace floor of McCoy Hall, both located slightly outside the campus.houses Freshman housing is centered around Freshman Quad, which consists of three residence hall complexes: The two Alumni Memorial Residences (AMR I and AMR II) plus Buildings A and B. The AMR dormitories are each divided into [107]Living on campus is typically required for first- and second-year undergraduates.
Alumni Memorial Residence I, a freshman dormitory


A major annual festivity is the Johns Hopkins Spring Fair, held on the Homewood campus over a three-day weekend in mid-to-late April. Food, arts and crafts, and non–profit vendors, along with a popular musical act and various other activities attract nearly 25,000 people from the greater Baltimore–Washington area. The Spring Fair is the largest entirely student–run fair in the country. Another annual event is the Lighting of the Quad, a ceremony each winter during which the campus is lit up in holiday lights. Recent years have included singing and fireworks.

While it has been speculated that Johns Hopkins has relatively few traditions for a school of its age and that many past traditions have been forgotten, a handful of myths and customs are ubiquitous knowledge among the community.[106] One such long-standing myth surrounds the university seal that is embedded into the floor of the Gilman Hall foyer. The myth holds that any current student to step on the seal will never graduate. In reverence for this tradition, the seal has been fenced off from the rest of the room.

Lighting of the Quad


Student Organizations

Quality of life is enriched by the proximity of neighboring academic institutions, including Loyola College, Maryland Institute College of Art (MICA), UMBC, Goucher College, and Towson University, as well as the nearby neighborhoods of Hampden, the Inner Harbor, Fells Point, and Mount Vernon.

Hopkins invested in improving campus life with an arts complex in 2001, the Mattin Center, and a three–story sports facility, the O'Connor Recreation Center. The large on–campus dining facilities at Homewood were renovated in the summer of 2006.

Charles Village, the region of North Baltimore surrounding the university, has undergone several restoration projects, and the university has gradually bought the property around the school for additional student housing and dormitories. The Charles Village Project, completed in 2008, brought new commercial spaces to the neighborhood. The project included Charles Commons, a new, modern residence hall that includes popular retail franchises.[104][105]

Students socializing on The Beach, with Homewood House in the background

Student life


Research centers and institutes

The Johns Hopkins Digital Media Center (DMC) is a multimedia lab space as well as an equipment, technology and knowledge resource for students interested in exploring creative uses of emerging media and use of technology.[94]

In FY 2000, Johns Hopkins received $95.4 million in research grants from the [9]

[91] citations published in Thomson Reuters-indexed journals over 22 fields in in the number of Max Planck Society and the Harvard University3 globally (after #Between 1999 and 2009, Johns Hopkins was among the most cited institutions in the world. It attracted nearly 1,222,166 citations and produced 54,022 papers under its name, ranking
Installing a New Horizons Imager at the APL

The opportunity to participate in important research is one of the distinguishing characteristics of Hopkins' undergraduate education. About 80 percent of undergraduates perform independent research, often alongside top researchers.[48][89] In FY 2009, Johns Hopkins received $1.856 billion in federal research grants—more than any other US university.[9] Thirty-seven (37) Nobel Prize winners have been affiliated with the university as alumni or faculty members.[90]


The Johns Hopkins University Press is the publishing division of the Johns Hopkins University. It was founded in 1878 and holds the distinction of being the oldest continuously running university press in the United States.[88] To date the Press has published more than 6,000 titles and currently publishes 65 scholarly periodicals and over 200 new books each year. Since 1993, the Johns Hopkins University Press has run Project MUSE, an online collection of over 250 full–text, peer–reviewed journals in the humanities and social sciences. The Press also houses the Hopkins Fulfilment Services (HFS), which handles distribution for a number of university presses and publishers. Taken together, the three divisions of the Press—Books, Journals (including MUSE) and HFS—make it one of the largest of America's university presses.

