LGBT rights by country or territory

Worldwide laws regarding homosexual relationships and expression
  
Marriage
  
Restricted freedom of expression
  
Civil union, registered partnership or unregistered cohabitation
  
Unenforced penalty


  
Marriage recognized but not performed
  
Imprisonment
  
Same-sex unions not recognized
  
Up to life in prison
  
Death penalty
Click on map to view an enlarged version where rings in various locations become visible. These indicate places with local or case-by-case applications of law.
LGBT rights at the United Nations
  
Support Countries which have signed a General Assembly declaration of LGBT rights and/or sponsored the Human Rights Council's 2011 resolution on LGBT rights (96 members).
  
Oppose Countries which signed a 2008 statement opposing LGBT rights (initially 57 members, now 54 members).
  
Neither Countries which, as regards the UN, have expressed neither official support nor opposition to LGBT rights (44 members).
  
Non-UN member Countries that are non-UN members (14 non-UN members).

Laws affecting lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) people vary greatly by country or territory—everything from legal recognition of same-sex marriage or other types of partnerships, to the death penalty as punishment for same-sex romantic/sexual activity or identity.

LGBT rights are considered human rights by the Amnesty International[1] and civil rights by some.[2] LGBT rights laws include, but are not limited to, the following:

As of July 2015, eighteen countries, most of them located in the Americas and Western Europe,[6] recognize same-sex marriage and grant most of (if not all) the other rights listed above to its LGBT citizens.

Anti-LGBT laws include, but are not limited to, the following: sodomy laws penalizing consensual same-sex sexual activity with fines, jail terms, or the death penalty; anti-"lesbianism" laws; and higher ages of consent for same-sex activity.

In 2011, the United Nations Human Rights Council passed its first resolution recognizing LGBT rights, which was followed up with a report from the UN Human Rights Commission documenting violations of the rights of LGBT people, including hate crime, criminalization of homosexuality, and discrimination. Following up on the report, the UN Human Rights Commission urged all countries which had not yet done so to enact laws protecting basic LGBT rights.[3][4]

As of July 2015, seventy two countries[7] as well as five sub-national jurisdictions[8] have laws criminalizing homosexuality, most of them are located in Asia and Africa

Contents

  • History of LGBT-related laws 1
    • Ancient Celts 1.1
    • Ancient India 1.2
    • Ancient West Asia 1.3
      • Ancient Israel 1.3.1
      • Ancient Persia 1.3.2
      • Ancient Mesopotamia 1.3.3
    • Ancient Rome 1.4
    • Congo 1.5
    • Feudal Japan 1.6
    • Lesotho 1.7
    • Papua New Guinea 1.8
  • LGBT-related laws by country or territory 2
    • Maps 2.1
    • Africa 2.2
      • Northern Africa 2.2.1
      • Western Africa 2.2.2
      • Central Africa 2.2.3
      • Southeast Africa 2.2.4
      • Horn of Africa 2.2.5
      • Indian Ocean States 2.2.6
      • Southern Africa 2.2.7
      • Partially recognized or unrecognized states 2.2.8
    • The Americas 2.3
      • North America 2.3.1
      • Central America 2.3.2
      • Caribbean 2.3.3
      • South America 2.3.4
    • Asia 2.4
      • Central Asia 2.4.1
      • Northern Asia 2.4.2
      • Western Asia 2.4.3
      • Southern Asia 2.4.4
      • Eastern Asia 2.4.5
      • Southeast Asia 2.4.6
      • Partially recognized or unrecognized states 2.4.7
    • Europe 2.5
      • European Union 2.5.1
      • Central Europe 2.5.2
      • Eastern Europe 2.5.3
      • Northern Europe 2.5.4
      • Southern Europe 2.5.5
      • Western Europe 2.5.6
      • Partially recognised or unrecognised states 2.5.7
    • Oceania 2.6
      • Australasia 2.6.1
      • Melanesia 2.6.2
      • Micronesia 2.6.3
      • Polynesia 2.6.4
  • See also 3
  • Notes 4
  • References 5
  • External links 6

History of LGBT-related laws

Ancient Celts

According to Aristotle, although most "belligerent nations" were strongly influenced by their women, the Celts were unusual because their men openly preferred male lovers (Politics II 1269b).[5] H. D. Rankin in Celts and the Classical World notes that "Athenaeus echoes this comment (603a) and so does Ammianus (30.9). It seems to be the general opinion of antiquity."[6] In book XIII of his Deipnosophists, the Roman Greek rhetorician and grammarian Athenaeus, repeating assertions made by Diodorus Siculus in the 1st century BC (Bibliotheca historica 5:32), wrote that Celtic women were beautiful but that the men preferred to sleep together. Diodorus went further, stating that "the young men will offer themselves to strangers and are insulted if the offer is refused". Rankin argues that the ultimate source of these assertions is likely to be Poseidonius and speculates that these authors may be recording male "bonding rituals".[7]

Ancient India

Throughout Hindu and Vedic texts there are many descriptions of saints, demigods, and even the Supreme Lord transcending gender norms and manifesting multiple combinations of sex and gender.[8] There are several instances in ancient Indian epic poetry of same sex depictions and unions by gods and goddesses. There are several stories of depicting love between same sexes especially among kings and queens. Kamasutra, the ancient Indian treatise on love talks about feelings for same sexes. Transsexuals are also venerated e.g. Lord Vishnu as Mohini and Lord Shiva as Ardhanarishwara (which means half woman).[9]

Ancient West Asia

Ancient Israel

The ancient Law of Moses (the Torah) forbids men lying with men (intercourse) in Leviticus 18 and gives a story of attempted homosexual rape in Genesis in the story of Sodom and Gomorrah, the cities being soon destroyed after that. The death penalty was prescribed. In Deuteronomy 22:5, cross-dressing is condemned as being "abominable".

Ancient Persia

In Persia homosexuality and homoerotic expressions were tolerated in numerous public places, from monasteries and seminaries to taverns, military camps, bathhouses, and coffee houses. In the early Safavid era (1501–1723), male houses of prostitution (amrad khane) were legally recognized and paid taxes. Persian poets, such as Sa’di (d. 1291), Hafiz (d. 1389), and Jami (d. 1492), wrote poems replete with homoerotic allusions. The two most commonly documented forms were commercial sex with transgender young males or males enacting transgender roles exemplified by the köçeks and Sufi spiritual practices in which the practitioner admired the form of a beautiful boy in order to enter ecstatic states and glimpse the beauty of God.

Ancient Mesopotamia

Middle Assyrian Law Codes dating 1075 BC states: "If a man have(sic) intercourse with his brother-in-arms, they shall turn him into a eunuch."

Ancient Rome

The "conquest mentality" of the ancient Romans shaped Roman homosexual practices.[10] In the Roman Republic, a citizen's political liberty was defined in part by the right to preserve his body from physical compulsion or use by others;[11] for the male citizen to submit his body to the giving of pleasure was considered servile.[12] As long as a man played the penetrative role, it was socially acceptable and considered natural for him to have same-sex relations, without a perceived loss of his masculinity or social standing.[13] The bodies of citizen youths were strictly off-limits, and the Lex Scantinia imposed penalites on those who committed a sex crime (stuprum) against a freeborn male minor.[14] Acceptable same-sex partners were males excluded from legal protections as citizens: slaves, male prostitutes, and the infames, entertainers or others who might be technically free but whose lifestyles set them outside the law.

"Homosexual" and "heterosexual" were thus not categories of Roman sexuality, and no words exist in Latin that would precisely translate these concepts.[15] A male citizen who willingly performed oral sex or received anal sex was disparaged, but there is only limited evidence of legal penalties against these men, who were presumably "homosexual" in the modern sense.[16] In courtroom and political rhetoric, charges of effeminacy and passive sexual behaviors were directed particularly at "democratic" politicians (populares) such as Julius Caesar and Mark Antony.[17]

Roman law addressed the rape of a male citizen as early as the 2nd century BC, when a ruling was issued in a case that may have involved a man of same-sex orientation. It was ruled that even a man who was "disreputable and questionable" had the same right as other citizens not to have his body subjected to forced sex.[18] A law probably dating to the dictatorship of Julius Caesar defined rape as forced sex against "boy, woman, or anyone"; the rapist was subject to execution, a rare penalty in Roman law.[19] A male classified as infamis, such as a prostitute or actor, could not as a matter of law be raped, nor could a slave, who was legally classified as property; the slave's owner, however, could prosecute the rapist for property damage.[20]

In the Roman army of the Republic, sex among fellow soldiers violated the decorum against intercourse with citizens and was subject to harsh penalties, including death,[21] as a violation of military discipline.[22] The Greek historian Polybius (2nd century BC) lists deserters, thieves, perjurers, and "those who in youth have abused their persons" as subject to the fustuarium, clubbing to death.[23] Ancient sources are most concerned with the effects of sexual harassment by officers, but the young soldier who brought an accusation against his superior needed to show that he had not willingly taken the passive role or prostituted himself.[24] Soldiers were free to have relations with their male slaves;[25] the use of a fellow citizen-soldier's body was prohibited, not homosexual behaviors per se.[26] By the late Republic and throughout the Imperial period, there is increasing evidence that men whose lifestyle marked them as "homosexual" in the modern sense served openly.[27]

Although Roman law did not recognize marriage between men, and in general Romans regarded marriage as a heterosexual union with the primary purpose of producing children, in the early Imperial period some male couples were celebrating traditional marriage rites. Juvenal remarks with disapproval that his friends often attended such ceremonies.[28] The emperor Nero had two marriages to men, once as the bride (with a freedman Pythagoras) and once as the groom. His consort Sporus appeared in public as Nero's wife wearing the regalia that was customary for the Roman empress.[29]

Apart from measures to protect the prerogatives of citizens, the prosecution of homosexuality as a general crime began in the 3rd century of the Christian era when male prostitution was banned by Philip the Arab. By the end of the 4th century, after the Roman Empire had come under Christian rule, passive homosexuality was punishable by burning.[30] "Death by sword" was the punishment for a "man coupling like a woman" under the Theodosian Code.[31] Under Justinian, all same-sex acts, passive or active, no matter who the partners, were declared contrary to nature and punishable by death.[32]

Congo

E. E. Evans-Pritchard recorded that in the past male Azande warriors in the northern Congo routinely took on young male lovers between the ages of twelve and twenty, who helped with household tasks and participated in intercrural sex with their older husbands. The practice had died out by the early 20th century, after Europeans had gained control of African countries, but was recounted to Evans-Pritchard by the elders to whom he spoke.[33]

Feudal Japan

In feudal Japan, homosexuality was recognized, between equals (bi-do), in terms of pederasty (wakashudo), and in terms of prostitution. The younger partner in a pederastic relationship often was expected to make the first move; the opposite was true in ancient Greece. In religious circles, same-sex love spread to the warrior (samurai) class, where it was customary for a boy in the wakashū age category to undergo training in the martial arts by apprenticing to a more experienced adult man. The man was permitted, if the boy agreed, to take the boy as his lover until he came of age; this relationship, often formalized in a "brotherhood contract",[34] was expected to be exclusive, with both partners swearing to take no other (male) lovers. The Samurai period was one in which homosexuality was seen as particularly positive. Later when Japanese society became pacified, the middle classes adopted many of the practices of the warrior class.

