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List of Moldavian rulers

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Subject: Alexander I of Moldavia, Alexander Ypsilantis (1725–1805), Ioan Sturdza, Ioan Iacob Heraclid, Eustratie Dabija, Gaspar Graziani, Ştefăniţă Lupu, Constantin Cantemir, Bogdan III the One-Eyed, Gheorghe Ştefan
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List of Moldavian rulers

This is a List of rulers of Moldavia, from the first mention of the medieval polity east of the Carpathians and until its disestablishment in 1862, when it united with Wallachia, the other Danubian Principality, to form the modern-day state of Romania.

Notes

Dynastic rule is hard to ascribe, given the loose traditional definition of the ruling family (on principle, princes were chosen from any branch, including a previous ruler's bastard sons – being defined as os de domn – "of Voivode marrow", or as having hereghie – "heredity" (from the Latin hereditas); the institutions charged with the election, dominated by the boyars, had fluctuating degrees of influence). The system itself was challenged by usurpers, and became obsolete with the Phanariote epoch, when rulers were appointed by the Ottoman Sultans. Between 1821 and 1862, various systems combining election and appointment were put in practice. Moldavian rulers, like Wallachian and other Eastern European rulers, bore the titles of Voivode or/and Hospodar.

Most rulers did not use the form of the name they are cited with, and several used more than one form of their own name; in some cases, the ruler was only mentioned in foreign sources. The full names are either modern versions or ones based on mentions in various chronicles.

The list is brought up to date for the first rulers, following the documented studies of Ştefan S. Gorovei[1] and Constantin Rezachevici.[2]

