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King David

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King David

This article is about the biblical king. For other uses, see David (disambiguation).
"King David" redirects here. For other uses, see King David (disambiguation).
David
King of Judah
King of Israel
Basilica di Santa Maria Maggiore
Reign c. 1010 – 1002 BC (Judah)
c. 1002 – 970 BC (Israel)[1]
Born c. 1040 BC
Birthplace Bethlehem, Judah, Israel
Died c. 970 BC
Place of death Jerusalem, Judah, Israel
Buried City of David
Predecessor Saul
Ish-bosheth
Successor Solomon
Consort Michal
Ahinoam
Abigail
Maachah
Haggith
Abital
Eglah
Bathsheba
Issue Amnon
Chileab
Absalom
Adonijah
Shephatiah
Ithream
Shammua
Shobab
Nathan
Solomon
Ibhar
Elishua
Nepheg
Japhia
Elishama
Eliada
Eliphalet
Royal House House of David
Father Jesse
Mother Nitzevet (Talmud)

David (; ISO 259-3 Dawid; Arabic: داودDāwūd; Strong's: Daveed) according to the Hebrew Bible, was the second king of the United Kingdom of Israel, and according to the New Testament Gospels of Matthew and Luke, an ancestor of Jesus. His life is conventionally dated to c. 1040–970 BC, his reign over Judah c. 1010–1002 BC, and his reign over the United Kingdom of Israel c. 1002–970 BC.[1]

The Books of Samuel, 1 Kings, and 1 Chronicles are the only sources of information on David, although the Tel Dan Stele (dated c. 850–835 BC) contains the phrase ביתדוד (bytdwd), read as "House of David", which most scholars take as confirmation of the existence in the mid-9th century BC of a Judean royal dynasty called the House of David.[2]

He is depicted as a righteous king, although not without faults, as well as an acclaimed warrior, musician, and poet, traditionally credited for composing many of the psalms contained in the Book of Psalms.

David is central to Jewish, Christian, and Islamic doctrine and culture. Biblical tradition maintains that a direct descendant of David will be the Messiah, and in Islam he is considered to be a prophet.

Biblical narrative


Saul rejected

Main article: Saul

According to the biblical narrative, the prophet Samuel sought a new king from the sons of Jesse of Bethlehem. Jesse had seven of his sons pass before Samuel, but Samuel said to him, "The Lord has not chosen these.” So he asked Jesse, "Are these all the sons you have?" "There is still the youngest," Jesse answered. “He is tending the sheep." Samuel said, "Send for him; we will not sit down until he arrives." So he sent for him and had him brought in. He was ruddy and handsome. Then the Lord said, "Rise and anoint him; this is the one." So Samuel took the horn of oil and anointed him in the presence of his brothers, and from that day on the Spirit of the Lord came powerfully upon David. Samuel then went to Ramah.[3]

At the court of Saul

An evil spirit from the Lord tormented Saul (1 Samuel 16:14) and his attendants suggested he send for David, a young warrior famed for his bravery and for his skill with the harp. Saul did so, and made David one of his armor-bearers. From then on, "whenever the spirit from God came upon Saul, David would take his harp and play. Then relief would come to Saul; he would feel better, and the evil spirit would leave him."

David and Goliath

Main article: Goliath

The Israelites, under King Saul, faced the Philistines near the Valley of Elah. He heard the Philistine giant Goliath challenge the Israelites to send their own champion to decide the outcome in single combat; Goliath used to regularly stand opposite the Israelite camp and shout insults concerning King Saul and the Israelite people. But neither the soldiers nor King Saul himself had the courage to face the Philistine adversary. David told Saul he was prepared to face Goliath alone. Saul tried to fit him with a suit of armor, but none were small enough. David decided to face the giant without armor. He picked five smooth stones from a nearby brook. David struck Goliath in the forehead with a stone from his sling. Goliath fell dead. David took Goliath's sword and beheaded him. The Philistines fled in terror. Saul inquired about the name of the young champion, and David told him that he was the son of Jesse.[4]