Lesotho

Anthropologists Stephen Murray and Will Roscoe reported that women in Lesotho engaged in socially sanctioned "long term, erotic relationships" called motsoalle.[35]

Papua New Guinea

In Papua New Guinea, same-sex relationships were an integral part of the culture until the middle of the last century. The Etoro and Marind-anim for example, even viewed heterosexuality as wasteful and celebrated homosexuality instead. They believed that in sharing semen, they are sharing their life force, yet women simply wasted this force any time they didn't get pregnant after sex. In many traditional Melanesian cultures a prepubertal boy would be paired with an older adolescent who would become his mentor and who would "inseminate" him (orally, anally, or topically, depending on the tribe) over a number of years in order for the younger to also reach puberty.[36]

LGBT-related laws by country or territory

Maps

Laws regarding same-sex sexuality by country or territory
  Same-sex marriage
  Other type of partnership (or unregistered cohabitation)
  Foreign same-sex marriages recognized
  No recognition of same-sex couples
  Laws restricting freedom of expression and association
  De jure penalty that is de facto not enforced
  Imprisonment
  Imprisonment (up to life sentence)
  Up to death
LGBT rights at the United Nations
  Support
Countries which have signed a General Assembly declaration of LGBT rights and/or sponsored the Human Rights Council's 2011 resolution on LGBT rights (96 members)
  Oppose
Countries which signed a 2008 statement opposing LGBT rights (initially 57 members, now 54 members)
  Neither
Countries which, as regards the UN, have expressed neither official support nor opposition to LGBT rights (44 members
  Non-UN member
Countries that are non-UN members (14 non-UN members)
Homosexual "propaganda" laws by country or territory
  Homosexual "propaganda" laws by country or territory
  Countries or territories that don't have homosexual "propaganda" laws
Decriminalization of same-sex sexual intercourse by country or territory
  1790–1799
  1800–1819
  1820–1829
  1830–1839
  1840–1859
  1860–1869
  1870–1879
  1880–1889
  1890–1909
  1910–1919
  1920–1929
  1930–1939
  1940–19491
  1950–1959
  1960–1969
  1970–1979
  1980–1989
  1990–19992
  2000–2009
  2010-present3
  Same-sex sexual activity legal4
  Male same-sex sexual intercourse illegal
  Same-sex sexual intercourse illegal
1During World War II, Nazi Germany annexed territory or established reichskommissariats which extended Germany's laws against same-sex sexual intercourse to those territories and reichskommissariats. Same-sex sexual intercourse was previously legalized in the following countries or territories before German annexation or establishment of reichskommissariats: Bas-Rhin (legal in 1791), Belgium (legal in 1795), Belluno (legal in 1890), Friuli-Venezia Giulia (legal in 1890), Haut-Rhin (legal in 1791), Luxembourg (legal in 1795), Moselle (legal in 1791), Netherlands (legal in 1811), Nord (legal in 1791), Pas-de-Calais (legal in 1791), Poland (legal in 1932), and Trentino-Alto Adige/Südtirol (legal in 1890). All countries and territories listed that where annexed or established into reichskommissariats by Nazi Germany during World War II where restored as independent countries or reincorporated into their previous countries during or after the war and thus re-legalized same-sex sexual intercourse in those areas.
2In May 1973, the Libyan Arab Republic annexed the Aouzou Strip from Chad. Libya's laws against same-sex sexual intercourse where thus extended to the annexed Aouzou Strip. In August 1987, during the Toyota War between the Great Socialist People's Libyan Arab Jamahiriya and Chad, Aouzou fell to the Chadian forces, only to be repelled by an overwhelming Libyan counter-offensive. The Aouzou dispute was concluded on February 3, 1994, when the judges of the International Court of Justice by a majority of 16 to 1 decided that the Aouzou Strip belonged to Chad. Monitored by international observers, the withdrawal of Libyan troops from the Strip began on April 15, 1994, and was completed by May 10, 1994. The formal and final transfer of the Aouzou Strip from Libya to Chad took place on May 30, 1994, when the sides signed a joint declaration stating that the Libyan withdrawal had been effected.
3During the Iraq Crisis / Iraqi Civil War, from 2013 to present, parts of Iraq were taken over by the Islamic State, enacting sharia and executing LGBT people. Territories, from 2014 to present, retaken by Iraqi government and thus re-legalized same-sex sexual intercourse in those areas.
4Same-sex sexual intercourse was never criminalized in the following countries and territories: Benin, Burkina Faso, Cambodia, Central African Republic, Chad (excluding Aouzou Strip), Clipperton Island, Republic of the Congo, Côte d'Ivoire, Democratic Republic of Congo, Djibouti, French Polynesia, French Southern and Antarctic Lands, Gabon, Indonesia, (excluding Aceh, British Bencoolen, Netherlands East-Indies (prior to 1811), and South Sumatra) Laos, Madagascar, Mali, Mayotte, New Caledonia, Niger, North Korea, South Korea, Vietnam, and Wallis and Futuna.
Equalization of age of consent laws for same-sex couples by country or territory
  1790–1829
  1830–1839
  1840–1859
  1860–1869
  1870–1879
  1880–1889
  1890–1929
  1930–1939
  1940–19491
  1950–1959
  1960–1969
  1970–1979
  1980–1989
  1990–1999
  2000–2009
  2010-present
  Equal age of consent laws for opposite and same-sex couples
  Unequal age of consent laws for same-sex couples
1During World War II, Nazi Germany annexed territory or established reichskommissariats which extended Germany's laws against same-sex sexual intercourse to those territories and reichskommissariats. Age of consent was previously equalized for same-sex couples in the following countries or territories before German annexation or establishment of reichskommissariats: Belluno (legal in 1890), Friuli-Venezia Giulia (legal in 1890), Poland (legal in 1932), and Trentino-Alto Adige/Südtirol (legal in 1890). All countries and territories listed that where annexed or established into reichskommissariats by Nazi Germany during World War II where restored as independent countries or reincorporated into their previous countries during or after the war and thus re-legalized equal age of consent laws for same-sex couples in those areas.
Legal status of adoption by same-sex couples by country or territory
  Joint adoption allowed1
  Second-parent adoption allowed2
  No laws allowing adoption by same-sex couples
1In Finland a law will come into force in 2017
2In Estonia a law will come into force in 2016
LGBT service in national militarizes by country or territory
  All LGBT people can serve
  GBT men can serve
  LGB people can serve
  GB men can serve
  Ambiguous or conditional policy
  LGBT people are banned from serving
  No military
  No data on LGBT service
Employment discrimination laws by sexual orientation and/or gender identity by country or territory
  Sexual orientation and gender identity: all employment
  Sexual orientation with anti–employment discrimination ordinance and gender identity solely in public employment
  Sexual orientation: all employment
  Gender identity: all employment
  Sexual orientation and gender identity: federal public employment and federal contractors
  Sexual orientation and gender identity: public employment
  Sexual orientation: public employment
  No national-level employment laws covering sexual orientation and/or gender identity
Constitutional discrimination laws by sexual orientation and/or gender identity by country or territory
  Sexual orientation covered
  Gender identity covered
  No national or local level constitutional discrimination laws covering sexual orientation and/or gender identity
LGBT hate crime laws by country or territory
  Sexual orientation and gender identity hate crime laws
  Sexual orientation hate crime laws
  No LGBT hate crime laws
Incitement to hatred based on sexual orientation and gender identity prohibited by country or territory
  Incitement to hatred based on sexual orientation and gender identity
  Incitement to hatred based on sexual orientation prohibited
  No prohibition on incitement to hatred based on sexual orientation and gender identity
Bans on LGBT conversion therapy for minors by country or territory
  Ban on LGBT conversion therapy for minors
  No prohibition LGBT conversion therapy for minors
LGBT immigration equality by country or territory
  Recognition of same-sex couples in national immigration laws
  Unknown/ambiguous
Bans on same-sex unions by country or territory
  No specific prohibition of same-sex marriages or unions
  Statute bans same-sex marriage
  Constitution bans same-sex marriage
  Constitution bans same-sex marriage and equivalent/similar union
Blood donation policies for men who have sex with men by country or territory
  Men who have sex with men may donate blood; No deferral
  Men who have sex with men may donate blood; Temporary deferral
  Men who have sex with men may not donate blood; Permanent deferral1
  No Data
1No restriction in Israel and the United States of America if last MSM activity was before 1977.
Blood donation policies for female sex partners of men who have sex with men by country or territory
  Female sex partners of men who have sex with men may donate blood; No deferral
  Female sex partners of men who have sex with men may donate blood; Temporary deferral
  Female sex partners of men who have sex with men may not donate blood; Permanent deferral
  No Data
Laws concerning gender identity-expression by country or territory
  Legal identity change
  No legal identity change
  Unknown/Ambiguous

Africa

Tables:

Northern Africa

LGBT rights in: Same-sex sexual activity Recognition of same-sex unions Same-sex marriage Adoption by same-sex couples LGB allowed to serve openly in military? Anti-discrimination laws concerning sexual orientation Laws concerning gender identity/expression
Algeria No Illegal since 1966
Penalty: Fine and up to 2 years imprisonment.[37][38]
No No No No No No
Ceuta (Autonomous city of Spain) Yes Legal since 1979
+ UN decl. sign.[37]
Yes De facto union since 1998[39] Yes Legal since 2005[40] Yes Legal since 2005[41] Yes Spain responsible for defence Yes Bans all anti-gay discrimination[42] Yes Since 2007, all documents can be amended to the recognised gender[43]
Egypt No Male de facto illegal
Penalty: Up to 17 years imprisonment with or without hard labour and with or without torture and fines under broadly written morality laws
Female uncertain.[37][44]
No No No No No No
Libya No Illegal
Penalty: Up to 3 years imprisonment.[37][45]
No No No No No No
Melilla (Autonomous city of Spain) Yes Legal since 1979
+ UN decl. sign.[37]
Yes De facto union since 2008[46] Yes Legal since 2005[40] Yes Legal since 2005[41] Yes Spain responsible for defence Yes Bans all anti-gay discrimination[42] Yes Since 2007, all documents can be amended to the recognised gender[43]
Morocco
(Including Southern Provinces)
No Illegal
Penalty: Up to 3 years imprisonment.[37][47]
No No No No No
South Sudan No Illegal since 1899 (as Anglo-Egyptian Sudan)
Penalty: Up to 10 years imprisonment.[37][38]
No No Constitutional ban since 2011. No No No No
Sudan No Illegal since 1899 (as Anglo-Egyptian Sudan)
Penalty: Death penalty on third offense for men and on fourth offense for women.[37]
No No No No No No
Tunisia No Illegal
Penalty: 3 years imprisonment.[37][48]
No No No No No

Western Africa

LGBT rights in: Same-sex sexual activity Recognition of same-sex unions Same-sex marriage Adoption by same-sex couples LGB allowed to serve openly in military? Anti-discrimination laws concerning sexual orientation Laws concerning gender identity/expression
Benin Yes Legal (No laws against same-sex sexual activity have ever existed in the country).[37][49] (Age of consent discrepancy)[50] No No No No
Burkina Faso Yes Legal (No laws against same-sex sexual activity have ever existed in the country).[37] No No Constitutional ban since 1991. No No
Cape Verde Yes Legal since 2004
+ UN decl. sign.
No No No Yes Bans some anti-gay discrimination.[37]
Côte d'Ivoire Yes Legal
(No laws against same-sex sexual activity have ever existed in the country).[37] (Age of consent discrepancy)[50]
No No No No
Gambia No Illegal since 1888 (as Gambia Colony and Protectorate)
Penalty: Up to Iife imprisonment.[37][51][38]
No No No No No No
Ghana No Male illegal since 1860s (as Gold Coast)
Penalty: 10 years imprisonment or more
Yes Female always legal.[37][52][38]
No No No No No
Guinea No
Penalty: 6 months to 3 years imprisonment.[37]
No No No No No
Guinea-Bissau Yes Legal since 1993[37]
+ UN decl. sign.
No No No No
Liberia No Illegal
Penalty: 1 year imprisonment.[37]
No No No No No
Mali Yes Legal (No laws against same-sex sexual activity have ever existed in the country).[37] No No No No
Mauritania No Illegal
Penalty: Death penalty (No public executions for any crime since 1987).[37]
No No No No No No
Niger Yes Legal (No laws against same-sex sexual activity have ever existed in the country).[37] (Age of consent discrepancy)[50] No No No No
Nigeria No Illegal under federal law since 1901 (as Northern Nigeria Protectorate and Southern Nigeria Protectorate)
Penalty: Up to 14 years imprisonment
No Illegal in the states of Bauchi, Borno, Gombe, Jigawa, Kaduna, Kano, Katsina, Kebbi, Niger, Sokoto, Yobe, and Zamfara
Penalty: Death penalty for men. Whipping and/or imprisonment for women.[37][53][38]
No No No No No
Senegal No Illegal
Penalty: 1 to 5 years imprisonment.[37]
No No No No No
Sierra Leone No Male illegal since 1861 (as the colony of Sierra Leone)
Penalty: Up to life imprisonment (Not enforced)
Yes Female always legal
+ UN decl. sign.[37]
No No No No No
Togo No Illegal since 1884 (as Togoland)
Penalty: Fine and 3 years imprisonment.[37][38]
No No No No No