Johns Hopkins University Press

The main library, constructed in the 1960s, was named for Milton S. Eisenhower, former president of the university and brother of former U.S. president Dwight D. Eisenhower. The university's stacks had previously been housed in Gilman Hall and departmental libraries.[86] Only two of the Eisenhower library's six stories are above ground, though the building was designed so that every level receives natural light. The design accords with campus lore that no structure can be taller than Gilman Hall, the flagship academic building. A four-story expansion to the library, known as the Brody Learning Commons, opened in August 2012. The expansion features an energy-efficient, state-of-the-art technology infrastructure and includes study spaces, seminar rooms, and a rare books collection.[87]

campus. Peabody Institute and includes ten main divisions across the university's campuses. The largest segment of this system is the Sheridan Libraries, encompassing the [85]The Johns Hopkins University Library system houses more than 3.6 million volumes
The George Peabody Library


In 2009, JHU ranked fifth among US universities in private fund–raising, collecting $433.39 million.[84]

Johns Hopkins is ranked the #1 Social Media College by StudentAdvisor.[82] Several university departments have been known to actively engage on various social media platforms such as Blogs, Facebook, Twitter, YouTube, and Flickr to reach prospective students, current students, and alumni.[83]

The School of Education is ranked #1 nationally by U.S. News and World Report.[81] Although no formal rankings exist for music conservatories, the Peabody Institute is generally considered one of the most prestigious conservatories in the country, along with Juilliard and the Curtis Institute.

The Paul H. Nitze School of Advanced International Studies (SAIS) ranked #1 (2005), #2 (2007), and #2 (2009), by College of William and Mary's surveys conducted once every two years beginning in 2005, for its MA program among the world's top schools of International Affairs for those who want to pursue a policy career.

The university's graduate programs in the areas of Biological & Biomedical Sciences, Engineering (Biomedical, Electrical & Environmental), Human Development & Family Studies, Health Sciences, Humanities, Physical & Mathematical Sciences and International Affairs & Development all rank among the top-10 of their respective disciplines.[79][80]

For medical and public health research U.S. News and World Report ranks the School of Medicine #2[72] and has consistently ranked the Bloomberg School of Public Health #1[73] in the nation. The School of Nursing was ranked #1 nationally among peer institutions.[74] The Times Higher Education Supplement ranked Johns Hopkins University #3 in the world for biomedicine and life sciences.[75] Hopkins ranks #1 nationally in receipt of federal research funds and the School of Medicine is #1 among medical schools in receipt of extramural awards from the National Institutes of Health (NIH).[76] Newsweek named Johns Hopkins as the "Hottest School for Pre-meds" in 2008.[77] The Johns Hopkins Hospital was ranked as the top hospital in the United States for the eighteenth year in a row by the U.S. News and World Report annual ranking of American hospitals.[78]

In 2014, Hopkins was ranked 11th by the first U.S. News Global University Rankings.[60] At the undergraduate level, Johns Hopkins was ranked #12 among National Universities by U.S. News and World Report (USNWR).[61] It is ranked #1 in the nation in the high school counselor reputation rankings.[62] The 2012 Academic Ranking of World Universities (ARWU) ranked Hopkins #17 internationally (#15 nationally) and 3rd in the world for Clinical Medicine and Pharmacy.[63] In 2010, Johns Hopkins ranked 13th in the Times Higher Education World University Rankings[64] and 16th in the 2011 QS World University Rankings.[65][66][67] Johns Hopkins also placed #2 in the 2010 University Ranking by Academic Performance (URAP),[68] #2 in the 2011 HEEACT – Performance Ranking of Scientific Papers for World Universities,[69] ranked #7 among Top Performing Schools according to the Faculty Scholarly Productivity Index (FSPI) in 2008,[70] and was listed #9 among research universities by the Center for Measuring University Performance in 2007.[71]

University rankings
ARWU[55] 15
U.S. News & World Report[56] 12
ARWU[57] 17
QS[58] 14
Times[59] 14


Year Applicants Growth Acceptance rate Accepted Enrolled Yield
2014 23,877 15.8% 15.0% 3,587 1418[50] 39.5%
2013 20,614 0.53% 16.8% 3,519 1,320[52] 37.5%
2012 20,504 5.94% 17.7% 3,632 1,362[53] 37.5%
2011 19,355 4.04% 18.3% 3,550 1,287[54] 37%
2010 18,455 14.5% 20.4% 3,764 1,235 33%
2009 16,123 0.7% 26.8% 4,318 1,350 31%
2008 16,006 7.7% 25.3% 4,056 1,238[51] 31%
2007 14,858 7.17% 24.2% 3,603 1,206[51] 33%

In 2010, 87% of admitted students graduated in the top tenth of their high school class and the inter-quartile range on the SAT reading was 670–750, math was 690–780, and writing was 670–770. 97% of freshmen returned after the first year, 84% of students graduated in 4 years and 92% graduated in 6 years.[51] The average GPA of enrolled freshmen is 3.74. Over time, applications to Johns Hopkins University have risen steadily. As a result, the selectivity of Johns Hopkins University has also increased. Early Decision is an option at Johns Hopkins University for students who wish to demonstrate that the university is their first choice. These students, if admitted, are required to enroll. This application is due November 1. Most students, however, apply Regular Decision, which is a traditional non-binding round. These applications are due January 1 and students are notified April 1.

