World Library  
Flag as Inappropriate
Email this Article


Konya is located in Turkey
Location of Konya, Turkey
Country  Turkey
Region Central Anatolia
Province Konya
 • Mayor Tahir Akyürek (AKP)
 • Total 38,873 km2 (15,009 sq mi)
Elevation 1,200 m (3,900 ft)
Population (2014)[1]
 • Total 1,174,536
 • Density 50/km2 (100/sq mi)
Time zone EET (UTC+2)
 • Summer (DST) EEST (UTC+3)
Postal code 42XXX
Area code(s) (+90) 332
Licence plate 42

Konya (Turkish pronunciation: ; Greek: Ικόνιον Ikónion, Latin: Iconium) is a city in the Central Anatolia Region of Turkey. It is the seventh most populous city in Turkey. As of 2014, Konya has a population of 1,174,536.[1] Konya is an economically and industrially developed city [2][3][4] and the capital of Konya Province.

Konya was historically the capital of the Seljuq Sultanate of Rum and the Karamanids.


  • History 1
    • Etymology 1.1
    • Ancient history 1.2
    • Seljuk era 1.3
    • Karamanid era 1.4
    • Ottoman era 1.5
    • Turkish War of Independence 1.6
    • Republic era 1.7
  • Government 2
  • Geography 3
    • Climate 3.1
  • Education 4
  • Economy 5
  • Transportation 6
    • Bus 6.1
    • Tram 6.2
    • Railway 6.3
    • Airport 6.4
  • Notable people 7
  • Main sights 8
  • Culture 9
  • Twin towns 10
  • See also 11
  • References and notes 12
  • Further reading 13
  • External links 14



Konya, was known in Medusa's) head", with which Perseus vanquished the native population before founding the city.[5] In some historic English texts, the city's name appears as Konia or Koniah.

Ancient history

Excavations have shown that the region was inhabited during the Late Copper Age, around 3000 BC.[5] The city came under the influence of the Hittites around 1500 BC. These were overtaken by the Sea Peoples around 1200 BC.

The Phrygians established their kingdom in central Anatolia in the 8th century BC. Xenophon describes Iconium, as the city was called, as the last city of Phrygia. The region was overwhelmed by Cimmerian invaders c. 690 BC. It was later part of the Persian Empire, until Darius III was defeated by Alexander the Great in 333 BC.

Alexander's empire broke up shortly after his death and the town came under the rule of Seleucus I Nicator. During the Hellenistic period the town was ruled by the kings of Pergamon. As Attalus III, the last king of Pergamon, was about to die without an heir, he bequeathed his kingdom to the Roman Republic. During the Roman Empire, under the rule of emperor Claudius, the city's name was changed to Claudioconium, and during the rule of emperor Hadrianus to Colonia Aelia Hadriana.

The apostles Paul and Barnabas preached in Iconium during their first Missionary Journey in about 47–48 AD (see Acts 13:51, Acts 14:1–5 and Acts 14:21), having been persecuted in Antioch, and Paul and Silas probably visited it again during Paul's Second Missionary Journey in about 50 (see Acts 16:2).[6] Their visit to the synagogue of the Jews in Iconium divided the Jewish and non-Jewish communities between those who believed Paul and Barnabas' message and those who did not believe, provoking a disturbance during which attempts were made to stone the apostles. They fled to Lystra and Derbe, cities of Lycaonia. Paul recalled this experience in his second letter to Timothy (Acts 14:1–5), Albert Barnes therefore suggesting that Timothy had been present with Paul in Iconium, Antioch and Lystra.[7]

In Christian legend, based on the apocryphal Acts of Paul and Thecla, Iconium was also the birthplace of Saint Thecla.

During the Byzantine Empire the town was destroyed several times by Arab invaders in the 7th9th centuries.

Seljuk era

Ince Minaret Medrese (1279) in Konya

The Seljuks unsuccessfully attempted to conquer the area in the Battle of Iconium (1069). A period of chaos overwhelmed Anatolia after the Battle of Manzikert in 1071, won by the Seljuks.

The city was conquered by the Seljuk Turks in 1084.[8] From 1097 to 1243 it was the capital of the Seljuk Sultanate of Rum. It was briefly occupied by the Crusaders Godfrey of Bouillon (August 1097), and Frederick Barbarossa (May 18, 1190) after the Battle of Iconium (1190). The area was retaken by the Turks.

The name of the town was changed to Konya (in Persian: قونیه‎‎ qawniyya) by Mesud I in 1134.

Established in 1273, the Sufi Mevlevi Order and its Whirling Dervishes are among the renowned symbols of Konya and Turkey.