Central Africa

LGBT rights in: Same-sex sexual activity Recognition of same-sex unions Same-sex marriage Adoption by same-sex couples LGB allowed to serve openly in military? Anti-discrimination laws concerning sexual orientation Laws concerning gender identity/expression
Cameroon No Illegal since 1972
Penalty: Fines to 5 years imprisonment.[37][38]
No No No No No
Central African Republic Yes Legal (No laws against same-sex sexual activity have ever existed in the country).
+ UN decl. sign.[37]
No No No No
Chad Yes Legal (No laws against same-sex sexual activity have ever existed in the country).
(Same-sex sexual activity illegal in Aouzou Strip under annexation of Libya from 1973 to 1994).[37] (Age of consent discrepancy)[50]
No No No No
Democratic Republic of the Congo Yes Legal (No laws against same-sex sexual activity have ever existed in the country).[37] No No Constitutional ban since 2005. No No
Equatorial Guinea Yes Legal.[37] No No No No
Gabon Yes Legal (No laws against same-sex sexual activity have ever existed in the country)
+ UN decl. sign.[37] (Age of consent discrepancy)[50]
No No No No
Republic of the Congo Yes Legal (No laws against same-sex sexual activity have ever existed in the country).[37] (Age of consent discrepancy)[50] No No No No
Saint Helena, Ascension and Tristan da Cunha
(Overseas territory of the United Kingdom)
Yes Legal since 2001
+ UN decl. sign.[37]
No No Yes Since 2000. UK responsible for defence. Yes Constitutional ban all anti-gay on discrimination. Yes Since 2013.
São Tomé and Príncipe Yes Legal since 2012
+ UN decl. sign.[37][54]
No No No No

Southeast Africa

LGBT rights in: Same-sex sexual activity Recognition of same-sex unions Same-sex marriage Adoption by same-sex couples LGB allowed to serve openly in military? Anti-discrimination laws concerning sexual orientation Laws concerning gender identity/expression
Burundi No Illegal since 2009
Penalty: 3 months to 2 years imprisonment.[37][55]
No No Constitutional ban since 2005. No No No
Kenya No Illegal since 1897 (as East Africa Protectorate)
Penalty: up to 14 years imprisonment.[37][38]
No No Constitutional ban since 2010.[56] No No No No
Rwanda Yes Legal since 1916 (as Ruanda-Urundi)[37] (Age of consent discrepancy)[50][38]
+ UN decl. sign.
No No Constitutional ban since 2003. No No
Uganda No Male illegal since 1894 (as Protectorate of Uganda)
Penalty: Up to 14 years imprisonment
Female illegal since 2000
Penalty: Up to 7 years imprisonment.[37][38]
No No Constitutional ban since 2005. No No No No
Tanzania No Illegal since 1864 (only Zanzibar)
Illegal since 1899 (as German East Africa; only Tanzania, excluding Zanzibar)
Penalty: Up to life imprisonment.[37][38]
No No No No No

Horn of Africa

LGBT rights in: Same-sex sexual activity Recognition of same-sex unions Same-sex marriage Adoption by same-sex couples LGB allowed to serve openly in military? Anti-discrimination laws concerning sexual orientation Laws concerning gender identity/expression
Djibouti Yes Legal
(No laws against same-sex sexual activity have ever existed in the country).[37]
No No No No
Eritrea No Illegal
Penalty: Up to 3 years imprisonment (Not enforced)[37]
No No No No No
Ethiopia No Illegal
Penalty: 10 years imprisonment or more[37]
No No No No No
Somalia No Illegal
Penalty: Up to 3 years imprisonment[37]
No No No No No No

Indian Ocean States

LGBT rights in: Same-sex sexual activity Recognition of same-sex unions Same-sex marriage Adoption by same-sex couples LGB allowed to serve openly in military? Anti-discrimination laws concerning sexual orientation Laws concerning gender identity/expression
Comoros No Illegal
Penalty: 5 years imprisonment & fines[37]
No No No No No
French Southern and Antarctic Lands
(Overseas territory of France)
Yes Legal
(No laws against same-sex sexual activity have ever existed in the territory).[37]
Yes Civil solidarity pact since 1999 Yes Legal since 2013 Yes Legal since 2013 Yes Yes Bans all anti-gay discrimination Yes However, it requires sterilization for sex change.
Madagascar Yes Legal
(No laws against same-sex sexual activity have ever existed in the country).[37] (Age of consent discrepancy)[50]
No No No No
Mauritius Yes Legal
(No laws against same-sex sexual activity; however, anal sex is illegal, punishable with 5 years' prison)
Yes Female always legal
[57]+ UN decl. sign.[37]
No No No Yes Bans some anti-gay discrimination[58][59]
Mayotte
(Overseas department of France)
Yes Legal
(No laws against same-sex sexual activity have ever existed in the department).[37]
Yes Civil solidarity pact since 1999 Yes Legal since 2013 Yes Legal since 2013 Yes Yes Bans all anti-gay discrimination Yes However, it requires sterilization for sex change.
Réunion
(Overseas department of France)
Yes Legal since 1791[37] Yes Civil solidarity pact since 1999 Yes Legal since 2013 Yes Legal since 2013 Yes Yes Bans all anti-gay discrimination Yes However, it requires sterilization for sex change.
Seychelles No Male illegal
Penalty: Up to 14 years imprisonment (Not enforced)
Yes Female always legal
+ UN decl. sign.[37]
No No No Yes Bans all anti-gay discrimination[37]

Southern Africa

LGBT rights in: Same-sex sexual activity Recognition of same-sex unions Same-sex marriage Adoption by same-sex couples LGB allowed to serve openly in military? Anti-discrimination laws concerning sexual orientation Laws concerning gender identity/expression
Angola No De facto illegal
Penalty: Fines, restrictions or penal labor (Not enforced)[37]
No No No No No
Botswana No Illegal since 1885 (as Bechuanaland Protectorate)
Penalty: Fine to up to 7 years imprisonment (Not enforced)[37][38]
No No No Yes Bans some anti-gay discrimination[37] No
Lesotho Yes Male legal since 2012
Female always legal[60]
No No No No
Malawi No Illegal since 1891 (as Nyasaland Districts Protectorate)
Penalty: Up to 14 years imprisonment & whippings (Law suspended from usage since 2012)[37][61][38]
No No No No No
Mozambique Yes Legal since 2015[62][63] No No No No Yes Bans some anti-gay discrimination[37][58]
Namibia No Male illegal since 1920 (as South-West Africa; Not enforced)[38]
Yes Female always legal[37][64][65]
No No No No No
South Africa Yes Male legal since 1998
Female always legal
+ UN decl. sign.[37]
Yes Limited recognition of unregistered partnerships since 1998; Same-sex marriage since 2006. Yes Legal since 2006 Yes Legal since 2002 Yes Since 1998 Yes Bans all anti-gay discrimination Yes Anti-discrimination laws are interpreted to include gender identity; legal gender may be changed after surgical or medical treatment.
Swaziland No Male illegal since the 1880s
Yes Female always legal[37][38]
No No No No No
Zambia No Illegal since 1911 (as Rhodesia)
Penalty: up to 14 years imprisonment[37][38]
No No No No No
Zimbabwe No Male illegal since 1891 (as Rhodesia)
Yes Female always legal[37][38]
No No Constitutional ban since 2013 No No No

Partially recognized or unrecognized states

LGBT rights in: Same-sex sexual activity Recognition of same-sex unions Same-sex marriage Adoption by same-sex couples LGB allowed to serve openly in military? Anti-discrimination laws concerning sexual orientation Laws concerning gender identity/expression
Sahrawi Arab Democratic Republic
(Excluding Southern Provinces)
No Illegal
Penalty: Up to 3 years imprisonment[66]
No No No No No No
Somaliland No Illegal since 1941 (as British Somaliland Protectorate)
Penalty: Up to 3 years imprisonment[37][38]
No No No No No No



The Americas

Tables:

North America

LGBT rights in: Same-sex sexual activity Recognition of same-sex unions Same-sex marriage Adoption by same-sex couples LGB people allowed to serve openly in military? Anti-discrimination laws concerning sexual orientation Laws concerning gender identity/expression
Bermuda
(Overseas territory of the United Kingdom)
Yes Legal since 1994 (age of consent discrepancy)
+ UN decl. sign.[37]
No No Yes Legal since 2015[67] Yes UK responsible for defence. No Bans all anti-gay discrimination.[68] No
Canada Yes Legal since 1969 (age of consent discrepancy and prohibition of anal intercourse in some cases)
+ UN decl. sign.[37][69]
Yes Domestic partnership in Nova Scotia (2001)[70];
Civil union in Quebec (2002)[71];
Adult interdependent relationship in Alberta (2003)[72];
Common-law relationship in Manitoba (2004)[73]
Yes Legal in some provinces and territories since 2003,
nationwide since 2005
.[74]
Yes Legal in some provinces and territories since 1996, nationwide since 2010.[75] Yes Since 1992[76] Yes Bans all anti-gay discrimination, including hate speech. Pathologization or attempted treatment of sexual orientation by mental health professionals illegal in Ontario since 2015. Yes Transgender persons can change their legal gender and name after completion of medical intervention in most provinces and territories (not required in Ontario, British Columbia and Manitoba); Explicit anti-discrimination protections only in Alberta, Manitoba, Saskatchewan, Ontario and the Northwest Territories implicit elsewhere.[77][78][79][80]
Greenland
(Constituent country of the Kingdom of Denmark)
Yes Legal since 1933
+ UN decl. sign.[37]
Yes Registered partnership since 1996[81] No (Pending)[82] Yes/No Step-child adoption since 2009[83];(Joint adoption pending)[82] Yes Denmark responsible for defence. Yes Bans some anti-gay discrimination.[37] No
Mexico Yes Legal since 1871
+ UN decl. sign.[37]
Yes/No Civil union in Mexico City (2007), Coahuila (2007),[84] Colima (2013),[85] Campeche (2013),[86] Jalisco (2014)[87] and Michoacán (TBD).[88] Yes/No Legal in Mexico City (2010),[89] Quintana Roo (2012),[90] Coahuila (2014), Chihuahua (2015) and Guerrero (2015).
All states are obliged to honour same-sex marriages performed in states where it is legal.[89]
(Proposed nationwide).[91][92]

The Supreme Court has declared that it is unconstitutional to deny marriage licenses to same-sex couples in all states,[93] but as state constitutions were not invalidated, individual injunctions must still be obtained from the court.[94][95]