Johns Hopkins University[50]
Class of 2018 Applicants 23,877
Class of 2018 Admitted 3,587 (15.0%)
SAT Range (2400) 2120 - 2310

Undergraduate admissions

The full-time, four-year undergraduate program is "most selective"[47] with low transfer-in and a high graduate co-existence.[48] The cost of attendance per year is $60,820; however, the average need met is 99%.[49] The university is one of fourteen founding members of the Association of American Universities (AAU); it is also a member of the Consortium on Financing Higher Education (COFHE) and the Universities Research Association (URA).


JHU's bylaws specify a Board of Trustees of between 18 and 65 voting members. Trustees serve six–year terms subject to a two–term limit. The alumni select 12 trustees. Four recent alumni serve 4-year terms, one per year, typically from the graduating class. The bylaws prohibit students, faculty or administrative staff from serving on the Board, except the President as an ex–officio trustee.[45] The Johns Hopkins Health System has a separate Board of Trustees, many of whom are doctors or health care executives.[46]

The Johns Hopkins entity is structured as two corporations, the university and The Johns Hopkins Health System, formed in 1986. The President is JHU's chief executive officer, and the university is organized into nine academic divisions.[44]




see also List of Johns Hopkins University Research Centers and Institutes

Other campuses

The Applied Physics Laboratory, a division of the university co-equal to the nine schools but with a non-academic mission, lies between Baltimore and Washington in Laurel, Maryland.

Laurel, Maryland

The Washington, D.C. campus is on Massachusetts Avenue, towards the Southeastern end of Embassy Row.

Washington D.C. Campus (SAIS)

Washington, D.C.

  • Carey Business School: The Carey Business School was established in 2007, incorporating divisions of the former School of Professional Studies in Business and Education. It was originally located on Charles Street, but relocated to the Legg Mason building in Harbor East in 2011.
  • Peabody Institute: founded in 1857, is the oldest continuously active music conservatory in the United States; it became a division of Johns Hopkins in 1977. The Conservatory retains its own student body and grants degrees in musicology and performance, though both Hopkins and Peabody students may take courses at both institutions. It is located on East Mount Vernon Place.
Peabody Institute

Downtown Baltimore

  • School of Medicine: The School of Medicine is widely regarded as one of the best medical schools and biomedical research institutes in the world.[32][33]
  • Bloomberg School of Public Health: The Bloomberg School was founded in 1916, the world's first and largest public health school. It has consistently been ranked first in its field.[34]
  • School of Nursing: The School of Nursing is one of America's oldest and pre-eminent schools for nursing education. It has consistently ranked first in the nation.[35]

Collectively known as Johns Hopkins Medical Institutions (JHMI) campus, the East Baltimore facility occupies several city blocks spreading from the Johns Hopkins Hospital trademark dome.

Johns Hopkins Hospital

East Baltimore

The first campus was located on Howard Street. Eventually, they relocated to Homewood, in northern Baltimore, the estate of Charles Carroll, son of the oldest surviving signer of the Declaration of Independence. Carroll's Homewood House is considered one of the finest examples of Federal residential architecture. The estate then came to the Wyman family, which participated in making it the park-like main campus of the schools of arts and sciences and engineering at the start of the 20th century. Most of its architecture was modeled after the Federal style of Homewood House. Homewood House is preserved as a museum. Most undergraduate programs are on this campus.