Konya reached the height of its wealth and influence in the second half of the 12th century when the Seljuk sultans of Rum also subdued the Anatolian beyliks to their east, especially that of the Danishmends, thus establishing their rule over virtually all of eastern Anatolia, as well as acquiring several port towns along the Mediterranean (including Alanya) and the Black Sea (including Sinop) and even gaining a momentary foothold in Sudak, Crimea. This golden age lasted until the first decades of the 13th century.

Many Persians and Persianized Turks from Persia and Central Asia migrated to Anatolian cities either to flee the invading Mongols or to benefit from the opportunities for educated Muslims in a newly established kingdom.[9] By the 1220s, the city of Konya was filled with refugees from the Khwarezmid Empire. Sultan Kayqubad I fortified the town and built a palace on top of the citadel. In 1228 he invited Bahaeddin Veled and his son Rumi, the founder of the Mevlevi order, to settle in Konya.

In 1243, following the Seljuk defeat in the Battle of Köse Dağ, Konya was captured by the Mongols as well. The city remained the capital of the Seljuk sultans, vassalized to the Ilkhanate until the end of the century.

In this era (13th century) Persian was the main language of people of Konya.[10][11] Persian refugees fled the Mongols to Konya. One of these refugees was Persian poet Rumi. The city is still influenced by Persian culture, such as Cult of Dervishes and Islamic mysticism rooted in eastern Iran.[12]

Karamanid era

Following the fall of the Anatolian Seljuk Sultanate in 1307, Konya was made the capital of a Turkish beylik (emirate); which lasted until 1322 when the city was captured by the neighbouring Beylik of Karamanoğlu. In 1420, the Beylik of Karamanoğlu fell to the Ottoman Empire and, in 1453, Konya was made the provincial capital of Karaman Eyalet.

Ottoman era

16th-century Konya carpet, in the collections of the Los Angeles County Museum of Art (LACMA).

During Ottoman rule, Konya was administered by the Sultan's sons (Şehzade), starting with Şehzade Mustafa and Şehzade Cem (the sons of Sultan Mehmed II), and later the future Sultan Selim II. Between 1483 and 1864, Konya was the administrative capital of Karaman Eyalet. During the Tanzimat period, as part of the vilayet system introduced in 1864, Konya became the seat of the larger Vilayet of Konya which replaced Karaman Eyalet.

Turkish War of Independence

Konya had a major air base during the Turkish War of Independence. In 1922, the Air Force was renamed as the Inspectorate of Air Forces[13] and was headquartered in Konya.[14][15] The Third Air Wing[16] of the 1st Air Force Command[17] is based at the Konya Air Base. The wing controls the four Boeing 737 AEW&C Peace Eagle aircraft of the Turkish Air Force.[18][19]

Republic era

Konya was a center for agriculture at the turn of the 20th century. Since the late 20th century, the economy has diversified.

The Meram highway was constructed in 1950.

The first Konya National Exhibition and Fair was held in 1968.

The Koyunoğlu Museum was donated to the city in 1973 and it reopened in a new building.


Konya Metropolitan Municipality

The first local administration in Konya was founded in 1830. This administration was converted into a municipality in 1876.[20] In March 1989, the municipality became a Metropolitan Municipality. As of that date, Konya had three central district municipalities (Meram, Selçuklu, Karatay) and a Metropolitan Municipality.


Konya is the center of the largest province, and is among the largest cities in the country. It is the seventh most populated city in Turkey.[21]


Konya has a continental climate with cold, snowy winters and hot, dry summers.[22] Rainfall occurs mostly during the spring and autumn.

Under Köppen's climate classification the city has a semi-arid climate (Köppen BSk).[23] Summers temperatures average 30 °C (86 °F). The highest temperature recorded in Konya was 40.6 °C (105 °F) on 30 July 2000. Winters average −4.2 °C (24 °F). The lowest temperature recorded was −25.8 °C (−14 °F) on 25 January 1989. Due to Konya's high altitude and its dry summers, nightly temperatures in the summer months are cool. Precipitation levels are low, but precipitation can be observed throughout the year.