Yes Legal since 2015[96] Yes/No No explicit ban. However, LGB persons have been reportedly discharged on the grounds of "immorality".[97] Yes Constitutional ban on all anti-gay discrimination.[98] Yes Transgender persons can change their legal gender and name in Mexico City since 2008.[99] Mexico adopted a legal protocol for gender identity and sexual orientation in 2014 based upon constitutional provisions to equally protect the rights of all citizens.[100]
Saint Pierre et Miquelon
(Overseas collectivity of France)
Yes Legal since 1791
+ UN decl. sign.[37]
Yes Civil solidarity pact since 1999[101] Yes Legal since 2013[102] Yes Legal since 2013[103] Yes Yes Bans all anti-gay discrimination.[42] Yes Requires sterilization for legal change.[104]
United States Yes Legal in some states since 1962, nationwide since 2003
+ UN decl. sign.[37]
Yes Domestic partnership in California (1999),[105] the District of Columbia (2002),[106] Maine (2004),[107] Washington (2007),[108] Oregon (2008),[109] Maryland (2008),[110] Wisconsin (2009)[111] and Nevada (2009)[112];
Civil union in Vermont (2000),[113] Connecticut (2005),[114] New Jersey (2007),[115] New Hampshire (2008),[116] Illinois (2011),[117] Rhode Island (2011),[118] Hawaii (2012),[119] Delaware (2012),[120] and Colorado (2013)[121]
Yes Legal in some states since 2004.
Nationwide since 2015
, except American Samoa and some tribal jurisdictions.[122][123]
Yes Legal in some states since 1993.
Nationwide since 2015, except Mississippi and American Samoa.[123]
Yes Since 2011[124] Yes/No Federal executive order prohibiting discrimination based on sexual orientation for employees in the federal civilian workforce, along with the government employment in the District of Columbia, and the United States Postal Service, since 1998 (see Executive Order 12968 and Executive Order 13087). Pathologization or attempted treatment of sexual orientation with minors by mental health professionals illegal in some states. (Banned in California, Illinois, New Jersey, Oregon and the District of Columbia). Included in the federal hate crimes law since 2009.
(Sexual orientation discrimination in public and private employment)
Yes/No Gender identity discrimination in employment and healthcare insurance banned since 2012.[125][126] Included in the federal hate crimes law since 2009.
(Gender identity discrimination in public and private employment)

Central America

LGBT rights in: Same-sex sexual activity Recognition of same-sex unions Same-sex marriage Adoption by same-sex couples LGB people allowed to serve openly in military? Anti-discrimination laws concerning sexual orientation Laws concerning gender identity/expression
Belize No Male illegal since 2003
Penalty: 10-year prison sentence (not enforced)
Yes Female always legal.[37]
No No No No No No
Costa Rica Yes Legal since 1971
+ UN decl. sign.[37]
Yes For some purposes such as conjugal visit, health-related decisions and social insurance;
(De facto union pending)[127][128]
No No LGBT individuals may adopt.[129] Has no military. Yes Bans all anti-gay discrimination.[37] No
El Salvador Yes Legal since the 1800s
+ UN decl. sign.[37]
No No (Constitutional ban pending)[130] No Yes[131] Yes Bans all anti-gay discrimination.[131] Yes Bans hate crimes based on gender identity.[132][133]
Guatemala Yes Legal since 1800's
+ UN decl. sign.[37]
No No No No No
Honduras Yes Legal since 1899
+ UN decl. sign.[37]
No No Constitutional ban since 2005.[134][135] No No Yes Bans hate crimes based on sexual orientation.[37] Yes Bans hate crimes based on gender identity.[37]
Nicaragua Yes Legal since 2008
+ UN decl. sign.[37]
No No No Yes Bans some anti-gay discrimination.[37] No
Panama Yes Legal since 2008
+ UN decl. sign.[37]
No No No Has no military. No (Anti-discrimination law proposed).[136] Yes Transgender persons can change their legal gender and name after completion of medical intervention since 2006.[137]

Caribbean

LGBT rights in: Same-sex sexual activity Recognition of same-sex unions Same-sex marriage Adoption by same-sex couples LGB people allowed to serve openly in military? Anti-discrimination laws concerning sexual orientation Laws concerning gender identity/expression
Anguilla
(Overseas territory of the United Kingdom)
Yes Legal since 2000
+ UN decl. sign.[37]
No No No Yes UK responsible for defence. No No
Antigua and Barbuda No Illegal
Penalty: 15-year prison sentence.[37]
No No No No No No
Aruba
(Constituent country of the Kingdom of the Netherlands)
Yes Legal
+ UN decl. sign.[37]
No(Pending)[138] No/Yes(Pending)
Same-sex marriages performed in the Netherlands recognized.[139]
No Yes The Netherlands responsible for defence. No No
Bahamas Yes Legal since 1991 (age of consent discrepancy)
+ UN decl. sign.[37]
No No No Yes[37] No No
Barbados No Illegal
Penalty: Life imprisonment (not enforced).[37]
No No No No No No
British Virgin Islands
(Overseas territory of the United Kingdom)
Yes Legal since 2000
+ UN decl. sign.[37]
No No No Yes UK responsible for defence. Yes Constitutional ban on all anti-gay discrimination.[140] No
Caribbean Netherlands
(Bonaire, Sint Eustatius, Saba; Special municipalities of the Netherlands)
Yes Legal
+ UN decl. sign.[37]
Yes Registered partnership since 2012[141] Yes Legal since 2012[142] Yes[143] Yes The Netherlands responsible for defence. Yes Bans all anti-gay discrimination.[144] Yes[145]
Cayman Islands
(Overseas territory of the United Kingdom)
Yes Legal since 2000 (age of consent discrepancy) [146]
+ UN decl. sign.[37]
No No Constitutional ban since 2009.[147] No Yes UK responsible for defence. No No
Cuba Yes Legal since 1979
+ UN decl. sign.[37]
No No Constitutional ban since 1976. No Yes[37] Yes Bans some anti-gay discrimination.[148][149] Yes[150]
Curaçao
(Constituent country of the Kingdom of the Netherlands)
Yes Legal
+ UN decl. sign.[37]
No (Proposed) No/Yes Same-sex marriages performed in the Netherlands recognized.[139] No Yes The Netherlands responsible for defence. No No
Dominica No Illegal
Penalty: 10-year prison sentence or incarceration in a psychiatric institution
+ UN decl. sign.[37]
No No No No No No
Dominican Republic Yes Legal since 1822
+ UN decl. sign.[37]
No No Constitutional ban since 2010.[151] No No[152] No No
Grenada No Male illegal
Penalty: 10-year prison sentence
Yes Female always legal.[37]
No No No Has no military. No No
Guadeloupe
(Overseas department of France)
Yes Legal since 1791
+ UN decl. sign.[37]
Yes Civil solidarity pact since 1999[101] Yes Legal since 2013[102] Yes Legal since 2013[103] Yes Yes Bans all anti-gay discrimination.[42] Yes Requires sterilization for legal change.[104]
Haiti Yes Legal since 1986[37] No No No Has no military. No No
Jamaica No Male illegal
Penalty: 10 years hard labor (not enforced)
Yes Female always legal.[37]
No No No No No No
Martinique
(Overseas department of France)
Yes Legal since 1791
+ UN decl. sign.[37]
Yes Civil solidarity pact since 1999[101] Yes Legal since 2013[102] Yes Legal since 2013[103] Yes Yes Bans all anti-gay discrimination.[42] Yes Requires sterilization for legal change.[104]
Montserrat
(Overseas territory of the United Kingdom)
Yes Legal since 2000
+ UN decl. sign.[37]
No No Constitutional ban since 2010.[153] No Yes UK responsible for defence. Yes Constitutional ban on all anti-gay discrimination.[154] No
Puerto Rico
(Commonwealth of the United States)
Yes Legal since 2003
+ UN decl. sign.[37]
Yes Since 2015 Yes Legal since 2015[155] Yes Legal since 2015 Yes Since 2011[124] Yes Bans hate crimes since 2002 and anti–employment discrimination since 2013. US hate crime laws also apply. Yes Bans hate crimes since 2002 and anti–employment discrimination since 2013. US hate crime laws also apply.
Saint Barthélemy
(Overseas collectivity of France since 2007)
Yes Legal since 1791
+ UN decl. sign.[37]
Yes Civil solidarity pact since 1999[101] Yes Legal since 2013[102] Yes Legal since 2013[103] Yes Yes Bans all anti-gay discrimination.[42] Yes Requires sterilization for legal change.[104]
Saint Kitts and Nevis No Male illegal
Penalty: 10 years
Yes Female always legal.[37]
No No No No No No
Saint Lucia No Male illegal
Penalty: fine and/or 10-year prison sentence
Yes Female always legal.[37]
No No No Has no military. No No
Saint Martin
(Overseas collectivity of France since 2007)
Yes Legal since 1791
+ UN decl. sign.[37]
Yes Civil solidarity pact since 1999[101] Yes Legal since 2013[102] Yes Legal since 2013[103] Yes Yes Bans all anti-gay discrimination.[42] Yes Requires sterilization for legal change.[104]
Saint Vincent and the Grenadines No Illegal
Penalty: fine and/or 10-year prison sentence.[37]
No No No Has no military. No No
Sint Maarten
(Constituent country of the Kingdom of the Netherlands)
Yes Legal
+ UN decl. sign.[37]
No (Proposed) No/Yes Same-sex marriages performed in the Netherlands recognized.[139] No Yes The Netherlands responsible for defence. No No
Trinidad and Tobago No Illegal
Penalty: 25-year prison sentence (not enforced).[37]
No No No No No No
Turks and Caicos Islands
(Overseas territory of the United Kingdom)
Yes Legal since 2000
+ UN decl. sign.[37]
No No Constitutional ban since 2011.[156] No Yes UK responsible for defence. Yes Constitutional ban on all anti-gay discrimination.[37] No
United States Virgin Islands
(Insular area of the United States)
Yes Legal since 1985
+ UN decl. sign.[37]
Yes Since 2015[123] Yes Legal since 2015[123] Yes Legal since 2015[123] Yes Since 2011[124] Yes The US hate crime laws also apply to all US external territories as well. Yes The US hate crime laws also apply to all US external territories as well.

South America

LGBT rights in: Same-sex sexual activity Recognition of same-sex unions Same-sex marriage Adoption by same-sex couples LGB people allowed to serve openly in military? Anti-discrimination laws concerning sexual orientation Laws concerning gender identity/expression
Argentina Yes Legal since 1887
+ UN decl. sign.[37]
Yes Civil union in Buenos Aires (2003)[157] and Rio Negro (2003)[158]
Cohabitation union nationwide since 2015[159]
Yes Legal since 2010.[160] Yes Legal since 2010 Yes Since 2009[161] Yes/No Legal protection in some provinces (federal law pending).[162] Pathologization or attempted treatment of sexual orientation by mental health professionals illegal. Yes Transgender persons can change their legal gender and name without surgeries or judicial permission since 2012.[163]
Bolivia Yes Legal
+ UN decl. sign.[37]
No Constitutional ban on free unions.[164]
(Family life agreement pending)[165]
No Constitutional ban since 2009.[166] No LGBT individuals may adopt.[167] Yes Since 2010 the Armed Forces prohibits the ejection from the military because of sexual orientation.[168][169] Yes Bans all anti-gay discrimination.[37] Yes Transgender persons can change their legal gender and name after completion of medical intervention since 2005.[170][171][172]
Brazil Yes Legal since 1831
+ UN decl. sign.[37]
Yes "Stable unions" legal in some states since 2004. All rights as recognized family entities available nationwide since 2011.[173][174] Yes Legal in some states since 2012, nationwide since 2013.[175][176] Yes Legal since 2010[177] Yes Since 1969[178] Yes/No All state-sanctioned social discrimination of citizens since 1988. Legal protection for sexual orientation in many jurisdictions (expansion of anti-discrimination (all) national Constitutional amendment discussed in the Senate).[179] Pathologization or attempted treatment of sexual orientation by mental health professionals illegal since 1999.[180][181] Yes Transgender persons can change their legal gender and name after completion of medical intervention since 2009.[182][183][184]
Chile Yes Legal since 1999 (age of consent discrepancy)
+ UN decl. sign.[37]
Yes Civil union agreement since 2015[185] No (Pending).[186] No LGBT individuals may adopt (Joint and step-child adoption pending).[187] Yes Since 2012.[188] Yes Bans all anti-gay discrimination since 2012.[189] Yes Transgender persons can change their legal gender and name after completion of medical intervention since 2007.