  • Zanvyl Krieger School of Arts and Sciences: The Krieger School offers more than 60 undergraduate majors and minors and more than 40 graduate programs.[30]
  • G.W.C. Whiting School of Engineering: The Whiting School contains 14 undergraduate and graduate engineering programs and 12 additional areas of study.[31]
  • School of Education: Originally established in 1909 as The School of Professional Studies in Business and Education, the divisions of Education and Business became separate schools in 2007.
View toward Gilman Hall from Levering Plaza on the Homewood Campus


Main Campuses & Divisions
Homewood East Baltimore
(Medical Institutions Campus)
Downtown Baltimore Washington D.C. Laurel, Maryland
School of Arts and Sciences
School of Education
School of Engineering
School of Nursing
School of Medicine
School of Public Health
Peabody Institute
School of Business
School of Advanced International Studies
Applied Physics Laboratory


On September 5, 2013 cryptographer and Johns Hopkins university professor Matthew Green posted a blog, entitled "On the NSA", in which he contributed to the ongoing debate regarding the role of NIST and NSA in formulating U.S. cryptography standards. On September 9, 2013 Professor Green received a take-down request for the "On the NSA" blog from interim Dean Andrew Douglas from the Johns Hopkins University Whiting School of Engineering.[28] The request cited concerns that the blog had links to sensitive material. The blog linked to already published news articles from the Guardian, The New York Times and Dean Andrew Douglas subsequently issued a personal on-line apology to professor Green.[29] The event raised concern over the future of academic freedom of speech within the cryptologic research community.

Freedom of speech

Hopkins' most well–known battle for women's rights was the one led by daughters of trustees of the university; Mary E. Garrett, M. Carey Thomas, Mamie Gwinn, Elizabeth King, and Julia Rogers.[26] They donated and raised the funds needed to open the medical school, and required Hopkins' officials to agree to their stipulation that women would be admitted. The nursing school opened in 1889 and accepted women and men as students. Other graduate schools were later opened to women by president Ira Remsen in 1907. Christine Ladd-Franklin was the first woman to earn a PhD at Hopkins, in mathematics in 1882. The trustees denied her the degree for decades and refused to change the policy about admitting women. In 1893, Florence Bascomb became the university's first female PhD.[26] The decision to admit women at undergraduate level was not considered until the late 1960s and was eventually adopted in October 1969. As of 2009–2010, the undergraduate population was 47% female and 53% male.[27]


The first black undergraduate entered the school in 1945 and graduate students followed in 1967. James Nabwangu, a British-trained Kenyan, was the first black graduate of the medical school.[25] The first African-American instructor was laboratory supervisor Vivien Thomas, who was instrumental in developing and conducting the first successful blue baby operation. Despite such cases, racial diversity did not become commonplace at Johns Hopkins institutions until the 1960s and 1970s.

Hopkins was a prominent abolitionist who supported Abraham Lincoln during the American Civil War. After his death, reports said his conviction was a decisive factor in enrolling Hopkins' first African-American student, Kelly Miller, a graduate student in physics, astronomy and mathematics.[24] As time passed, the university adopted a "separate but equal" stance more like other Baltimore institutions.


Civil rights

These years also brought about the rapid development of the university's professional schools of education and business. From 1999 until 2007, these disciplines had been joined together within the School of Professional Studies in Business and Education (SPSBE), itself a reshuffling of several earlier ventures. The 2007 split, combined with new funding and leadership initiatives, has led to the simultaneous emergence of the Johns Hopkins School of Education and the Carey Business School.[23]

The early decades of this century have seen expansion across the university's institutions in both physical and population sizes. Notably, a planned 88-acre expansion to the medical campus is well underway as of 2013.[21] Completed construction on the Homewood campus has included a new biomedical engineering building, a new library, a new biology wing, and an extensive renovation of the flagship Gilman Hall, while the reconstruction of the main university entrance is currently underway and expected to be completed by the end of 2014.[22]

In the twenty-first century

Programs in international studies and the performing arts were established in 1950 and 1977 when the Paul H. Nitze School of Advanced International Studies in Washington D.C and the Peabody Institute in Baltimore became divisions of the university.

Since 1942, the Johns Hopkins Applied Physics Laboratory (APL) has served as a major governmental defense contractor. In tandem with on-campus research, Johns Hopkins has every year since 1979 had the highest federal research funding of any American university.

