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LGBT rights in Slovakia

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Title: LGBT rights in Slovakia  
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LGBT rights in Slovakia

LGBT rights in Slovakia
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Same-sex sexual activity legal? Legal since 1962,
age of consent equalized in 1990
Gender identity/expression Allowed to change legal gender.
Military service Gays and lesbians allowed to serve
Discrimination protections Sexual orientation protection since 2002
(see below)
Family rights
Recognition of
Same-sex marriage constitutionally banned.
Adoption Single LGBT person allowed to adopt.

Lesbian, gay bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) persons in Slovakia face legal challenges not experienced by non-LGBT residents. Both male and female same-sex sexual activity are legal in Slovakia, but households headed by same-sex couples are not eligible for the same legal protections available to opposite-sex couples.

Predominantly Roman Catholic Slovakia, unlike its neighbour, the Czech Republic, is more conservative on issues dealing with lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender (LGBT) rights.


  • Law regarding same-sex sexual activity 1
  • Recognition of same-sex relationships 2
  • Discrimination protections 3
  • Living conditions 4
  • Public opinion 5
  • Summary table 6
  • See also 7
  • Notes 8

Law regarding same-sex sexual activity

Same-sex sexual activity was legalized in 1962. The age of consent was equalized with the heterosexual age of 15 in 1990.[1]

Recognition of same-sex relationships

Laws regarding same-sex partnerships in Europe
  Foreign marriages recognized
  Other type of partnership
  Unregistered cohabitation
  Constitution limits marriage to same-sex couples

Includes laws that have not yet gone into effect.

There is no legal recognition of same-sex unions in Slovakia. On 4 June 2014, the Slovak parliament approved a constitutional amendment to ban same-sex marriage, with 102 deputies for and 18 deputies against the legislation.[2]

Discrimination protections

An Anti-Discrimination Act was adopted in 2004, in requirement with European Union protocols on anti-discrimination in its member states. The Act, broadened in 2008, makes it illegal to discriminate on the basis of sexual orientation in a wide variety of areas, including employment, education, housing, social care and the provision of goods and services.[3]

In May 2013, the Criminal Code was amended to include sexual orientation as a ground for hate crimes, allowing penalty enhancements where a crime is motivated by homophobia.[4]

Living conditions

Slovakia's first Gay pride event took place on 22 May 2010 in Bratislava. A crowd of about a thousand were confronted by anti-gay right-wing groups. While the National and Bratislava's municipal police forces kept the two sides apart, several anti-protesters were able to infiltrate Pride and throw stones at speakers and dispearse tear gas into the crowd. Pride demonstrators had to cancel their march through the city center, but were able to cross the Danube under police protection. Twenty-nine persons were arrested.[5] Gay Pride has since improved its security measures and it has been supported by many foreign embassies.[6]

There is a reasonable gay scene in Slovakia with about ten bars and clubs in Bratislava.[7]

Public opinion

A Pew Global Attitudes Project survey recorded that 66% of Slovaks believe that homosexuality should be accepted by society.[8] A European Union poll shows 19% of Slovaks support same-sex marriage,[9] however, a more recent survey shows that more than 47% of Slovaks would vote in favor of registered partnerships[10] but only in case they didn't provide same-sex couples with adoption rights.

Summary table

Same-sex sexual activity legal Yes (Since 1962)
Equal age of consent Yes (Since 1990)
Anti-discrimination laws in employment Yes (Since 2004)
Anti-discrimination laws in the provision of goods and services Yes (Since 2008)
Anti-discrimination laws in all other areas (incl. indirect discrimination, hate speech) Yes
Same-sex marriage No (Constitutional ban since 2014)
Recognition of same-sex unions No
Step-child adoption by same-sex couples No
Joint adoption by same-sex couples No
Gays and lesbians allowed to serve openly in the military Yes
Right to change legal gender Yes
Access to IVF for lesbians No
Commercial surrogacy for gay male couples No
MSMs allowed to donate blood Yes (12 months deferral)

See also


  1. ^ Slovakia - Status of sexual minorities
  2. ^ Radoslav, Tomek (4 June 2014). "Slovak Lawmakers Approve Constitutional Ban on Same-Sex Marriage". Bloomberg Businessweek. Retrieved 12 July 2014. 
  3. ^ Homophobia and Discrimination on Grounds of Sexual Orientation and Gender Identity in the EU Member States Part II: The Social Situation
  4. ^ Law change criminalises homophobia
  5. ^ (Slovak) Dúhový pochod stopli extrémisti
  6. ^ Veľvyslanci podporujú Dúhový Pride
  7. ^ Gay guide
  8. ^
  9. ^ Eight EU Countries Back Same-Sex Marriage
  10. ^ Tolerancia k homosexuálom sa zvyšuje. Tretina by však s nimi v rodine neoslavovala
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