List

Portrait Ruler Began Ended Family Remarks
Dragoş c. 1347 c. 1354
Sas c. 1354 c. 1363 son of Dragoş
Bogdan I c. 1363 1367 Bogdan-Muşat deposed Sas
Petru I 1367 1368 Bogdan-Muşat Grandson of Bogdan I [3]
Laţcu 1368 1375 Bogdan-Muşat son of Bogdan I, deposed Petru I]] [3]
Petru II Muşat 1375 1391 Bogdan-Muşat possibly son of Costea
Roman I 1391 1394 Bogdan-Muşat possibly son of Costea
Ştefan I 1394 1399 Bogdan-Muşat son of Roman I
Iuga (George I) 1399 1400 son of Roman I, deposed by intervention of Mircea of Wallachia
Alexandru I cel Bun
(Alexander the Kind)
1400 1432 Bogdan-Muşat son of Roman I, installed by Mircea
Iliaş I 1432 1433 Bogdan-Muşat son of Alexandru cel Bun; 1st rule
Ştefan II 1434 1435 Bogdan-Muşat son of Alexandru cel Bun; 1st rule
Iliaş I 1435 1443 Bogdan-Muşat 2nd rule, jointly with Ştefan II
Ştefan II 1436 1447 Bogdan-Muşat 2nd rule, until 1443 jointly with Iliaş; 1444–1445 jointly with Petru II
Petru III 1444 1445 Bogdan-Muşat son of Alexandru cel Bun; 1st rule
Roman II 1447 1448 Bogdan-Muşat son of Iliaş
Petru II 1448 1449 Bogdan-Muşat 2nd rule
Ciubăr Vodă 1449 1449 his name, literally Tub Voivode mentioned by Grigore Ureche
Alexăndrel (Alexander II) 1449 1449 Bogdan-Muşat son of Iliaş;1st rule
Bogdan II 1449 1451 Bogdan-Muşat nephew of Alexandru cel Bun
Petru III Aron 1451 1452 Bogdan-Muşat illegitimate son of Alexandru cel Bun; 1st rule
Alexăndrel (Alexander II) 1452 1454 Bogdan-Muşat 2nd rule
Petru III Aron 1454 1455 Bogdan-Muşat 2nd rule
Alexăndrel (Alexander II) 1455 1455 Bogdan-Muşat 3rd rule
Petru IV Aron 1455 1457 Bogdan-Muşat 3rd rule
Ştefan III cel Mare
(Stephen the Great)
1457 1504 Bogdan-Muşat son Bogdan II
Bogdan III cel Chior
(Bogdan III The One-Eyed)
1504 1517 Bogdan-Muşat son of Stephen the Great;
Ştefan IV 1517 1527 Bogdan-Muşat son of Bogdan III; also called Ştefăniţă until 1523 under the regency of Luca Arbore, Gatekeeper of Suceava
Petru IV Rareş 1527 1538 Bogdan-Muşat son of Stephen the Great, 1st rule
Ştefan V Lăcustă
(Stephen V Locust)
1538 1540 Bogdan-Muşat grandson of Stephen the Great
Alexandru III Cornea 1540 1541 Bogdan-Muşat son of Bogdan III
Petru IV Rareş 1541 1546 Bogdan-Muşat 2nd rule
Ilie II Rareş 1546 1551 Bogdan-Muşat son of Petru Rareş
Ştefan VI Rareş 1551 1552 Bogdan-Muşat son of Petru Rareş
Ioan I Joldea 1552 1552
Alexandru IV Lăpuşneanu 1552 1561 Bogdan-Muşat son of Bogdan III; 1st rule
Ioan II Iacob Heraclid
(Jacob Heraclides)
1561 1563 the Despot Vodă
Ştefan VII Tomşa 1563 1564
Alexandru IV Lăpuşneanu 1564 1568 Bogdan-Muşat 2nd rule
Bogdan IV 1568 1572 Bogdan-Muşat son of Alexandru Lăpuşneanu
Ioan III cel Cumplit
(John III the Terrible)
1572 1574 Bogdan-Muşat son of Ştefan IV; also called cel Viteaz) (the Brave)
Petru V Şchiopul
(Peter V the Lame)
1574 1577 Drăculeşti 1st rule
Ioan IV Potcoavă November 1577 December 1577 Hetman, also called Ivan Pidkova, Nicoară Potcoavă or Ivan Sarpega
Petru V Şchiopul 1578 1579 Drăculeşti 2nd rule
Ioan V Sasul
(John V the Saxon)
1579 1582 Bogdan-Muşat illegitimate son of Petru Rareş
Petru V Şchiopul 1582 1591 Drăculeşti 3rd rule
Aron Tiranul
(Aaron the Tyrant)