The post-war era

Presidents of the university
Name Term
Daniel Coit Gilman May 1875 – August 1901
Ira Remsen September 1901 – January 1913
Frank Goodnow October 1914 – June 1929
Joseph Sweetman Ames July 1929 – June 1935
Isaiah Bowman July 1935 – December 1948
Detlev Bronk January 1949 – August 1953
Lowell Reed September 1953 – June 1956
Milton S. Eisenhower July 1956 – June 1967
Lincoln Gordon July 1967 – March 1971
Milton S. Eisenhower March 1971 – January 1972
Steven Muller February 1972 – June 1990
William C. Richardson July 1990 – July 1995
Daniel Nathans June 1995 – August 1996
William R. Brody August 1996 – February 2009
Ronald J. Daniels March 2009–Present

Since the 1910s, Johns Hopkins University has famously been a "fertile cradle" to Arthur Lovejoy's history of ideas.[20]

In 1909, the university was among the first to start adult continuing education programs and in 1916 it founded the US' first school of public health.

style of other historic American universities. Collegiate Gothic flavour of the campus as compared to the local style of Homewood House became the architectural inspiration for much of the university campus. This fact explains the distinctively Federal, still stands and serves as an on-campus museum. The brick and marble Homewood House. The original structure, the 1801 Charles Carroll Jr, to his son Declaration of Independence, a Maryland planter and signer of the Charles Carroll of CarrolltonPrior to becoming the main Johns Hopkins campus, the Homewood estate had initially been the gift of
Maryland Hall, second home of the Whiting School of Engineering
, coalescing in the contemporary area of 140 acres (57 ha). Baltimore Museum of Art followed in 1916. These decades saw the ceding of lands by the university for the public Wyman Park and Wyman Park Dell and the School of Arts and Sciences relocated in Fall of 1914 and the School of Engineering. On February 22, 1902, this land was formally transferred to the university. The flagship building, Gilman Hall, was completed in 1915. The HomewoodIn the early 20th century the university outgrew its buildings and the trustees began to search for a new home. Developing Clifton for the university was too costly, and so the estate was sold as a public park. A solution was achieved by a team of prominent locals who acquired the estate in north Baltimore known as
Gilman Hall, flagship building of the Homewood campus

Move to Homewood and early 20th century history

In his will and in his instructions to the trustees of the university and the hospital, Hopkins requested that both institutions be built upon the vast grounds of his Baltimore estate, Clifton. When Gilman assumed the presidency, he decided that it would be best to use the university's endowment for recruiting faculty and students, deciding to "build men, not buildings." In his will Hopkins stipulated that none of his endowment should be used for construction; only interest on the principal could be used for this purpose. Unfortunately, stocks in The Baltimore and Ohio Railroad, which would have generated most of the interest, became virtually worthless soon after Hopkins's death. The university's first home was thus in Downtown Baltimore delaying plans to site the university in Clifton. This decision became the only major criticism of Gilman's presidency.

was America's first coeducational, graduate-level medical school, and became a prototype for academic medicine that emphasized bedside learning, research projects, and laboratory training. school of medicine, who had endowed the school at Gilman's request. The Mary E. Garrett, based on the efforts of Bachelors degree. During this period Hopkins made more history by becoming the first medical school to admit women on an equal basis with men and to require a William Welch, and Howard Kelly, William Halsted, William Osler in 1893, the university's research–focused mode of instruction soon began attracting world-renowned faculty members who would become major figures in the emerging field of academic medicine, including medical school in 1889 and the Johns Hopkins HospitalWith the completion of
Johns Hopkins Hospital

Gilman focused on the expansion of graduate education and support of faculty research. The new university fused advanced scholarship with such professional schools as medicine and engineering. Hopkins became the national trendsetter in doctoral programs and the host for numerous scholarly journals and associations. The Johns Hopkins University Press, founded in 1878, is the oldest American university press in continuous operation.

, who became the second president of the university in 1901. Ira Remsen; and the chemist Richard T. Ely the economist [19] and Charles D. Morris;Basil Gildersleeve classical scholars), the American Physical Society (the first president of the Henry A. Rowland; the physicist H. Newell Martin; the biologist James Joseph SylvesterGilman launched what many at the time considered an audacious and unprecedented academic experiment to merge teaching and research. He dismissed the idea that the two were mutually exclusive: "The best teachers are usually those who are free, competent and willing to make original researches in the library and the laboratory," he stated. To implement his plan, Gilman recruited internationally known luminaries such as the mathematician
Hopkins Hall circa 1885, on the original downtown Baltimore campus
[18].Alexander von Humboldt and other German universities. Johns Hopkins would become the first American university committed to research by the German education model of University of Freiburg visited Gilman prior to this appointment. In preparation for the university's founding, University of California-educated scholar, had been serving as president of the Yale to lead the new University as its first president. Gilman, a Daniel Coit Gilman – who each vouched for Michigan of James B. Angell, and Cornell of Andrew D. White, Harvard of Charles W. EliotThe trustees worked alongside three notable university presidents -
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