David and Jonathan

Main article: David and Jonathan

Saul made David a commander over his armies and offered him his daughter Michal in marriage for bringing 100 foreskins of the Philistines but David brought back 200, saying "God was with me". David was successful in many battles, and his popularity awakened Saul's fears — "What more can he have but the kingdom?" By various stratagems the jealous king sought his death, but the plots only endeared David the more to the people, and especially to Saul's son Jonathan, who loved David (1 Samuel 18:1, 2 Samuel 1:25–26).[5][6] Warned by Jonathan, David fled into the wilderness, where he gathered a band of followers and became the champion of the oppressed while evading the pursuit of Saul. He accepted the town of Ziklag from the Philistine king Achish of Gath, but continued secretly to champion the Israelites. Achish marched against Saul, but David is excused from the war on the accusation of the Philistine nobles that his loyalty to their cause cannot be trusted.

Proclaimed king

Jonathan and Saul are killed in battle with the Philistines at Mount Gilboa. David mourned their deaths, especially that of Jonathan, his friend. He went up to Hebron, where he is anointed king over Judah. In the north, Saul's son Ish-Bosheth was anointed by Abner as King of Israel. War ensued between Ish-Bosheth and David, until Ish-Bosheth was murdered. The assassins brought the head of Ish-Bosheth to David hoping for a reward, but David executed them for their crime against the Lord's anointed. Yet with the death of the son of Saul, the elders of Israel came to Hebron and David, who is 30 years old, was anointed King over Israel and Judah.[7]

Jerusalem and the Davidic covenant

David conquered the Jebusite fortress of Jerusalem, and made it his capital. "Hiram king of Tyre sent messengers to David, and cedar trees, also carpenters and masons who built David a house." David brought the Ark of the Covenant to Jerusalem, intending to build a temple, but God, speaking through the prophet Nathan, announced that the temple would be built at a future date by one of David's sons (Solomon). God made a covenant with David, promising that He will establish the house of David : "Your throne shall be established forever."

With God's help, David was victorious over his people's enemies. The Philistines were subdued, the Moabites to the east paid tribute, along with Hadadezer of Zobah, from whom David took gold shields and bronze vessels.[8]

Bathsheba and Uriah the Hittite

David committed 2 Samuel 12:14).

David 2 Samuel 12:22–23

David's son Absalom rebels

David's son Absalom rebelled against his father. They came to battle in the Wood of Ephraim. Absalom was caught by his hair in the branches of an oak and David’s general Joab killed him as he hung there.[11] When the news of the victory is brought to David, he did not rejoice, but was instead shaken with grief: "O my son Absalom, my son, my son Absalom! Would I had died instead of you, O Absalom, my son, my son!"[12]

Death

When David had become old and bedridden, Adonijah, his eldest surviving son and natural heir, declared himself king and worthy to marry Abishag. Bathsheba, David's favorite wife, and Nathan the prophet went to David and procured his agreement that Solomon, Bathsheba's son, should sit on the throne. Thus, the plans of Adonijah collapsed, and Solomon became king.[13] It is to Solomon that David gave his final instructions, including his promise that the line of Solomon and David will inherit the throne of Judah forever, and his request that Solomon kill his oldest enemies on his behalf.[14] David died and was buried on Mount Zion, which was in close proximity to the City of David, having ruled forty years over Israel, seven in Hebron and thirty-three in Jerusalem.

Family


David was born in Bethlehem, in the territory of the Tribe of Judah. His grandfather was Obed, whose mother was the Moabite Ruth and whose grandmother was the prostitute Rahab, who are two of the most famous women of the Bible, even though they were "goyim", i.e. they did not belong to the chosen people.[15] David's father was named Jesse. His mother is not named in the Bible, but the Talmud identifies her as Nitzevet daughter of Adael.[16] David had seven brothers and was the youngest of them all. David also had two sisters, Zeruiah and Abigail.[17] He had eight wives: Michal, the second daughter of King Saul; Ahinoam the Jezreelite; Abigail the Carmelite, previously wife of Nabal;[18] Maachah, daughter of Talmai, king of Geshur; Haggith; Abital; Eglah; and Bathsheba, previously the wife of Uriah the Hittite.