Climate data for Konya (1960–2012)
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Record high °C (°F) 17.6
Average high °C (°F) 4.7
Daily mean °C (°F) −0.2
Average low °C (°F) −4.1
Record low °C (°F) −25.8
Average precipitation mm (inches) 35.3
Average rainy days 9.7 8.8 8.7 9.6 10.6 6.5 2.8 2.4 3.5 6.7 7.0 10.0 86.3
Average relative humidity (%) 76 72 62 55 53 48 41 39 47 58 70 78 58.3
Mean monthly sunshine hours 96.1 126 189.1 207 266.6 312 347.2 341 288 220.1 150 93 2,636.1
Source #1: Devlet Meteoroloji İşleri Genel Müdürlüğü [1]
Source #2: Hong Kong Observatory [2]


Konya hosts the Tactical Training Center Anatolian Eagle, a center for training NATO Allies and friendly Air Forces. Real Like training environment with large area and skilled aggressors provides a training opportunity to reach the maximum combat readiness for Air Force Fighters. Official Web Site

Library of Selçuk University in Konya

Konya ranks among the nation's top 10 cities for the average score of high school graduates. There are various elementary and secondary schools in the province. The Meram Fen Lisesi is among Turkey's first-tier science high schools.

Konya is one of the few cities to contain more than 100,000 college students. Selçuk University had the largest number of students, 76,080, of any public university in Turkey during the 2008-09 academic year.[24] It was founded in 1975. The other public university is Necmettin Erbakan University which was established in Konya in 2010.[25]

Private colleges in Konya include the KTO Karatay University and Mevlana University.[26][27]


The 42-floor Seljuk Tower (2006) in Konya

The city ranks among the Anatolian Tigers.[2][3][4] There are a number of industrial parks.[28] In 2012 Konya's exports reached 130 countries.[28] A number of Turkish industrial conglomerates, such as Kombassan Holding, have their headquarters in Konya.[29]

While agriculture-based industries play a role, the city's economy has evolved into a center for the manufacturing of components for the automotive industry; machinery manufacturing; agricultural tools; casting industry; plastic paint and chemical industry; construction materials; paper and packing industry; processed foods; textiles; and leather industry.[28]


A Škoda 28 T tram produced for the Konya Metropolitan Municipality


The bus station has connections to a range of destinations, including Istanbul, Ankara and İzmir.


Konya has a tramway network in the city center, on which the Škoda 28 T trams are being used.[30]


Konya is connected to Ankara, Eskişehir and Istanbul via the high-speed railway services of the Turkish State Railways.[31][32] High-speed trains (Yüksek Hızlı Tren) operate between Ankara and Konya.[33]


Konya Airport is a public airport and military airbase that is also used by NATO. In 2006, Konya Airport served 2,924 aircraft and 262,561 passengers.[34]

Notable people

Main sights

Alaeddin Mosque (1235) in Konya


Etli ekmek is a local dish of Konya
Mevlana Museum (1274) in Konya

Konya was the final home of Rumi (Mevlana), whose tomb is in the city. In 1273, his followers in Konya established the Mevlevi Sufi order of Islam and became known as the Whirling Dervishes. Konya has the reputation of being one of the more religiously conservative metropolitan centers in Turkey. It was once known as the "citadel of Islam" and its inhabitants are still comparatively more devout than those from other cities.[37]

Konya produced Turkish carpets that were exported to Europe during the Renaissance.[38][39] These expensive, richly patterned textiles were draped over tables, beds, or chests to proclaim the wealth and status of their owners, and were often included in the contemporary oil paintings as symbols of the wealth of the painter's clients.[40]

A Turkish folk song is named "Konyalım", making reference to a loved one from Konya.[41]

The local cuisine of Konya includes dishes made of bulgur wheat and lamb meat.[42] One of the renowned dishes of the city is etli ekmek, which is similar to lahmacun and pizza.[42]

Twin towns

Konya is twinned with:


West Asia

Other parts of Asia

See also

References and notes

  1. ^ a b
  2. ^ a b Financial Times: Reports — Anatolian tigers: Regions prove plentiful
  3. ^ a b
  4. ^ a b Zaman: Anatolian tigers conquering the world
  5. ^ a b
  6. ^ , 315–384Cities of St. Paulsee William Ramsay, ; F. F. Bruce, Paul: Apostle of the Heart Set Free Grand Rapids, MI: Eerdmans, 1977. p. 475.
  7. ^ Barnes, A, Barnes' Notes on the Bible accessed 6 September 2015
  8. ^ Clive F. W. Foss "Ikonion" The Oxford Dictionary of Byzantium. Ed. Alexander P. Kazhdan. © 1991, 2005 by Oxford University Press, Inc.. The Oxford Dictionary of Byzantium: (e-reference edition). Oxford University Press. King's College London. 30 May 2012
  9. ^ Mango, Andrew, Discovering Turkey, Hastings House, 1972, page 61
  10. ^ همایی، جلال الدین: مولوی نامه/مولوی چه می‌گوید؟ (مجموعه دو جلدی). صفحه 1004: ".. زبان فارسی چندان رواج و شیوع داشت که در حکم زبان بومی شمرده می‌شد و همگان آن را درمیافتند و فهم می‌کردند. بهترین دلیل ما بر این دعوی گفتهٔ سلطان ولد فرزند برومند مولوی که است که در همان قونیه متولد شده و همانجا نشو و نما یافته و آثار ادبی خود را بوجود آورده بود. وی در منظومهٔ ولدنامه بعد از چندبیت که بعربی ساخته است می‌گوید: فارسی گو که جمله دریابند. گرچه زین غافلاند و در خوابند
  11. ^ «فارسی، زبان مردم کوچه بازار قونیه بوده است». سایت خبری ایران بالکان. بایگانی‌شده از نسخهٔ اصلی در ۲۶ ژانویه ۲۰۱۳. بازبینی‌شده در ۳۰ خرداد ۱۳۸۹.
  12. ^ قونیه
  13. ^ Turkic:Kuva-yı Havaiye Müfettişliği
  14. ^
  15. ^ Utkan Kocatürk, Atatürk ve Türkiye Cumhuriyeti tarihi kronolojisi, 1918-1938, Türk Tarîh Kurumu Basımevi, 1983, p. 674.
  16. ^ Ana Jet Üssü or AJÜ
  17. ^ Hava Kuvvet Komutanlığı
  18. ^
  19. ^
  20. ^ " İhtisab Agalıgi" (Islamic-Ottoman office for public regularity)
  21. ^ December 2012 address-based calculation of the Turkish Statistical Institute as presented by
  22. ^ Effect of Climate Changes on Groundwater - Selcuk University, Department of Geology Engineering, Konya, Turkey
  23. ^ Updated world map of the Köppen-Geiger climate classification - Hydrology and Earth System Sciences Discussions
  24. ^ About Turkey and Konya, Konya Livestock Congress, 2014
  25. ^
  26. ^
  27. ^
  28. ^ a b c
  29. ^
  30. ^ (English)
  31. ^
  32. ^
  33. ^
  34. ^ (Turkish) Konya Hava Meydanı at DHMİ (State Airports Authority)
  35. ^
  36. ^ [3]
  37. ^
  38. ^ King, Donald and Sylvester, David. The Eastern Carpet in the Western World, From the 15th to the 17th century, Arts Council of Great Britain, London, 1983, ISBN 0-7287-0362-9. pp. 26-27, 52-57.
  39. ^ Campbell, Gordon. The Grove Encyclopedia of Decorative Arts, Volume 1, "Carpet, S 2; History (pp. 187–193), Oxford University Press US, 2006, ISBN 0-19-518948-5, ISBN 978-0-19-518948-3 Google books. p. 189.
  40. ^
  41. ^
  42. ^ a b
  43. ^ Kyoto İle Kardeş Şehir Protokolü İmzalandı, Heyet Japon Parkı'nı Gezdi, Konya Büyükşehir Belediyesi (2010)
  44. ^ a b

Further reading

Published in the 19th century
Published in the 20th century
Published in the 21st century

External links

  • Konya travel guide from Wikivoyage
  • Encyclopædia Britannica: Konya
  • More information about Konya
  • Emporis: Database of highrises and other structures in Konya
  • Detailed Pictures of Mevlana Museum
  • Pictures of the city, including Mevlana Museum and several Seljuk buildings
  • 600 Pictures of the city and sights
  • Extensive collection of pictures of the Mevlana museum in Konya
  • Cities of St. Paul, 316-384
This article was sourced from Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License; additional terms may apply. World Heritage Encyclopedia content is assembled from numerous content providers, Open Access Publishing, and in compliance with The Fair Access to Science and Technology Research Act (FASTR), Wikimedia Foundation, Inc., Public Library of Science, The Encyclopedia of Life, Open Book Publishers (OBP), PubMed, U.S. National Library of Medicine, National Center for Biotechnology Information, U.S. National Library of Medicine, National Institutes of Health (NIH), U.S. Department of Health & Human Services, and, which sources content from all federal, state, local, tribal, and territorial government publication portals (.gov, .mil, .edu). Funding for and content contributors is made possible from the U.S. Congress, E-Government Act of 2002.
Crowd sourced content that is contributed to World Heritage Encyclopedia is peer reviewed and edited by our editorial staff to ensure quality scholarly research articles.
By using this site, you agree to the Terms of Use and Privacy Policy. World Heritage Encyclopedia™ is a registered trademark of the World Public Library Association, a non-profit organization.

Copyright © World Library Foundation. All rights reserved. eBooks from World eBook Library are sponsored by the World Library Foundation,
a 501c(4) Member's Support Non-Profit Organization, and is NOT affiliated with any governmental agency or department.