Surgery no longer a requirement beginning in 2015. Judicial permission required.[190] Currently, a broader gender identity law (which would not require any surgeries or judicial permission) is being discussed by the congress.[191][192]

Colombia Yes Legal since 1981
+ UN decl. sign.[37]
Yes De facto marital union since 2007[193] No (Pending Constitutional Court ruling)[194] Yes/No Step-child adoption since 2014[195];(Joint adoption pending)[196] Yes Since 1999. Since 2009 the military special social security system can be used by same sex couples in the army.[37] Yes Bans all anti-gay discrimination, including hate speech.[197] Yes Since 2015, transgender persons can change their legal gender and name manifesting their solemn will before a notar, no surgeries or judicial order required. [198]
Ecuador Yes Legal since 1997
+ UN decl. sign.[37]
Yes De facto union since 2009[199][200] No Constitutional ban since 2009.[201] No LGBT individuals may adopt.[202] Yes[37] Yes Bans all anti-gay discrimination.[203] Yes Transgender persons can change their legal gender and name after completion of medical intervention.[204]
Falkland Islands
(Overseas territory of the United Kingdom)
Yes Legal since 1989
+ UN decl. sign.[37]
No (Civil partnership proposed)[205] No (Proposed)[205] No Yes UK responsible for defence. Yes Constitutional ban on all anti-gay discrimination.[206] No
French Guiana
(Overseas department of France)
Yes Legal since 1791
+ UN decl. sign.[37]
Yes Civil solidarity pact since 1999[101] Yes Legal since 2013[102] Yes Legal since 2013[103] Yes Yes Bans all anti-gay discrimination.[42] Yes Requires sterilization for legal change.[104]
Guyana No Illegal
Penalty: Up to life imprisonment (Not enforced).[37]
No No No Yes[207] No No
Paraguay Yes Legal since 1880 (age of consent discrepancy)
+ UN decl. sign.[37]
No Constitutional ban on de facto unions since 1992.[208] No Constitutional ban since 1992.[209] No No No
Peru Yes Legal since 1836-1837
+ UN decl. sign.[37]
No (Solidary community pending)[210] No No Yes Since 2009[211] Yes Bans some anti-gay discrimination.[212][213][214] Yes Transgender persons can change their legal name after completion of medical intervention. Gender change is not allowed by courts.[215]
Suriname Yes Legal since 1869 (age of consent discrepancy).[37] No No No No No
Uruguay Yes Legal since 1934
+ UN decl. sign.[37]
Yes Concubinage union since 2008.[216] Yes Legal since 2013[217] Yes Legal since 2009[218] Yes Since 2009[219] Yes Bans all anti-gay discrimination since 2004.[220] Yes Transgender persons can change their legal gender and name since 2009.[221]
Venezuela Yes Legal since 1997
+ UN decl. sign.[37]
No/Yes Civil union in Mérida since 2010[222] No (Proposed)[223]
Constitutional ban since 1999.[224]
No Yes Since 1999[37] Yes Bans some anti-gay discrimination.[225] No

Asia

This table:

Central Asia

LGBT rights in: Same-sex sexual activity Recognition of same-sex unions Same-sex marriage Adoption by same-sex couples LGB allowed to serve openly in military? Anti-discrimination laws concerning sexual orientation Laws concerning gender identity/expression
Kazakhstan Yes Legal since 1998[37] No No No No[226] No No
Kyrgyzstan Yes Legal since 1998[37] No No No No No
Tajikistan Yes Legal since 1998[37] No No No No No
Turkmenistan No Male illegal
Penalty: up to 2-year prison sentence
Yes Female always legal[37]
No No No No No
Uzbekistan No Male illegal
Penalty: up to 3-year prison sentence
Yes Female always legal[37]
No No No No No

Northern Asia

LGBT rights in: Same-sex sexual activity Recognition of same-sex unions Same-sex marriage Adoption by same-sex couples LGB allowed to serve openly in military? Anti-discrimination laws concerning sexual orientation Laws concerning gender identity/expression
Akrotiri and Dhekelia
(Overseas territory of the United Kingdom)
Yes Legal since 2000
+ UN decl. sign.[37]
No No Yes UK responsible for defence Yes Bans some anti-gay discrimination[227]
Armenia Yes Legal since 2003
+ UN decl. sign.[37]
No No No No/Yes No explicit ban. However, LGBT persons have been reportedly discharged because of their sexual orientation.[228] No No
Azerbaijan Yes Legal since 2000[37] No No No Yes[229] No Yes (Requires sterilization for change).[104]
Cyprus Yes Legal since 1998
+ UN decl. sign.[37]
No (Pending)[230][231] No No No Yes Bans all anti-gay discrimination[42] Yes Forbids discrimination based on gender identity.
Georgia Yes Legal since 2000
+ UN decl. sign.[37]
No No (Constitutional ban proposed) No Yes Bans all anti-gay discrimination[232] Yes (Requires sterilization for change)[104]
Russia Yes Male legal since 1993
Female always legal[233][37]
No No (Constitutional ban proposed) No LGBT individuals may adopt. Yes No Yes (Requires sterilization for change)[104]
Turkey Yes Legal since 1858[37] No No No No (Proposed)[234] No (Proposed)[235] Yes (Requires sterilization for change)

Western Asia

LGBT rights in: Same-sex sexual activity Recognition of same-sex unions Same-sex marriage Adoption by same-sex couples LGB allowed to serve openly in military? Anti-discrimination laws concerning sexual orientation Laws concerning gender identity/expression
Bahrain Yes Legal since 1976[37] (Age of consent discrepancy) No No No No No No
Iran No Illegal
Penalty: For men 74 lashes for immature men and death penalty for mature men of sound mind and is consenting. For women 50 lashes for women of mature sound mind and is consenting. Death penalty offense after fourth conviction.[37]
No No No No No Yes Legal gender recognition in Iran is legal if accompanied by a medical intervention.[236]
Iraq Yes Legal since 2003[237] (Age of consent discrepancy) No No No No No No
Israel Yes Legal since 1988
+ UN decl. sign.[37][238]
Yes Unregistered cohabitation since 1994. No/Yes Unrecognized if performed in country, but foreign same-sex marriages are recognized. Yes Step-child adoption since 2005.
Joint adoption since 2008.[239][240]
Yes Since 1993 Yes Bans some anti-gay discrimination;[241][242] Basic Law: Human Dignity and Liberty applies to homosexuals and bisexuals.[243] Yes Full recognition of gender's ID without a surgery or medical intervention;[244] equal employment opportunity law bars discrimination based on gender identity;[245][246] Basic Law: Human Dignity and Liberty applies to transgender individuals.[245][247]
Jordan Yes Legal since 1951[37] No No No No
Kuwait No Male illegal
Penalty: Fines or up to 6-year prison sentence
Yes Female always legal[37][248]
No No No No No No
Lebanon Yes Legal since 2014[249] No No No No No No
Oman No Illegal
Penalty: Fines and prison sentence up to 3 years (Only enforced when dealing with "public scandal")[37]
No No No No No No
Qatar No Illegal
Penalty: Fines, prison sentence up to 7 years. Death penalty offense. (Applies to Muslims only)[37]
No No No No No No
Saudi Arabia No Illegal
Penalty: Prison sentences of several months to life, fines and/or whipping/flogging, castration, torture or death can be sentenced on first conviction. A second conviction merits execution.[37]
No No No No No No
Syria No Illegal
Penalty: Prison sentence up to 3 years (Law in de-facto suspended)[250][37]
No No No No No Yes Transsexuals allowed to change legal gender
United Arab Emirates No Illegal under federal law
Penalty: deportation, fines or prison time (Unclear if the death penalty applies)
Illegal in the emirate of Dubai
Penalty: Up to 14 years imprisonment
Illegal in the emirate of Abu Dhabi
Penalty: Up to 10 years imprisonment[37]
No No No No No No
Yemen No Illegal
Penalty: Unmarried men punished

with 100 lashes of the whip or a maximum of one year of imprisonment, married men with death by stoning. Women punished up to three years of imprisonment; where the offense has been committed under duress, the punishment is up to seven years detention.[37]

No No No No No No

Southern Asia

LGBT rights in: Same-sex sexual activity Recognition of same-sex unions Same-sex marriage Adoption by same-sex couples LGB allowed to serve openly in military? Anti-discrimination laws concerning sexual orientation Laws concerning gender identity/expression
Afghanistan No Illegal
Penalty: Long imprisonment or death penalty (No known cases of death sentences have been handed out for same-sex sexual activity after the end of Taliban rule)[37]
No No No No No No
Bangladesh No Illegal
Penalty: 10 years to life imprisonment[37]
No No No No No Yes A third option (hijra) beside male and female[251]
Bhutan No Illegal
Penalty: Prison sentence up to 1 year (Not enforced)[37]
No No No No No No
India No Illegal nationwide since 1860[252]
Penalty: Up to life imprisonment[253][252][37]
No No explicit recognition.[254] No No explicit recognition.[254] No Transgender individuals may adopt. No[255] No Yes "Third gender" recognised by Supreme Court[256]
Maldives No Illegal
Penalty: For men the punishment is banishment for nine months to one year or a whipping of 10 to 30 strokes. For women is house arrest for nine months to one year.[37]
No No No No No No
Nepal Yes Legal since 2007
+ UN decl. sign.[37]
No (Proposed: By Supreme Court in 2008) No (Proposed: By Supreme Court in 2008) No Under consideration Yes Yes Constitution bans all anti-gay discrimination. Yes Gender change is legal since 2007.
Constitution bans all discrimination.[257]
Pakistan No Illegal
Penalty: 2 years to life sentence[37]
No No No No No Yes 'Third gender' officially protected from discrimination by Supreme Court of Pakistan in 2010
Sri Lanka No Illegal
Penalty: Fine and up to 10 years imprisonment (Not enforced)[37]
No No No No No No

Eastern Asia

LGBT rights in: Same-sex sexual activity Recognition of relationships Same-sex marriage Adoption by same-sex couples LGB allowed to serve openly in military? Anti-discrimination laws concerning sexual orientation Laws concerning gender identity/expression
China
(People's Republic of)
Yes Legal since 1997[37] No No No No Yes Transsexuals allowed to change legal gender, but only after sex reassignment surgery.
Hong Kong
(Special administrative region of China)
Yes Legal since 1991[37] No (Proposed)[258] No No
The People's Republic of China is in charge of Hong Kong's defence affairs. Regardless of sexual orientation, military personnel are not recruited from Hong Kong.
Yes Government employment, goods and services only Yes Transsexuals allowed to change legal gender, but only after sex reassignment surgery.
Japan Yes Legal since 1880
+ UN decl. sign.[37]
No/Yes Partnership in Shibuya (2015)[259] and Setagaya (2015)[260] No No Yes No/Yes No nationwide protections, but some cities ban some anti-gay discriminations[37] Yes Transsexuals allowed to change legal gender, but only after sex reassignment surgery and in case that the transsexual has no child under 20 years old
Macau
(Special administrative region of China)
Yes Legal
(No laws against same-sex sexual activity has ever existed in the region)
No No No
The People's Republic of China is in charge of Macau's defence affairs. Regardless of sexual orientation, military personnel are not recruited from Macau.
Yes Bans some anti-gay discrimination
Mongolia Yes Legal since 1961
+ UN decl. sign.[37]
No No No No
North Korea Yes Legal
(No laws against same-sex sexual activity has ever existed in the country)[37]
No No No No Unknown although there are heavily obeyed gender roles for both male and female. See Let's trim our hair in accordance with the socialist lifestyle
South Korea Yes Legal
(No laws against same-sex sexual activity has ever existed in the country)
+ UN decl. sign.[37]
No No No Yes Due to conscription. No Yes Transsexuals allowed to change legal gender