The Mephibosheth to his table after giving him the land which previously belonged to King Saul.

David also had at least one daughter, 2 Samuel 13

Historicity

Archaeology

Two archaeological finds, the Tel Dan Stele and the Mesha Stele, have direct bearing on the question of the existence of a historical David. The first of these is an Aramean victory stele (inscribed stone) discovered in 1993 at Tel Dan and dated c. 850–835 BC: it contains the phrase ביתדוד (bytdwd), and the reading "House of David" for this "is now widely accepted"[by whom?]. [19] The Mesha Stele from Moab, dating from approximately the same period, may also contain the name David in line 12, where the interpretation is uncertain, and in line 31, where one destroyed letter must be supplied.[20]

The evidence from surface surveys indicates that Judah at the time of David was a small tribal kingdom.[21] The Bronze and Iron Age remains of the City of David, the original urban core of Jerusalem identified with the reigns of David and Solomon, were investigated extensively in the 1970s and 1980s under the direction of Yigal Shiloh of the Hebrew University, but failed to discover significant evidence of occupation during the 10th century BC.[22] In 2005 Eilat Mazar reported the discovery of a Large Stone Structure which she claimed was David's palace,[23] but the site is contaminated and cannot be accurately dated.[24]

The biblical account

The biblical account about David comes from the Books of Samuel and the Books of Chronicles. Chronicles merely retells Samuel from a different theological vantage point, and contains little (if any) information not available there, and the biblical evidence for David is therefore dependent almost exclusively on the material contained in the chapters from 1 Samuel 16 to 1 Kings 2.


Since Martin Noth put forward his analysis of the Deuteronomistic history, biblical scholars have accepted that these two books form part of a continuous history of Israel, compiled no earlier than the late 7th century BCE, but incorporating earlier works and fragments. Samuel's account of David "seems to have undergone two separate acts of editorial slanting." The original writers show a strong bias against Saul, and in favour of David and Solomon. Many years later the Deuteronomists edited the material in a manner that conveyed their religious message, inserting reports and anecdotes that strengthened their monotheistic doctrine. Some of the materials in Samuel I and II — notably the boundary, allotment and administrative lists — are believed to be very early, since they correspond closely to what we know of the territorial conditions of the late Davidic-early Solomonic period.[25]

Beyond this, the full range of possible interpretations is available. The late John Bright, in his History of Israel (which went through four editions from 1959 to 2000), takes Samuel at face value. Donald B. Redford, however, thinks all reconstructions from Biblical sources for the United Monarchy period are examples of "academic wishful thinking".[26] Thomas L. Thompson rejects the historicity of the biblical narrative, "The history of Palestine and of its peoples is very different from the Bible's narratives, whatever political claims to the contrary may be. An independent history of Judea during the Iron I and Iron II periods has little room for historicizing readings of the stories of I-II Samuel and I Kings."[27] Amihai Mazar however, concludes that based on recent archeological findings, like those in City of David, Khirbet Qeiyafa, Tel Dan, Tel Rehov, Khirbet en-Nahas and others "the deconstruction of United Monarchy and the devaluation of Judah as a state in 9th century is unacceptable interpretation of available historic data". According to Mazar, based on archeological evidences, United Monarchy can be described as a "state in development"[28]

Some studies of David have been written: Baruch Halpern has pictured David as a lifelong vassal of Achish, the Philistine king of Gath;[29] Israel Finkelstein and Neil Asher Silberman have identified as the oldest and most reliable section of Samuel those chapters which describe David as the charismatic leader of a band of outlaws who captures Jerusalem and makes it his capital.[30] Steven McKenzie, Associate Professor of the Hebrew Bible at Rhodes College and author of King David: A Biography, states the belief that David actually came from a wealthy family, was "ambitious and ruthless" and a tyrant who murdered his opponents, including his own sons.[31]

