World Library  
Flag as Inappropriate
Email this Article


Article Id: WHEBN0007149917
Reproduction Date:

Title: Kishkindha  
Author: World Heritage Encyclopedia
Language: English
Subject: Anegundi, Tara (Ramayana), Sugriva, Vali (Ramayana), Rumā
Publisher: World Heritage Encyclopedia


Kishkindha (Kannada: ಕಿಷ್ಕಿಂಧೆ Kiṣkindhe; IAST: Kiṣkindhā, Devanagari: किष्किन्‍धा) is the monkey (Vanara) kingdom of the Vanara King Sugriva, the younger brother of Vali, in the Indian theology of Ramayana times. This was the kingdom where he ruled with the assistance of his friend, Hanuman.

View of Kishkindha

This kingdom is identified to be the regions around the Tungabhadra river (then known as Pampa Saras) near Hampi and belongs to Koppal district, Karnataka. The mountain near to the river with the name Rishimukha where Sugriva lived with Hanuman, during the period of his exile also is found with the same name.

During the time of Ramayana, i.e., Treta Yuga, the whole region was within the dense forest called Dandaka Forest extending from Vindhya range to the South Indian peninsula. Hence this kingdom was considered to be the kingdom of Vanaras which in Sanskrit means "apes" or "forest-humans"(Van+Nar). During Dwapara Yuga, the Pandava Sahadeva was said to visit this kingdom, as per the epic Mahabharata, during his southern military campaign to collect tribute for Yudhisthira's Rajasuya sacrifice.

Old Way to Kishkindha


  • References of Kishkindha in Mahabharata and Ramayana 1
    • Sahadeva's conquests 1.1
    • Rama's history within Ramayana 1.2
  • References of Vanaras in Mahabharata 2
    • Territories of Vanaras 2.1
      • Vanara Kings and Chiefs 2.1.1
  • See also 3
  • References 4
  • External links 5

References of Kishkindha in Mahabharata and Ramayana

Though Kishkindha was mentioned in the epic Ramayana, with great detail, a few mentions of this kingdom is found in the epic Mahabharata.

Sahadeva's conquests

Sahadeva, the Pandava general, and younger brother of Pandava king Yudhisthira, came to southern regions to collect tribute for the Rajasuya sacrifice of the king.

Sahadeva reduced to subjection king Vatadhipa. He then defeated the Pulindas (Pulindas in the south, see also the northern Pulindas), the hero then marched southward. He then fought for one whole day with the king of Pandrya (Pandya?). The long-armed hero having vanquished that monarch marched further to the south. And then he beheld the celebrated caves of Kishkindhya and in that region fought for seven days with the Vanara-kings Mainda and Dwivida. Those illustrious kings however, without being tired in the encounter, were gratified with Sahadeva. And joyfully addressing the Kuru prince, they said,--"O tiger among the sons of Pandu, go hence, taking with the tribute from us all. Let the mission of the king Yudhishthira the just possessed of great intelligence, be accomplished without hindrance." Taking jewels and gems from them all, the hero marched towards the city of Mahishmati, and there he battled with king Nila.

Rama's history within Ramayana

A few chapters of Mahabharata, contains within it, the epic Ramayana in brief.

Places Related to Ramayana

After Vanara king Vali (Ramayana) had been slain by Raghava Rama, Sugriva, the younger brother of the king, regained possession of Kishkindhya, and along with it, the lordship of the widowed queen, Tara. Rama, meanwhile dwelt on the beautiful breast of the Malyavat Mountains (a mountain range, in Andhra Pradesh and Tamil Nadu) for four months, duly worshipped by Sugriva all the while. (3,278)

Sugriva is mentioned as the ruler of the forest-kingdom Kishkindhya and the king of the Vanaras (forest-dwellers), installed on throne by Raghava Rama and to whom all foresters and apes, monkeys and bears owe allegiance. (3,280)

Raghava Rama slew the Rakshasa king Ravana in battle and installed Vibhishana, Ravana's younger brother, on the throne of Lanka. Thus he regained his wife Sita from the clutches of Ravana. He then left Lanka and re-entered Kishkindhya with king Sugriva. Having arrived at Kishkindhya, he installed the old king Bali's son Angada as prince-regent of that kingdom. After that he left to his own capital-city Ayodhya of Kosala Kingdom (3,289).

Anjaneya Parvat, said to be birthplace of Lord Hanuman

At (3,146) the mountain named Hrishyamukha (Risyamuka) where Sugriva and Hanuman spent their exile, due to fear of king Bali is mentioned.

References of Vanaras in Mahabharata

Vanaras were described as one of the Exotic Tribes of Ancient India along with many others, in the epic Mahabharata.

Their kinship with other such tribes are hinted at (1,66). The Rakshasas, Yakshas, Vanaras and Kinnaras (these four were linked to the sage Pulastya) and with Kimpurushas (half-men, half-lion), Salabhas (butterfly-like beings—the angels or fairies in western mythologies ?) and Valikhilyas (the followers of the movements of the sun) (the last three were linked to the sage Pulaha) were mentioned to have kinship (1.66).

They were mentioned along with one of these or some of these tribes at many locations in the epic. (1-70,144,and many other references)

Pampa Sarovar, lake where Hanuman rested on his way to Himalayas

Territories of Vanaras

Kishkindhya and the southern India were the most populous territoires of Vanaras. However they were also found in the forests of Himalayas (3-144,157). Bhima in his wanderings have seen the abode of the Vanara chief Hanuman in the plantain wood, on an elevated rocky base in the mountains of Gandhamadana (in Himalayas) (3-145,146,147,148,149,150,151).

Vanara Kings and Chiefs

Hanuman was the best-known figure among the Vanaras. He was the general of the Vanara king Sugriva who was installed on the throne of Kishkindha by Raghava Rama. Hanuman was the son of Vanara chief, Kesari (3,145). Sugriva's elder brother Vali was the former king of the Vanaras. He was slain by Raghava Rama. The dispute between Vali and Sugriva is mentioned at (4,22), (7,176) After Sugriva, Vali's son Angada became the king of Kishindha (3,289). During the period of the Pandavas, Mainda and Dwivida were the two kings of Kishkindha. They have battled with the Pandava Sahadeva(2,32). Dwivida had also battled with Vasudeva Krishna (5,130).

See also


External links

  • Kishkinda: Literature and Archaeology
  • Complete Ramacharitamanas text
This article was sourced from Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License; additional terms may apply. World Heritage Encyclopedia content is assembled from numerous content providers, Open Access Publishing, and in compliance with The Fair Access to Science and Technology Research Act (FASTR), Wikimedia Foundation, Inc., Public Library of Science, The Encyclopedia of Life, Open Book Publishers (OBP), PubMed, U.S. National Library of Medicine, National Center for Biotechnology Information, U.S. National Library of Medicine, National Institutes of Health (NIH), U.S. Department of Health & Human Services, and, which sources content from all federal, state, local, tribal, and territorial government publication portals (.gov, .mil, .edu). Funding for and content contributors is made possible from the U.S. Congress, E-Government Act of 2002.
Crowd sourced content that is contributed to World Heritage Encyclopedia is peer reviewed and edited by our editorial staff to ensure quality scholarly research articles.
By using this site, you agree to the Terms of Use and Privacy Policy. World Heritage Encyclopedia™ is a registered trademark of the World Public Library Association, a non-profit organization.

Copyright © World Library Foundation. All rights reserved. eBooks from World eBook Library are sponsored by the World Library Foundation,
a 501c(4) Member's Support Non-Profit Organization, and is NOT affiliated with any governmental agency or department.