Southeast Asia

LGBT rights in Same-sex sexual activity Recognition of relationships Same-sex marriage Adoption by same-sex couples LGB allowed to serve openly in military? Anti-discrimination laws concerning sexual orientation Laws concerning gender identity/expression
Brunei No Illegal
Penalty: Fines and imprisonment up to 10 years or death by stoning[37]
No No No No No No
Burma No Illegal
Penalty: Up to life sentence (Not enforced)[37]
No No No No No No
Cambodia Yes Legal
(No laws against same-sex sexual activity has ever existed in the country)[37]
No No Constitutional ban since 1993, though there has been at least one recorded case of a legally registered and recognized same-sex marriage. No No
East Timor Yes Legal since 1975
+ UN decl. sign.[37]
No No No Yes Bans hate crimes based on sexual orientation
Indonesia Yes Legal nationwide, except;
No Illegal in the provinces of Aceh and South Sumatra (Applies only to Muslims)[261][262][37] (Age of consent discrepancy)
No No No No[263] No Yes Transsexuals allowed to change legal gender
Laos Yes Legal
(No laws against same-sex sexual activity has ever existed in the country)[37]
No No No No
Malaysia No Male illegal
Penalty: fines, prison sentence (2-20 years), or whippings

Yes Female always legal[37]

No No No No No No
Philippines Yes Legal nationwide since 1933 except;
No Illegal in Marawi City (Applies toMuslims only)[264][37][265]
No (Pending)[264] No (Pending)[266] No LGBT individuals may adopt.[267] Yes Since 2009 No/Yes No national protections, but Cebu[268] Quezon City, Davao[269] and Albay have anti-discrimination ordinances[270] (National bill pending but still not made into law)
Singapore No Male illegal
Penalty: up to 2 years prison sentence (Not enforced since 1999)
Yes Female legal since 2007[37]
No No No Yes Due to conscription, but gays are not allowed to go to command school or serve in sensitive units. No Yes Transsexuals allowed to change legal gender, but only after sex reassignment surgery.
Thailand Yes Legal since 1956
+ UN decl. sign.[37]
No (Proposed)[271] No No Yes Since 2005 Yes Bans all anti-gay discrimination. Yes Transsexuals may change their legal name after having a sex change operation.[272]
Vietnam Yes Legal
(No laws against same-sex sexual activity has ever existed in the country)[37]
No No[273] No No Yes Sex-change recognized for sex assignment for persons of congenital sex defects and unidentifiable sex

Partially recognized or unrecognized states

LGBT rights in: Same-sex sexual activity Recognition of same-sex unions Same-sex marriage Adoption by same-sex couples LGB allowed to serve openly in military? Anti-discrimination laws concerning sexual orientation Laws concerning gender identity/expression
Abkhazia Yes Legal after 1991 No No No No
Islamic State No Illegal
Penalty: Death penalty[274]
No No No No No No
Nagorno-Karabakh Yes Legal since 2000 No No No No
Northern Cyprus Yes Legal since 2014[275][276][37] No No No No Yes Bans all anti-gay discrimination[275][276] Yes Discrimination or hate speech banned since 2014.[275][276]

Unknown if gender change is legal.

Palestinian territories West Bank:
Yes Legal since 1951 (As part of Jordan)[37]
Gaza:
No Male illegal
Penalty: Up to 10 years imprisonment
Yes Female always legal[37]
No No No No No
South Ossetia Yes Legal after 1991 No No No No
Taiwan
(China, Republic of)
Yes Legal since 1895[277] No/ Registered partnership in Kaohsiung (2015),[278] Taipei (2015)[279] and Taichung (2015)[280];
(Proposed nationwide)
No (Pending) No (Pending) Yes Due to military draft Yes Bans some anti-gay discrimination (in work and education) Yes Transsexuals allowed to change legal gender. Surgery no longer a requirement beginning in 2015[281]


Europe

Tables:

European Union

Main article: LGBT rights in the European Union
LGBT rights in: Same-sex sexual activity Recognition of same-sex unions Same-sex marriage Adoption by same-sex couples LGB allowed to serve openly in military? Anti-discrimination laws concerning sexual orientation Laws concerning gender identity/expression
European Union Yes Legal in all 28 member states.[282] Yes/No Legal in 19/28 member states.
Yes/No Legal in 12/28 member states.
Yes/No Joint adoption legal in 13/28 member states.
Step-child adoption legal in 16/28 member states.
Yes/No Legal in 27/28 member states.
Yes/No Membership requires a state to ban anti-gay discrimination in employment only. Yes Legal in all 28 member states.[283]

Central Europe

LGBT rights in: Same-sex sexual activity Recognition of same-sex unions Same-sex marriage Adoption by same-sex couples LGB allowed to serve openly in military? Anti-discrimination laws concerning sexual orientation Laws concerning gender identity/expression
Austria Yes Legal since 1971
+ UN decl. sign.[37]
Yes Registered partnership since 2010[284] No (Pending)[285] Yes Step-child adoption since 2013.
Joint adoption court ordered by January 2016.[286][287]
Yes Yes Bans all anti-gay discrimination[42] Yes Gender change is legal.[104]
Croatia Yes Legal since 1977 (As part of Yugoslavia)
+ UN decl. sign.[37]
Yes Life partnership since 2014[288] No Constitutionally banned since the 2013 referendum.[289] Yes/No Partner-guardianship since 2014 (parental responsibility and a permanent next-of-kins relationship between a life partner and their partner's child which is registered in the child's birth certificate) Yes Yes Bans all anti-gay discrimination[290][42][42] Yes Act on the elimination of discrimination bans all types discrimination based on both gender identity and gender expression. Gender change is regulated by special policy issued by Ministry of Health. [291]
Czech Republic Yes Legal since 1962 (As part of Czechoslovakia)
+ UN decl. sign.[37]
Yes Registered partnership since 2006[292] No No LGBT individuals may adopt; (Step-child adoption pending)[293] Yes Yes Bans all anti-gay discrimination[42] Yes Legal recognition granted and amendment of birth certificate after reassignment surgery (With mandatory sterilisation) [104].
Germany Yes Legal in East Germany since 1968
Legal in West Berlin and West Germany since 1969
+ UN decl. sign.[37][294]
Yes Registered life partnership since 2001[295] No (Pending)[296] Yes/No Step-child adoption since 2005; (Joint adoption pending) Yes Yes Bans all anti-gay discrimination[297][298] Yes Gender change is legal.[299]
Hungary Yes Legal since 1962
+ UN decl. sign.[37]
Yes Registered partnership since 2009[300] No (Pending)[301][302]
Constitutionally banned since 2012.[303][304]
No LGBT individuals may adopt; (Joint and step-child adoption pending)[305] Yes Yes Bans all anti-gay discrimination[42] Yes Full legal recognition granted, birth certificate replaced. No surgery or hormone therapy is required for legal gender change.[104]
Liechtenstein Yes Legal since 1989
+ UN decl. sign.[37]
Yes Registered partnership since 2011[306] No No LGBT individuals may adopt.[307] Has no military No (Proposed) No Gender change is not legal.[104]
Poland Yes Legal
(No laws against same-sex sexual activity has ever existed in the country)
+ UN decl. sign.[37]
No[308] No Constitutionally banned since 1997.[309] No LGBT individuals may adopt, joint adoption forbidden.[310] Yes Yes Bans some anti-gay discrimination[42] Yes
Romania Yes Legal since 1996
+ UN decl. sign.[37]
No (Pending)[311][312] No No LGBT individuals may adopt.[313] Yes Yes Bans all anti-gay discrimination[42] Yes Legal recognition and birth certificates amended after reassignment surgery.[104]
Slovakia Yes Legal since 1962 (As part of Czechoslovakia)
+ UN decl. sign.[37]
No No Constitutionally banned since 2014[314] No LGBT individuals may adopt.[315] Yes Yes Bans all anti-gay discrimination[316][317] Yes (Requires sterilisation for change).[104]
Slovenia Yes Legal since 1977 (As part of Yugoslavia)
+ UN decl. sign.[37]
Yes Registered partnership since 2006[318] No (passed by parliament, referendum pending)[319][320] No Step-child adoption since 2011.
Joint adoption pending.
Yes Yes Bans all anti-gay discrimination[42] Yes Gender change is legal.[321]
Switzerland Yes Legal nationwide since 1942
Legal in the cantons of Geneva, Ticino, Valais and Vaud (as part of France) since 1798
+ UN decl. sign.[37]
Yes Registered partnership since 2007[322] No (Pending)[323] (Constitutional ban pending)[324] No LGBT individuals may adopt; (Biological step-child adoption pending).[325] Yes Yes Bans some anti-gay discrimination. (Banning all anti-gay discrimination pending)[326] Yes Legal documents can be issued based on a person's new gender identity. Sterilisation technically required not enforced since 2012. Registered Partnership can become Marriage between the new opposite-sex couple.[327]

Eastern Europe

LGBT rights in: Same-sex sexual activity Recognition of same-sex unions Same-sex marriage Adoption by same-sex couples LGB allowed to serve openly in military? Anti-discrimination laws concerning sexual orientation Laws concerning gender identity/expression
Armenia Yes Legal since 2003
+ UN decl. sign.[37]
No No No No/Yes No explicit ban. However, LGBT persons have been reportedly discharged because of their sexual orientation.[328] No No
Azerbaijan Yes Legal since 2000[37] No No No Yes[329] No Yes (Requires sterilisation for change).[104]
Belarus Yes Legal since 1994[37] No No Constitutionally banned since 1994[330] No No/Yes Banned from military service during peacetime, but during wartime homosexuals are permitted to enlist as partially able.[331] No LGBT activism/expression deemed terrorism[332] Yes
Georgia Yes Legal since 2000
+ UN decl. sign.[37]
No No (Constitutional ban proposed)[333][334] No Yes Bans all anti-gay discrimination[335] Yes (Requires sterilisation for change).[104]
Kazakhstan Yes Legal since 1998[37] No No No No No
Moldova Yes Legal since 1995
+ UN decl. sign.[37]
No No Constitutionally banned since 1994[336] No Yes Yes Bans some anti-gay discrimination [42] Yes (Requires sterilisation for change).[104]
Russia Yes Male legal since 1993
Female always legal[337][37]
No No (Constitutional ban proposed)[338] No Yes No Yes (Requires sterilisation for change).[104]
Ukraine Yes Legal since 1991
+ UN decl. sign.[37]
No No Constitutionally banned since 1996[339] No LGBT individuals may adopt.[340] No/Yes Policies depend on the regional commissioners.[341] No Yes (Requires sterilisation for change).[104]