Physical descriptions

1 Samuel 16:12 "And he sent and brought him in. Now he was ruddy and had beautiful eyes and was handsome. And the LORD said, "Arise, anoint him, for this is he." - Holy Bible; English Standard Version.[32] 1 Samuel 17:41-43 "And the Philistine moved forward and came near to David, with his shield-bearer in front of him. And when the Philistine looked and saw David, he disdained him, for he was but a youth, ruddy and handsome in appearance."[33]

The Hebrew word for 'ruddy' used in the above passages is admoni (ואדמני), from the root ADM (אדם, see also Adam and Edom).[34][35][36][37] "Admoni", reddish-brown, was the ideal colour for men, and indicates David's heroic nature.[38] Despite the fact his hair is not mentioned in the passages, the description led to a later Sephardic and Ashkenazi tradition that David was a red-head.

Abrahamic religious traditions

David as Psalmist

While almost half of the Psalms are headed "A Psalm of David" (although the phrase can also be translated as "to David" or "for David") and tradition identifies several with specific events in David’s life - Psalms 3, 7, 18, 34, 51, 52, 54, 56, 57, 59, 60, 63 and 142.,[39] the headings are late additions and no psalm can be attributed to David with certainty.[31]

Judaism

King David the Prophet
Pieter de Grebber (c. 1640)
Holy Monarch, Prophet, Reformer, Spiritual Poet & Musician, Vicegerent of God, Psalm-Receiver
Born c. 1040 BC
Bethlehem
Died c. 970 BC
Jerusalem
Honored in Judaism
Christianity
Islam
Feast December 29 - Roman Catholicism
Attributes Psalms, Harp, Head of Goliath

David is an important figure in Judaism. Historically, David's reign represented the formation of a coherent Jewish kingdom centered in Jerusalem. David is an important figure within the context of Jewish messianism. In the Hebrew Bible, it is written that a human descendant of David will occupy the throne of a restored kingdom and usher in a messianic age.

David is also viewed as a tragic figure; his acquisition of Bathsheba, and the loss of his son are viewed as his central tragedies.

Many legends have grown around the figure of David. According to one Rabbinic tradition, David was raised as the son of his father Jesse and spent his early years herding his father's sheep in the wilderness while his brothers were in school. Only at his anointing by Samuel – when the oil from Samuel's flask turned to diamonds and pearls – was his true identity as Jesse's son revealed.

David's adultery with Bathsheba was only an opportunity to demonstrate the power of repentance, and the Talmud states that it was not adultery at all, quoting a Jewish practice of divorce on the eve of battle. Furthermore, according to Talmudic sources, the death of Uriah was not to be considered murder, on the basis that Uriah had committed a capital offence by refusing to obey a direct command from the King.[42] However, in tractate Sanhedrin, David's broken heart pleads and numerous actions for forgiveness are discussed, God ultimately forgives but would not remove his sins from Scripture.[43]

According to midrashim, Adam gave up 70 years of his life for the life of David.[44] Also, according to the Talmud Yerushalmi, David was born and died on the Jewish holiday of Shavuot (Feast of Weeks). His piety was said to be so great that his prayers could bring down things from Heaven.

