World Library  
Flag as Inappropriate
Email this Article

Leonardo Bruni

Leonardo Bruni
Leonardo Bruni, engraving by Theodor de Bry

Leonardo Bruni (or Leonardo Aretino) (c. 1370 – March 9, 1444) was an Italian humanist, historian and statesman. He has been called the first modern historian.[1]


  • Biography 1
  • Significance 2
  • Bibliography 3
  • Notes 4
  • References 5
  • External links 6
    • Latin texts online 6.1
    • German Texts Online 6.2


Leonardo Bruni was born in Arezzo, Tuscany circa 1370. Bruni was the pupil of political, and cultural leader Coluccio Salutati, whom he succeeded as chancellor of Florence, and under whose tutelage he developed his ideation of civic humanism. He also served as apostolic secretary to four popes (1405-1414). [1] Bruni's years as chancellor—1410 to 1411 and again from 1427 to his death in 1444—were plagued by warfare. Though he occupied one of the highest political offices, Bruni was relatively powerless compared to the Albizzi and Medici families. Historian Arthur Field has identified Bruni as an apparent plotter against Cosimo de' Medici in 1437 (see below). Bruni died in 1444 in Florence and was succeeded in office by Carlo Marsuppini.


Bruni's most notable work is Historiarum Florentini populi libri XII (History of the Florentine People, 12 Books), which has been called the first modern history book.[1] Bruni was the first historian to write using the three-period view of history: Antiquity, Middle Ages, and Modern. The dates Bruni used to define the periods are not exactly what modern historians use today, but he laid the conceptual groundwork for a tripartite division of history. While it probably was not Bruni's intention to secularize history, the three period view of history is unquestionably secular and for that Bruni has been called the first modern historian.[1] The foundation of Bruni's conception can be found with Petrarch, who distinguished the classical period from later cultural decline, or tenebrae (literally "darkness"). Bruni argued that Italy had revived in recent centuries and could therefore be described as entering a new age.

One of Bruni's most famous works is New Cicero, a biography of the Roman statesman Cicero. He was also the author of biographies in Italian of Dante and Petrarch.[2] It was Bruni who used the phrase studia humanitatis, meaning the study of human endeavors, as distinct from those of theology and metaphysics, which is where the term humanists comes from.

As a humanist Bruni was essential in translating into Latin many works of Greek philosophy and history, such as Aristotle and Procopius. Bruni's translations of Aristotle's Politics and Nicomachean Ethics, as well as the pseudo-Aristotelean Economics, were widely distributed in manuscript and in print. His use of Aelius Aristides' Panathenicus (Panegyric to Athens) to buttress his republican theses in the Panegyric to the City of Florence (c. 1401) was instrumental in bringing the Greek historian to the attention of Renaissance political philosophers (see Hans Baron's The Crisis of the Early Italian Renaissance for details). He also wrote a short treatise in Greek on the Florentine constitution.[3]

Bruni died in Florence in 1444, and is buried in a wall tomb by Bernardo Rossellino in the Basilica of Santa Croce, Florence.[4]


  • Latin text and English translation:
    • Leonardo Bruni (April 2001).  
    • Leonardo Bruni (November 2004).  


  1. ^ a b c d Leonardo Bruni; James Hankins (October 9, 2010). History of the Florentine People 1. Boston: Harvard University Press. 
  2. ^ "Leonardo Bruni" Catholic Encyclopedia
  3. ^ Stuart M. McManus, 'Byzantines in the Florentine polis: Ideology, Statecraft and ritual during the Council of Florence', The Journal of the Oxford University History Society, 6 (Michaelmas 2008/Hilary 2009), pp. 8-10
  4. ^ Levey, Michael; Early Renaissance,p. 57-9, 1967, Penguin


  • Field, Arthur: "Leonardi Bruni, Florentine traitor? Bruni, the Medici, and an Aretine conspiracy of 1437", Renaissance Quarterly 51 (1998): 1109-50.
  • Hankins, James: Repertorium Brunianum : a critical guide to the writings of Leonardo Bruni, Rome : Istituto Storico Italiano per il Medio Evo 1997
  • Ianziti, Gary. "Writing History in Renaissance Italy: Leonardo Bruni and the Uses of the Past" (2010)
  • "Leonardo Bruni". In Encyclopædia Britannica Online.
  • McManus, Stuart M., 'Byzantines in the Florentine polis: Ideology, Statecraft and ritual during the Council of Florence', The Journal of the Oxford University History Society, 6 (Michaelmas 2008/Hilary 2009), 1-23

External links

Latin texts online

  • An vulgus et literati eodem modo per Terentii Tullique tempora Romae locuti sint
  • Calphurnia et Gurgulia
  • De Bello Gallico Adversus Gothos
  • Bruni, Leonardo (1610) [1442]. Historiarum Florentinarum libri XII : quibus accesserunt quorundam suo tempore in Italia gestorum & de rebus Græcis commentarii (in Latin). Strassburg: Lazarus Zetzner.   Digitized from a copy at the John Adams Library.
  • De studijs et litteris ad illustem dominam baptistam de malatesta tractatulus. Leipzig 1496.
  • Epistola ad Baptistam de Malatestis.
  • De interpretatione recta on Wikisource

German Texts Online

  • De duobus amantibus Guiscardo et Sigismunda. Ulm, Johann Zainer, ca. 1476-1477. From the Rare Book and Special Collections Division at the Library of Congress
This article was sourced from Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License; additional terms may apply. World Heritage Encyclopedia content is assembled from numerous content providers, Open Access Publishing, and in compliance with The Fair Access to Science and Technology Research Act (FASTR), Wikimedia Foundation, Inc., Public Library of Science, The Encyclopedia of Life, Open Book Publishers (OBP), PubMed, U.S. National Library of Medicine, National Center for Biotechnology Information, U.S. National Library of Medicine, National Institutes of Health (NIH), U.S. Department of Health & Human Services, and, which sources content from all federal, state, local, tribal, and territorial government publication portals (.gov, .mil, .edu). Funding for and content contributors is made possible from the U.S. Congress, E-Government Act of 2002.
Crowd sourced content that is contributed to World Heritage Encyclopedia is peer reviewed and edited by our editorial staff to ensure quality scholarly research articles.
By using this site, you agree to the Terms of Use and Privacy Policy. World Heritage Encyclopedia™ is a registered trademark of the World Public Library Association, a non-profit organization.

Copyright © World Library Foundation. All rights reserved. eBooks from World eBook Library are sponsored by the World Library Foundation,
a 501c(4) Member's Support Non-Profit Organization, and is NOT affiliated with any governmental agency or department.