1591 1592 Bogdan-Muşat son of Alexandru Lăpuşneanu; 1st rule
Alexandru V cel Rău
(Alexander V the Wrongdoer)
1592 1592 Bogdan-Muşat son of Bogdan IV; also ruled Wallachia (1592–1593)
Petru VI Cazacul
(Peter VI the Cossack)
1592 1592 Bogdan-Muşat son of Alexandru Lăpuşneanu
Aron Tiranul
(Aaron the Tyrant)
1592 1595 Bogdan-Muşat 2nd rule
Ştefan VIII Răzvan 1595 1595
Ieremia Movilă 1595 1600 Movileşti grandson of Petru Rareş; 1st rule
Mihail I Viteazul
(Michael I the Brave)
1600 1600 Drăculeşti also ruled Wallachia (1593–1600) and Transylvania (1599–1600)
Ieremia Movilă 1600 1606 Movileşti 2nd rule
Simion Movilă 1606 1607 Movileşti brother of Iremia Movilă
Mihail II Movilă 1607 1607 Movileşti son of Ieremia Movilă; 1st rule
Constantin Movilă 1607 1607 Movileşti son of Ieremia Movilă; under the regency of his mother Elzbieta Csomortany de Losoncz; 1st rule
Mihail II Movilă 1607 1607 Movileşti 2nd rule
Constantin Movilă 1607 1611 Movileşti under the regency of his mother; 2nd rule
Ştefan IX Tomşa 1611 1615 2nd rule
Alexandru VI Movilă 1615 1616 Movileşti
Radu Mihnea 1616 1619 Drăculeşti 1st rule
Gaspar Graziani 1619 1620
Alexandru VII Iliaş 1620 1621 Bogdan-Muşat nephew of Petru VI, Aron Tiranul and Bogdan IV; 1st rule
Ştefan IX Tomşa 1621 1623 2nd rule
Radu Mihnea 1623 1626 Drăculeşti 2nd rule
Miron Barnovschi-Movilă 1626 1629 Movileşti 1st rule
Alexandru VIII Coconul
(Alexander the Child-Prince)
1626 1629 Drăculeşti 1st rule
Moise Movilă 1630 1631 Movileşti 1st rule
Alexandru VII Iliaş 1631 1633 Bogdan-Muşat 2nd rule
Miron Barnovschi-Movilă 1633 1633 Movileşti 2nd rule
Moise Movilă 1633 1634 Movileşti 2nd rule
Vasile Lupu 1634 1653 1st rule
Gheorghe II Ştefan 1653 1653 1st rule
Vasile Lupu 1653 1653 2nd rule
Gheorghe II Ştefan 1653 1658 2nd rule
Gheorghe III Ghica 1658 1659 Ghica
100px Constantin Şerban 1659 1659 1st rule
Ştefan X Lupu 1659 1661 also called Papură-Vodă (Bullrush Voivode); 1st rule
Constantin Şerban 1661 1661 2nd rule
Ştefan X Lupu 1659 1661 2nd rule
Eustratie Dabija 1661 1665
Gheorghe IV Duca 1665 1666 1st rule
Iliaş III Alexandru 1666 1668 Bogdan-Muşat The last member of the House of Bogdan-Muşat reigning in Moldavia; son of Alexandru VII
Gheorghe IV Duca 1668 1672 2nd rule
Ştefan XI Petriceicu 1672 1673 1st rule
Dumitraşcu Cantacuzino 1673 1673 Cantacuzene 1st rule
Ştefan XI Petriceicu 1673 1674 2nd rule
Dumitraşcu Cantacuzino 1674 1675 Cantacuzene 2nd rule
Antonie Ruset 1675 1678 Rosetti
Gheorghe IV Duca 1678 1683 3rd rule
Ştefan XI Petriceicu 1683 1684 3rd rule
Dumitraşcu Cantacuzino 1684 1685 Cantacuzene 3rd rule
Constantin Cantemir 1685 1693 Cantemireşti
Dimitrie Cantemir 1693 1693 Cantemireşti 1st rule; deposed by Ottomans
Constantin Duca 1693 1695 1st rule
Antioh Cantemir 1695 1700 Cantemireşti 1st rule
Constantin Duca 1700 1703 2nd rule
Chancellor
Ioan Buhuş
1703 1703 1st term
Mihail III Racoviţă 1703 1705 Racoviţă 1st rule
Antioh Cantemir 1705 1707 Cantemireşti 2nd rule
Mihail III Racoviţă 1707 1709 Racoviţă 2nd rule
Chancellor
Ioan Buhuş
1709 1710 2nd term
Nicolae Mavrocordat 1709 1710 Mavrocordato 1st rule
Dimitrie Cantemir 1710 1711 Cantemireşti 2nd rule