Christianity

The concept of the Messiah is important in Christianity. Originally an earthly king ruling by divine appointment ("the anointed one", as the title Messiah had it), the "son of David" became in the last two pre-Christian centuries the apocalyptic and heavenly one who would deliver Israel and usher in a new kingdom. This was the background to the concept of Messiahship in early Christianity, which interpreted the career of Jesus "by means of the titles and functions assigned to David in the mysticism of the Zion cult, in which he served as priest-king and in which he was the mediator between God and man."[45] The early Church believed that "the life of David [foreshadowed] the life of Christ; Bethlehem is the birthplace of both; the shepherd life of David points out Christ, the Good Shepherd; the five stones chosen to slay Goliath are typical of the five wounds; the betrayal by his trusted counsellor, Achitophel, and the passage over the Cedron remind us of Christ's Sacred Passion. Many of the Davidic Psalms, as we learn from the New Testament, are clearly typical of the future Messiah."[46] In the Middle Ages, "Charlemagne thought of himself, and was viewed by his court scholars, as a 'new David'. [This was] not in itself a new idea, but [one whose] content and significance were greatly enlarged by him."[47] The linking of David to earthly kingship was reflected in later Medieval cathedral windows all over Europe through the device of the Tree of Jesse, its branches demonstrating how divine kingship descended from Jesse, through his son David, to Jesus.

Western Rite churches (Lutheran, Roman Catholic) celebrate his feast day on 29 December, Eastern-rite on 19 December.[48] The Eastern Orthodox Church and Eastern Catholic Churches celebrate the feast day of the "Holy Righteous Prophet and King David" on the Sunday of the Holy Forefathers (two Sundays before the Great Feast of the Nativity of the Lord), when he is commemorated together with other ancestors of Jesus. He is also commemorated on the Sunday after the Nativity, together with Joseph and James, the Brother of the Lord.

Latter Day Saints

In the Latter Day Saint movement, the Book of Mormon offers a negative commentary on David's practice of polygamy. In the Book of Jacob, the Nephite nation begins to practice polygamy, justifying it by the example of David and Solomon. In response the prophet Jacob denounces both David's taking of "many wives"[49] and the Nephites' taking of multiple wives,[50] though he stops short of denouncing polygamy altogether.[51]

Editions of the Doctrine and Covenants utilized by The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints, the largest Latter Day Saint denomination, state that of David's sexual relationships, only his relationship with Bathsheba was a sin. However, in consequence of this sin and the further sin of killing Uriah, David had "fallen from exaltation" and would not be married to any of his wives in the next life.[52]

The

The Community of Christ, the second-largest Latter Day Saint faction, does not accept the validity of 132nd section of the LDS Doctrine and Covenants; nor does the Church of Christ (Temple Lot), the Church of Jesus Christ (Cutlerite), and many other smaller factions. Although the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter Day Saints (Strangite) accepted the validity of polygamy as an institution, they do not accept Doctrine and Covenants 132, nor do they believe that Joseph Smith instituted or taught it (they believe that James Strang was responsible for that, when he released his Book of the Law of the Lord in 1850).

Islam

Main article: David in Islam

David (Arabic داود, Dāwūd) is a highly important figure in Islam as one of the major prophets sent by God to guide the Israelites. David is mentioned several times in the Qur'an, often with his son Solomon. The actual Arabic equivalent to the Hebrew Davīd is Dawūd. In the Qur'an: David killed Goliath (II: 251), Goliath was a powerful king who used to invade random kingdoms and villages. Goliath was spreading evil and corruption. When David killed Goliath, God granted him kingship and wisdom and enforces it (XXXVIII: 20). David is made God's "vicegerent on earth" (XXXVIII: 26) and God further gives David sound judgment (XXI: 78; XXXVII: 21–24, 26) as well as the Psalms, which are regarded as books of divine wisdom (IV: 163; XVII, 55). The birds and mountains unite with David in uttering praise to God (XXI: 79; XXXIV: 10; XXXVIII: 18), while God instructs David in the art of fashioning chain-mail out of iron (XXXIV: 10; XXI: 80). Together with Solomon, David gives judgment in a case of damage to the fields (XXI: 78) and David judges in the matter between two disputants in his prayer chamber (XXXVIII: 21–23). Since there is no mention in the Qur'an of the wrong David did to Uriah nor is there any reference to Bathsheba, Muslims reject this narrative.[54]