Northern Europe

LGBT rights in: Same-sex sexual activity Recognition of same-sex unions Same-sex marriage Adoption by same-sex couples LGB allowed to serve openly in military? Anti-discrimination laws concerning sexual orientation Laws concerning gender identity/expression
Denmark Yes Legal since 1933
+ UN decl. sign.[37]
Yes Registered partnership from 1989 to 2012 (Existing partnerships are still recognised.)[342] Yes Legal since 2012[343][344] Yes Step-child adoption since 1999.
Joint adoption since 2010.[345]
Yes Yes Bans all anti-gay discrimination[42] Yes Legal gender change and recognition possible without surgery or hormone therapy.[346]
Estonia Yes Legal since 1992
+ UN decl. sign.[37]
Yes Cohabitation agreement from 2016[347] No Yes/No Step-child adoption from 2016 Yes Yes Bans all anti-gay discrimination[42] Yes Forbids discrimination based on gender identity.[104]
Faroe Islands
(Constituent country of the Kingdom of Denmark)
Yes Legal since 1933
+ UN decl. sign.[37]
No No (Proposed) No (Proposed) Yes (Denmark responsible for defence) Yes Bans some anti-gay discrimination[348][349] No[350]
Finland Yes Legal since 1971
+ UN decl. sign.[37]
Yes Registered partnership since 2002[351] Yes From March 2017[352] Yes Step-child adoption since 2009.
Joint adoption from March 2017.
Yes Yes Bans all anti-gay discrimination[42] Yes Legal change and recognition is possible only with sterilisation.[353]
Iceland Yes Legal since 1940
(As part of Denmark)
+ UN decl. sign.[37]
Yes Registered cohabitation since 2006[354];
Registered partnership from 1996 to 2010 (Existing partnerships are still recognised.)[355]
Yes Legal since 2010[356][357] Yes Legal since 2006[358] Has no military Yes Bans all anti-gay discrimination[42] Yes Documents can be amended to the recognised gender.[359][104]
Latvia Yes Legal since 1992
+ UN decl. sign.[37]
No No
Constitutionally banned since 2006[360]
No LGBT individuals may adopt.[361] Yes Yes Bans some anti-gay discrimination[42] Yes Documents are amended accordingly, no medical intervention required.[362]
Lithuania Yes Legal since 1993
+ UN decl. sign.[37]
No (Pending) No
Constitutionally banned since 1992[363]
No Only married couples can adopt.[364] Yes Yes Bans all anti-gay discrimination[42] Yes Gender change is legal since 2003.[365]
Norway Yes Legal since 1972
+ UN decl. sign.[37]
Yes Registered partnership from 1993 to 2009 (Existing partnerships are still recognised.)[366] Yes Legal since 2009[367][368] Yes Legal since 2009[369] Yes Yes Bans all anti-gay discrimination[42] Yes All documents can be amended to the recognised gender.[104]
Sweden Yes Legal since 1944
+ UN decl. sign.[37]
Yes Registered partnership from 1995 to 2009 (Existing partnerships are still recognised.)[370] Yes Legal since 2009[371] Yes Legal since 2003[372] Yes Yes Bans all anti-gay discrimination[42] Yes[373]

Southern Europe

LGBT rights in: Same-sex sexual activity Recognition of same-sex unions Same-sex marriage Adoption by same-sex couples LGB allowed to serve openly in military? Anti-discrimination laws concerning sexual orientation Laws concerning gender identity/expression
Akrotiri and Dhekelia
(Overseas territory of the United Kingdom)
Yes Legal since 2000
+ UN decl. sign.[37][374][375]
No No Yes UK responsible for defence Yes Bans some anti-gay discrimination[376]
Albania Yes Legal since 1995
+ UN decl. sign.[37]
No No No Yes Yes Bans all anti-gay discrimination[42] Yes Forbids discrimination based on gender identity.[377]

No Gender change is not legal.[104]

Andorra Yes Legal since 1990
+ UN decl. sign.[37]
Yes Stable union since 2005[378]; Civil union since 2014.[379] No Yes Legal since 2014[380][379][381] Has no military Yes Bans all anti-gay discrimination[42] No Gender change is not legal.[104]
Bosnia and Herzegovina Yes Legal since 1998 in the Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina, Republika Srpska since 2000 and Brcko District since 2001
+ UN decl. sign.[37]
No No No Yes Yes Bans some anti-gay discrimination[42] No
Bulgaria Yes Legal since 1968
+ UN decl. sign.[37]
No No Constitutionally banned since 1991[382] No LGBT individuals may adopt.[383] Yes Yes Bans all anti-gay discrimination[42] Yes (Requires sterilisation for change). Forbids discrimination based on gender identity. [384] [385]
Cyprus Yes Legal since 1998
+ UN decl. sign.[37]
No (Pending)[386] No No No (The only EU country to ban LGBT people in the military, not enforced)[387] Yes Bans all anti-gay discrimination[42] Yes Forbids discrimination based on gender identity.[388]
Gibraltar
(Overseas territory of the United Kingdom)
Yes Legal since 1993
+ UN decl. sign.[37]
Yes Civil partnership since 2014[389] No Yes Legal since 2014 Yes UK responsible for defence Yes Bans some anti-gay discrimination (Banning all anti-gay discrimination pending)[390] (Pending)[391]
Greece Yes Legal since 1951
(Age of consent discrepancy)
+ UN decl. sign.[37]
No No No Yes Yes Bans all anti-gay discrimination[42] Yes (Requires sterilisation for change).[104]
Italy Yes Legal since 1890
Legal in parts of Friuli-Venezia Giulia, along with Trentino-Alto Adige/Südtirol since 1919
(Illegal in parts of Friuli-Venezia Giulia, illegal in parts of Veneto, along with Trentino-Alto Adige/Südtirol from 1943-1945 under annexation of Nazi Germany)
+ UN decl. sign.[37]
No (Pending)[392] No (Pending)[393][394][395] No (Step-child adoption pending)[396] Yes Yes Bans some anti-gay discrimination[42] Yes Since 1982 legal recognition and documents can be amended to the recognised gender.[397] The Court of Cassation decided in 2015 that sterilisation is not required.[398]
Macedonia Yes Legal since 1996
+ UN decl. sign.[37]
No No (Constitutional ban pending)[399] No Yes No No
Malta Yes Legal since 1973
+ UN decl. sign.[37]
Yes Civil union since 2014[400] No/Yes Marriage performed abroad recognised since 2014[400][401] Yes Legal since 2014 Yes Yes Bans all anti-gay discrimination[42] Yes Since 2015.[402]
Montenegro Yes Legal since 1977 (As part of Yugoslavia)
+ UN decl. sign.[37]
No No Constitutionally banned since 2007[403][404] No Yes Yes Bans all anti-gay discrimination[42] Yes (Requires sterilisation for change).[104] Forbids discrimination based on gender identity.
Portugal Yes Legal since 1983
+ UN decl. sign.[37]
Yes De facto union since 2001[405][406] Yes Legal since 2010[407] No LGBT individuals may adopt.[408] Yes Yes Bans all anti-gay discrimination.[42] Yes Since 2011. All documents can be amended to the recognised gender.[409]
San Marino Yes Legal since 1865
+ UN decl. sign.[37]
Yes/No Unregistered cohabitation since 2012 (Only for one entitlement)[410] No No Yes Bans all anti-gay discrimination[411] No Gender change is not legal.[104]
Serbia Yes Legal from 1858, when nominally a vassal of Ottoman Empire to 1860[412] and again since 1994 (As part of Yugoslavia)
+ UN decl. sign.[37]
No No Constitutionally banned since 2006[413] No Yes Yes Bans all anti-gay discrimination[42] Yes Gender change is legal since 2007.[414][415]
Spain Yes Legal since 1979
+ UN decl. sign.[37]
Yes Unregistered cohabitation since 1994. Since 1997, different cities and regions have legislated their own version of civil union.[416][417] Yes Legal since 2005[418] Yes Legal since 2005[419] Yes Yes Bans all anti-gay discrimination[42] Yes Since 2007, all documents can be amended to the recognised gender[420]
Turkey Yes Legal since 1858[37] No No No No (Proposed)[421] No (Proposed)[421] Yes (Requires sterilisation for change).[422]
Vatican City Yes Legal since 1890 (As part of Italy)[37] No No No Has no military No

Western Europe

LGBT rights in: Same-sex sexual activity Recognition of same-sex unions Same-sex marriage Adoption by same-sex couples LGB allowed to serve openly in military? Anti-discrimination laws concerning sexual orientation Laws concerning gender identity/expression
Belgium Yes Legal nationwide since 1795
(As part of France)

Legal in Eupen-Malmedy since 1919
(Illegal from 1944-1944/1945 as part of Reichskommissariat Belgien-Nordfrankreich and under annexation of Nazi Germany)
+ UN decl. sign.[37]

Yes Legal cohabitation since 2000[423] Yes Legal since 2003[424][425][426] Yes Legal since 2006[427] Yes Yes Bans all anti-gay discrimination[42] Yes The 2007 law concerning transsexuality[428] grants the right to a legal name and gender change. (Requires hormone treatment for name change and sterilisation for gender change).
France Yes Legal nationwide since 1791
Legal in Savoy since 1792
Legal in parts of Alpes-Maritimes, Bas-Rhin, Haute-Saône, Moselle, and Vosges since 1793
Legal in parts of Haut-Rhin since 1798
Legal in parts of Alpes-Maritimes, Hautes-Alpes and Savoie since 1890
(As part of Italy)
(Illegal in Corsica under the Anglo-Corsican Kingdom from 1794-1796, illegal in parts of Alpes-Maritimes, along with Savoy from 1814-1860 under annexation of Kingdom of Sardinia, illegal in Alsace-Lorraine from 1871–1918 and 1940-1944/1945 under annexation of Imperial and Nazi Germany, and illegal in Nord and Pas-de-Calais from 1944-1944/1945 as part of Reichskommissariat Belgien-Nordfrankreich and under annexation of Nazi Germany)
+ UN decl. sign.[37]
Yes Civil solidarity pact since 1999[429] Yes Legal since 2013[430] Yes Legal since 2013[431] Yes Yes Bans all anti-gay discrimination[42] Yes (Requires sterilisation for change).[432]
Guernsey
(Crown dependency of the United Kingdom)
Yes Legal since 1983
+ UN decl. sign.[433][434][37]
No (Proposed)[435] No (Proposed)[435] No (Pending)[436] Yes UK responsible for defence Yes Bans some anti-gay discrimination[437] Yes 2004 anti-discrimination law. Legal gender change since 2007: Case law only. Only allows a new birth certificate to be issued. Does not amend or remove records of existing birth certificates, extension to Alderney and Sark unclear, does extend to Herm.[437][438]
Ireland Yes Male legal since 1993
Female always legal
+ UN decl. sign.[37]
Yes Civil partnership since 2011[439] Yes Legal from 2015. Approved via referundum[440] Yes Legal since 2015[441] Yes Yes Bans all anti-gay discrimination[442][443][444] Yes Gender Recognition Act 2015 [445]
Isle of Man
(Crown dependency of the United Kingdom)
Yes Legal since 1992
+ UN decl. sign.[37]
Yes Civil partnership since 2011[446] No (Proposed)[447][448] Yes Legal since 2011 Yes UK responsible for defence Yes Bans some anti-gay discrimination[449] Yes Transsexual persons are allowed to change their legal gender and to have their new gender recognised as a result of the Gender Recognition Act 2009 (c.11).[450][451]
Jersey
(Crown dependency of the United Kingdom)
Yes Legal since 1990
+ UN decl. sign.[37]
Yes Civil partnership since 2012[452] No (Proposed)[453] Yes Legal since 2012 Yes UK responsible for defence Yes Bans all anti-gay discrimination[454] Yes Gender Recognition (Jersey) Law 2010[455]
Luxembourg Yes Legal since 1795
(As part of France)
(Illegal from 1942-1944/1945 under annexation of Nazi Germany)
+ UN decl. sign.[37]
Yes Registered Partnership since 2004[456] Yes Legal since 2015[457][458] Yes Legal since 2015[459] Yes Yes Bans all anti-gay discrimination[460] Yes (Requires sterilisation for change). [104]
Monaco Yes Legal since 1793 (As part of France)
+ UN decl. sign.[37]
No (Pending)[461] No No Yes France responsible for defence Yes Bans some anti-gay discrimination[225]
Netherlands Yes Legal since 1811
(As part of France)
(Illegal from 1940-1944/1945 as part of Reichskommissariat Niederlande)
+ UN decl. sign.[37]
Yes Registered partnership since 1998[462] Yes Legal since 2001[463] Yes Legal since 2001[464] Yes Yes Bans all anti-gay discrimination[465] Yes[466]
United Kingdom Yes Male legal in England and Wales since 1967, in Scotland since 1981, and in Northern Ireland since 1982
Female always legal
+ UN decl. sign.[37]
Yes Civil partnership since 2005[467] Yes Legal in England, Wales and Scotland since 2014.[468][469]
No Illegal in Northern Ireland
Yes Legal in England and Wales since 2005, in Scotland since 2009 and Northern Ireland since 2013[470][471] Yes Yes Bans all anti-gay discrimination[472][37] Yes Gender Recognition Act 2004.