Phanariotes (1711–1821)

Portrait Ruler Began Ended Family Remarks
Caimacam
Lupu Costachi
1711 1711
Ioan Mavrocordat 1711 1711 Mavrocordato
Nicolae Mavrocordat 1711 1715 Mavrocordato 2nd rule
Mihai Racoviţă 1715 1726 Racoviţă 3rd rule
Grigore II Ghica 1726 1733 Ghica 1st rule
Constantin Mavrocordat 1733 1735 Mavrocordato 1st rule
Grigore II Ghica 1735 1739 Ghica 2nd rule
Russian occupation 1739 1739 Russo-Austrian-Turkish War (1735–1739)
Grigore II Ghica 1739 1741 Ghica 3rd rule
Constantin Mavrocordat 1741 1743 Mavrocordato 2nd rule
Ioan Mavrocordat 1743 1747 Mavrocordato 2nd rule
Grigore II Ghica 1747 1748 Ghica 4th rule
Constantin Mavrocordat 1748 1749 Mavrocordato 3rd rule
Iordache Stavrachi 1749 1749
Constantin Racoviţă 1749 1753 Racoviţă 1st rule
Matei Ghica 1753 1756 Ghica
Constantin Racoviţă 1756 1757 Racoviţă 2nd rule
Scarlat Ghica 1757 1758 Ghica
Ioan Teodor Callimachi 1758 1761 Callimachi
Grigore Callimachi 1761 1764 Callimachi 1st rule
Grigore III Ghica 1764 1767 Ghica 1st rule
Grigore Callimachi 1767 1769 Callimachi 2nd rule
Constantin Mavrocordat 1769 1769 Mavrocordato 4th rule
Russian occupation 1769 1774 Russo-Turkish War (1768–1774)
Grigore III Ghica 1774 1777 Ghica 2nd rule
Constantin Moruzi 1777 1782 Mourousi 4th rule
Alexandru Mavrocordat Delibey 1782 1785 Mavrocordato
Alexandru Mavrocordat Firaris 1785 1786 Mavrocordato
Alexandru Ipsilanti 1786 1788 Ypsilanti
Austrian occupation 1787 1791 military commander: Prince Josias of Saxe-Coburg
Emanuel Giani Ruset 1788 1789 Rosetti also called Manole or Manolache
Russian occupation 1788 1791 Russo-Turkish War (1787–1792)
Alexandru Moruzi 1792 1792 Mourousi 1st rule
Mihai Suţu 1793 1795 Soutzos also called Draco
Alexandru Callimachi 1795 1799 Callimachi
Constantin Ipsilanti 1799 1801 Ypsilanti
Alexandru Suţu 1801 1802 Soutzos
Chancellor
Iordache Conta
1802 1802
Alexandru Moruzi 1802 1802 Mourousi 2nd rule
Scarlat Callimachi 1806 1806 Callimachi 1st rule
Alexandru Moruzi 1806 1807 Mourousi 3rd rule
Russian occupation 1806 1812 Russo-Turkish War (1806–1812)
Bessarabia is placed under Imperial Russian rule in 1812.
(See also President of Moldova, for the rulers of Moldova, a part of this territory which became independent in the 20th century.)
Alexandru Hangerli 1807 1807
Scarlat Callimachi 1807 1807 Callimachi deposed by Russians
Caimacam
Iordache Ruset-Roznovanu
1807 1807 Rosetti
Caimacam Metropolitan
Veniamin Costache
1807 1812 1st term
Scarlat Callimachi 1812 1819 Callimachi
Mihail Suţu 1819 1821 Soutzos
Stolnici
Manu and Rizos-Nerulos
1819 1819
Caimacam Metropolitan
Veniamin Costache
1821 1821 2nd term
Filiki Eteria occupation 1821 1821 military commander: Alexander Ypsilantis
Caimacam
Stefan Bogoridi
(Ştefan Vogoride)
1821 1822
Ioan Sturdza 1822 1828
Russian occupation 1828 1834 military commanders: Fyodor Pahlen, Pyotr Zheltukhin, and Pavel Kiseleff
Organic Statute government (1832–1856)
Mihail Sturdza 1834 1849
Grigore Alexandru Ghica 1849 1853 Ghica 1st rule
Russian occupation 1853 1854 Crimean War
Grigore Alexandru Ghica 1854 1856 Ghica 2nd rule
Protectorate established by the Treaty of Paris (1856–1859)
Extraordinary Administrative Council 1856 1856
Caimacam
Teodor Balş
1856 1857
Caimacam
Nicolae Vogoride
1857 1858
Caimacams 1858 1859 Ştefan Catargiu, Vasile Sturdza and Anastasie Panu
(Catargiu resigns in 1858 and is replaced by Ioan A. Cantacuzino)
Alexander John Cuza 1859 1862 also ruled Wallachia in personal union
Formal union of Moldavia and Wallachia in 1862.

For later rulers, see Domnitor and King of Romania.

References

  • Constantin Rezachevici - Cronologia critică a domnilor din Țara Românească și Moldova a. 1324 - 1881, Volumul I, Editura Enciclopedică, 2001,
  • Rulers of Moldavia
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