Muslim tradition and the hadith stress David's zeal in daily prayer[55] as well as in fasting. Qur'an commentators, historians and compilers of the numerous Stories of the Prophets elaborate upon David's concise Qur'anic narratives and specifically mention David's gift in singing his Psalms as well as his musical and vocal talents. His voice is described as having had a captivating power, weaving its influence not only over man but over all beasts and nature, who would unite with him to praise God.[56]

Baha'i Faith

In the Baha'i Faith, David is described as a reflection of God and one among a long line of prophets who came in the shadow of the dispensation of Moses to develop and consolidate the process he set in motion.[57][58] The Kitáb-i-Íqán describes David as being "among the more exalted Manifestations who have appeared during the intervening period between the revelations of Moses and Muhammad, ever altered the law of the Qiblih".[59]

Legend and legacy

In European Christian culture of the Middle Ages, David was made a member of the Nine Worthies, a group of heroes encapsulating all the ideal qualities of chivalry. His life was thus proposed as a valuable subject for study by those aspiring to chivalric status. This aspect of David in the Nine Worthies was popularised firstly through literature, and was thereafter adopted as a frequent subject for painters and sculptors.

Representation in art and literature

Art

Famous sculptures of David include (in chronological order) those by:

Literature

  • Dryden's long poem Absalom and Achitophel is an allegory that uses the story of the rebellion of Absalom against King David as the basis for his satire of the contemporary political situation, including events such as the Monmouth Rebellion (1685), the Popish Plot (1678) and the Exclusion Crisis
  • Elmer Davis's novel Giant Killer (1928, The John Day company) retells and embellishes the Biblical story of David, casting David as primarily a poet who managed always to find others to do the "dirty work" of heroism and kingship. In the novel, Elhanan in fact killed Goliath but David claimed the credit; and Joab, David's cousin and general, took it upon himself to make many of the difficult decisions of war and statecraft when David vacillated or wrote poetry instead
  • Gladys Schmitt wrote a novel titled "David the King" (1946, Doubleday Books) which proceeds as a richly embellished biography of David's entire life. The book took a risk, especially for its time, in portraying David's relationship with Jonathan as overtly homoerotic, but was ultimately panned by critics as a bland rendition of the title character
  • In Thomas Burnett Swann's Biblical fantasy novel How are the Mighty Fallen (1974, DAW), David and Jonathan are explicitly stated to be lovers. Moreover, Jonathan is a member of a winged semi-human race (possibly nephilim), one of several such races co-existing with humanity but often persecuted by it
  • Joseph Heller wrote a novel based on David, God Knows (1984, Simon & Schuster). Told from the perspective of an aging David, the humanity—rather than the heroism—of various biblical characters is emphasized. The portrayal of David as a man of flaws such as greed, lust, selfishness, and his alienation from God, the falling apart of his family is a distinctly 20th-century interpretation of the events told in the Bible
  • Juan Bosch, Dominican political leader and writer, wrote "David: Biography of a King" (1966, Hawthorn, NY) a realistic approach to David's life and political career
  • Allan Massie wrote "King David" (1996, Sceptre), a novel about David's career which portrays the king's relationship to Jonathan and others as openly homosexual
  • Madeleine L'Engle's novel Certain Women (1993, HarperOne) explores family, the Christian faith, and the nature of God through the story of King David's family and an analogous modern family's saga
  • Sir Arthur Conan Doyle used the story of David and Bathsheba as the main structure for the Sherlock Holmes story The Adventure of the Crooked Man. The betrayal of the Crooked Man is paralleled with David's betrayal of Uriah the Hittite, carried out in order to win Bathsheba
  • Stefan Heym's "The King David Report" (1998, Northwestern University Press) is a fiction depicting the writings of the Bible historian Ethan, upon King Solomon's orders, of a true and authoritative report on the life of David, Son of Jesse
  • Malachi Martin's 1980 factional novel King of Kings: A Novel of the Life of David relates the life of David, Adonai's champion in his battle with the Philistine deity Dagon
  • William Faulkner's "Absalom, Absalom!" (1936) refers to the story of Absalom, David's son; his rebellion against his father and his death at the hands of David's general, Joab. In addition it parallels Absalom's vengeance for the rape of his sister Tamar by his half-brother, Amnon.
  • Dan Jacobson's The Rape of Tamar (1970) is an imagined account, by one of David's courtiers Yonadab, of the rape of Tamar by Amnon