Partially recognised or unrecognised states

LGBT rights in: Same-sex sexual activity Recognition of same-sex unions Same-sex marriage Adoption by same-sex couples LGB allowed to serve openly in military? Anti-discrimination laws concerning sexual orientation Laws concerning gender identity/expression
Abkhazia Yes Legal after 1991 No No No No
Luhansk People's Republic No Illegal since 2014. Penalty: 5 years imprisonment, 4 years "corrective labour"[473] No No No No
Kosovo Yes Legal from 1858, when part of the Ottoman Empire, again in 1994 (As part of Yugoslavia)[37] No No[474] No LGBT individuals may adopt.[475][476] Yes Yes Bans all anti-gay discrimination[477] Yes[104]
Nagorno-Karabakh Yes Legal since 2000 No No No No
Northern Cyprus Yes Legal since 2014[275][276][37] No No No No Yes Bans all anti-gay discrimination[275][276] Yes Discrimination or hate speech banned since 2014.[275][276]

Unknown if gender change is legal.

Donetsk People's Republic No Illegal since 2014[478] No No No No No
South Ossetia Yes Legal after 1991 No No No No
Transnistria Yes Legal since 2002[479] No No No No (Proposed)[480]

Oceania

Tables:

Australasia

LGBT rights in: Same-sex sexual activity Recognition of same-sex unions Same-sex marriage Adoption by same-sex couples LGB allowed to serve openly in military? Anti-discrimination laws concerning sexual orientation Laws concerning gender identity/expression
Australia
(including territories of
 Christmas Island,
 Cocos (Keeling) Islands and
 Norfolk Island)
Yes Legal in South Australia since 1972, in Victoria since 1981, New South Wales since 1983, the Northern Territory since 1984, the Australian Capital Territory since 1985, Western Australia since 1990, Queensland since 1991, Norfolk Island since 1993 and Tasmania since 1997
Legal in Christmas Island and Cocos (Keeling) Islands (Age of consent discrepancy in Queensland only)
+ UN decl. sign.[37]
Yes Unregistered cohabitation since 2009

Domestic patnership in Tasmania (2004),[481] South Australia (2007),[482] Victoria (2008),[483] New South Wales (2010)[484] and Queensland (2012)[485];
Civil union in the Australian Capital Territory (2012)[486]

No Banned federally under the Marriage Amendment Act 2004[487] (Pending)[488] Yes/No Joint adoption in Western Australia (2002), the Australian Capital Territory (2004), New South Wales (2010) and Tasmania (2013);
Step-child adoption in Victoria (2007);
Banned in South Australia, Queensland and Northern Territory
Yes Since 1992 Yes Bans all anti-gay discrimination.[489] Yes[489]
New Zealand Yes Legal since 1986
+ UN decl. sign.[37]
Yes Unregistered cohabitation since 2001;
Civil union since 2005.
Yes Legal since 2013[490] Yes Legal since 2013 for married couples and individuals (Banned for unmarried and civil union couples regardless of sexual orientation)[490] Yes Since 1993 Yes Bans all anti-gay discrimination Yes Covered under the "sex discrimination" provision of the Human Rights Act 1993 since 2006.

Melanesia

LGBT rights in: Same-sex sexual activity Recognition of same-sex unions Same-sex marriage Adoption by same-sex couples LGB allowed to serve openly in military? Anti-discrimination laws concerning sexual orientation Laws concerning gender identity/expression
Fiji Yes Legal since 2010
+ UN decl. sign.[491][37]
No No No Yes Bans some anti-gay discrimination[37]
New Caledonia
(overseas collectivity of France)
Yes Legal
(No laws against same-sex sexual activity has ever existed in the collectivity)
+ UN decl. sign.[37]
Yes Civil solidarity pact since 2009 Yes Legal since 2013 Yes Legal since 2013 Yes French responsibility Yes Bans all anti-gay discrimination Yes (Requires sterilization for change)
Papua New Guinea No Male illegal
Penalty: 3 to 14 years imprisonment (Not enforced)
Yes Female always legal[37]
No No No No No No
Solomon Islands No Illegal
Penalty: Up to 14 years imprisonment.[37]
No No No Has no military No No
Vanuatu Yes Legal since 2007
+ UN decl. sign.[37]
No No No No No

Micronesia

LGBT rights in: Same-sex sexual activity Recognition of same-sex unions Same-sex marriage Adoption by same-sex couples LGB allowed to serve openly in military? Anti-discrimination laws concerning sexual orientation Laws concerning gender identity/expression
Guam
(Unincorporated territory of the United States)
Yes Legal since 1978
+ UN decl. sign.[37]
Yes Since 2015 Yes Legal since 2015 Yes Legal since 2002 Yes US responsibility Yes Bans some anti-gay discrimination.
The US hate crime laws apply to all US external territories as well
Yes Bans some discrimination relating to gender identity or expression.
The US hate crime laws also apply to all US external territories as well
Federated States of Micronesia Yes Legal
+ UN decl. sign.[37]
No No No Has no military
Kiribati No Male illegal
Penalty: 5-14 years imprisonment (Not enforced)
Yes Female legal[37]
No No No Has no military No No
Marshall Islands Yes Legal since 2005
+ UN decl. sign.[37]
No No No Has no military No
Nauru No Male illegal
Penalty: 3-14 years imprisonment (Not enforced)
Yes Female legal
+ UN decl. sign.[37]
No No No Has no military No No
Northern Mariana Islands
(Unincorporated territory of the United States)
Yes Legal since 1983
+ UN decl. sign.[37]
Yes Since 2015 Yes Legal since 2015 Yes Legal since 2015 Yes US responsibility Yes The US hate crime laws also apply to all US external territories as well Yes The US hate crime laws also apply to all US external territories as well
Palau Yes Legal since 2014
+ UN decl. sign.[492]
No No Constitutional ban since 2008 No Has no military No No

Polynesia

LGBT rights in: Same-sex sexual activity Recognition of same-sex unions Same-sex marriage Adoption by same-sex couples LGB allowed to serve openly in military? Anti-discrimination laws concerning sexual orientation Laws concerning gender identity/expression
American Samoa
(Unincorporated territory of the United States)[493]
Yes Legal since 1980
+ UN decl. sign.[37]
No No[494] No Yes US responsibility Yes The US hate crime laws also apply to all US external territories as well Yes The US hate crime laws also apply to all US external territories as well
Easter Island
(Overseas territory of Chile)
Yes Legal since 1999
(Age of consent discrepancy)
+ UN decl. sign.[37]
Yes Civil union since 2015. No (Pending) No LGBT individuals may adopt (Pending) Yes Chile responsible for defence. Yes Yes Since 2007.
Cook Islands
(Part of the Realm of New Zealand)
No Male illegal
Penalty: 5-14 years imprisonment (Not enforced)
Yes Female legal
+ UN decl. sign.[37]
No No No Yes New Zealand's responsibility Yes Bans some anti-gay discrimination[495] No
French Polynesia
(Overseas collectivity of France)
Yes Legal
(No laws against same-sex sexual activity has ever existed in the collectivity)
+ UN decl. sign.[37]
Yes Since 2013 Yes Legal since 2013 Yes Legal since 2013 Yes French responsibility Yes Bans all anti-gay discrimination Yes (Requires sterilization for change)
Niue
(Part of the Realm of New Zealand)
Yes Legal since 2007
+ UN decl. sign.[37]
No No No Yes New Zealand's responsibility
Pitcairn Islands
(Overseas territory of the United Kingdom)
Yes Legal since 2001
+ UN decl. sign.[37]
Yes Since 2015 Yes Legal since 2015[496] Yes Legal since 2015[497] Yes UK responsible for defence Yes Constitutional ban on discrimination.[498]
Samoa No Male illegal
Penalty: 5-7 years imprisonment (Not enforced)
Yes Female always legal
+ UN decl. sign.[37]
No No No Has no military Yes Bans some anti-gay discrimination[499] Yes Samoa has a large transgender or "third-gendered" community called the Fa'afafine. This is a recognized part of traditional Samoan customs, and usually refers to trans women.
Tokelau
(Part of the Realm of New Zealand)
Yes Legal since 2007
+ UN decl. sign.[37]
No No No Yes New Zealand's responsibility No No
Tonga No Male illegal
Penalty: Up to 10 years imprisonment and whipping (Not enforced)
Yes Female always legal[37]
No No No No No No
Tuvalu No Male illegal
Penalty: Up to 14 years imprisonment (Not enforced)
Yes Female legal
+ UN decl. sign.[37]
No No No Has no military No
Wallis and Futuna
(Overseas collectivity of France)
Yes Legal
(No laws against same-sex sexual activity has ever existed in the collectivity)
+ UN decl. sign.[37]
Yes Civil solidarity pact since 2009 Yes Legal since 2013 Yes Legal since 2013 Yes French responsibility Yes Bans all anti-gay discrimination Yes (Requires sterilization for change)


See also

Notes

  1. ^ Excluding the Faroe Islands
  2. ^ Excluding Aruba, Curaçao and Sint Maarten
  3. ^ Excluding Niue, Tokelau and the Cook Islands
  4. ^ Exlcuding Northern Ireland, the Crown dependencies and most British Overseas Territories. (Same-sex marriage is legal in the Pitcairn Islands).
  5. ^ Excluding most Native American tribes. (Same-sex marriage is legal in at least 24 of them). Application to American Samoa unclear.
  6. ^ Countries with same-sex marriage recognized nationwide are: Argentina, Belgium, Brazil, Canada, Denmark,[1] France, Iceland, Luxembourg, the Netherlands,[2] New Zealand,[3] Norway, Portugal, South Africa, Spain, Sweden, the United Kingdom,[4] the United States [5] and Uruguay.
  7. ^ Countries with laws criminalizing homosexuality are: Afghanistan, Algeria, Angola, Antigua and Barbuada, Bangladesh, Barbados, Belize, Bhutan, Botswana, Brunei, Burundi, Cameroon, Comoros, Dominica, Egypt, Eritrea, Ethiopia, Gambia, Ghana, Grenada, Guinea, Guyana, India, Iran, Jamaica, Kenya, Kiribati, Kuwait, Liberia, Libya, Malawi, Malaysia, Maldives, Mauritania, Morocco, Myanmar, Namibia, Nauru, Nigeria, Oman, Pakistan, Papua New Guinea, Qatar, Saint Kitts and Nevis, Saint Lucia, Saint Vincent and the Grenadines, Samoa, Saudi Arabia, Senegal, Seychelles, Sierra Leone, Singapore, Solomon Islands, Somalia, South Sudan, Sri Lanka, Sudan, Swaziland, Syria, Tanzania, Togo, Tonga, Trinidad and Tobago, Tunisia, Turkmenistan, Tuvalu, Uganda, United Arab Emirates, Uzbekistan, Yemen, Zambia and Zimbabwe.
  8. ^ These five sub-national jurisdictions are: the provinces of Aceh and South Sumatra (Indonesia), the Cook Islands (New Zealand), Gaza (Palestine) and Marawi City (the Philippines).

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