Film

Music

  • Josquin des Prez's Planxit autem David is a polyphonic setting of 2 Samuel, chapter one verses 17–27, David's lamentation for the dead Saul and Jonathan. His Absalon fili mi is a polyphonic lamentation from David's perspective on the death of his son.
  • George Frideric Handel's oratorio Saul features David as one of its main characters
  • Arthur Honegger's oratorio Le Roi David ('King David'), with a libretto by Rene Morax, was composed in 1921 and instantly became a staple of the choral repertoire; it is still widely performed
  • Leonard Cohen's song "Hallelujah" (1984) has references to David ("there was a secret chord that David played and it pleased the Lord", "The baffled king composing Hallelujah") and Bathsheba ("you saw her bathing on the roof") in its opening verses
  • The song "One of the Broken" by Paddy McAloon, performed by Prefab Sprout on the 1990 album "Jordan: The Comeback", has a reference to David ("I remember King David, with his harp and his beautiful, beautiful songs, I answered his prayers, and showed him a place where his music belongs").
  • "Mad About You", a song on Sting's 1991 album The Soul Cages, explores David's obsession with Bathsheba from David's perspective
  • "Dead" (1989) by the Pixies is a retelling of David's adultery and repentance
  • Eric Whitacre composed a choral piece, "When David Heard" (1999), chronicling the death of Absalom and David's grief over losing his son
  • The Song "Gimme a Stone" appears on the Little Feat 2000 album "Chinese Work Songs" chronicles the duel with Goliath and contains a lament to Absalom as a bridge.
  • "The Angel of Death Came to David's Room" (2009) by MewithoutYou is in reference to King David
  • "Your Heart" by Chris Tomlin on Music inspired by The Story (2011) is a prayer of David

Musical theater

Television

  • TV film David (1997), with Nathaniel Parker portraying King David
  • Max von Sydow portrayed an older King David in the TV film Solomon, a sequel to David
  • The NBC series Kings (2009), explicitly designed as a modern retelling of the David story
  • The episode "Little Big Dog", of the PBS series Wishbone, recounts the story of David, his favor with Saul, and his triumphant battle over Goliath
  • The season two episode of Xena: Warrior Princess "Giant Killer" features David and his killing of Goliath

Cards

For a considerable period, starting in the 15th century and continuing until the 19th, French playing card manufacturers assigned to each of the court cards names taken from history or mythology.[60][61] In this context, the King of Spades was often known as "David".

See also

Notes

References

Translations of 1 and 2 Samuel

  • Samuel 1 and 2 at Bible Gateway
  • Kirsch, Jonathan (2000) King David: the real life of the man who ruled Israel. Ballantine. ISBN 0-345-43275-4.
  • Dever, William G. (2001) What did the Bible writers know and when did they know it? William B. Eerdmans Publ. Co., Cambridge UK.

Commentaries on Samuel

General

  • Coogan, Michael D. (2009) A Brief Introduction to the Old Testament: the Hebrew Bible in its Context Oxford University Press

Further reading

External links

  • Complete Bible Genealogy David's family tree
  • Double Identity: Orpheus as David. Orpheus as Christ? Biblical Archaeology Review
  • David engravings from the De Verda collection
David of the United Kingdom of Israel & Judah
Cadet branch of the Tribe of Judah
Regnal titles
New title
Rebellion from Israel under Ish-bosheth
King of Judah
1010 BC–1003 BC
Succeeded by
Solomon
Preceded by
Saul
King of the United
Israel and Judah

1003 BC–970 BC

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