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List of Wallachian rulers

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Subject: History of Romania, 1583, List of Romania-related topics, Mircea I of Wallachia, Romania in the Middle Ages, Vlad II Dracul, Vlad the Impaler, Constantine Ypsilantis, Pipo of Ozora, List of state leaders in 1669
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List of Wallachian rulers

This is a List of rulers of Wallachia, from the first mention of a medieval polity situated between the Southern Carpathians and the Danube until the union with Moldavia in 1862, leading to the creation of Romania.

Notes

Dynastic rule is hard to ascribe, given the loose traditional definition of the ruling family (on principle, princes were chosen from any family branch, including a previous ruler's bastard sons - being defined as os de domn - "of Voivode marrow", or as having heregie - "heredity" (from the Latin hereditas); the institutions charged with the election, dominated by the boyars, had fluctuating degrees of influence). The system itself was challenged by usurpers, and became obsolete with the Phanariote epoch, when rulers were appointed by the Ottoman Sultans; between 1821 and 1878 (the date of Romania's independence), various systems combining election and appointment were put in practice. Wallachian rulers, like the Moldavian rulers, bore the titles of Voivode or/and Hospodar.

Most rulers did not use the form of the name they are cited with, and several used more than one form of their own name; in some cases, the ruler was only mentioned in foreign sources. The full names are either modern versions or ones based on mentions in various chronicles.

List

Ruler Portrait Years Family Notes
As part of the Second Bulgarian Empire since 1185.
Peter IV of Bulgaria 1185–1190 Asen Named Theodore, he was proclaimed Emperor of Bulgarians and Wallachians as Petar IV during the successful Uprising of Asen and Peter. In 1190 he gave the throne to his younger brother.
Asen I 1190–1196 Asen Younger brother of Petar. A successful general, he ruled until 1196 when he was murdered by his cousin Ivanko.
Peter IV of Bulgaria 1196–1197 Asen 2nd rule
Kaloyan of Bulgaria 1197–1207 Asen Third brother of Asen and Petar. Expanded Bulgaria and concluded a Union with the Catholic Church. Murdered by plotters during the siege of Salonica.
Boril 1207–1218 Son of a sister of Kaloyan. Deposed and blinded in 1218.
Asen II 1218–1241 Asen Eldest son of Asen I. The Second Bulgarian Empire reached its apogee. Died of natural death on 24 June 1241, aged 46–47.
Kaliman I 1241–1246 Asen Son of Asen II. Born in 1234, he died or was poisoned in 1246, aged 12.
Mihail 1246–1256 Asen Son of Asen II. Murdered by his cousin Coloman II.
Kaliman II 1256 Asen Murdered in 1256.
Mitso 1256–1257 Asen Fled to the Nicaean Empire in 1261.
Constantine Tikh of Bulgaria 1257–1277 Asen Bolyar of Skopie. Murdered in 1277 by the peasant leader.
Maria 1277–1279 Asen She is a Byzantine princess, niece of emperor Michael VIII Palaiologos and empress consort of Constantine. In 1277 she was an empress. The peasant leader is her consort.
Asen III 1279–1280 Asen Eldest son of Mitso. Fled to Constantinople with the treasury.
Wallachian Principality since c. 1280.
Thocomerius or Radu Negru c. 1280 – 1310 Radu Negru is legendary voivode of Wallachia; some historians consider it to be just a nickname of Thocomerius or Basarab I.
Basarab I c. 1310 – 1352 Basarab son of Thocomerius; first non-legendary ruler of Wallachia; later also called Basarab Întemeietorul (Basarab the Founder);
Nicolae Alexandru 1352–1364 Basarab son of Basarab I
Vladislav I c. 1364 – 1377 Basarab son of Nicolae Alexandru; also known as Vlaicu-Vodă
Radu I c. 1377 – 1383 Basarab son of Nicolae Alexandru
Dan I c. 1383 – 1386 Dăneşti son of Radu I
Mircea I cel Bătrân
(Mircea I the Elder)
1386–1394 Basarab son of Radu I. 1st rule.
Vlad I Uzurpatorul
(Vlad I the Usurper)
1394–1397
Mircea I cel Bătrân
(Mircea I the Elder)
1397–1418 Basarab 2nd rule
Mihail I 1418–1420 Basarab son of Mircea cel Bătrân
Dan II 1420–1421 Dăneşti son of Dan I, member of the Order of the Dragon; 1st rule
Radu II Chelul
(Radu II the Bald)
1421 Basarab son of Mircea cel Bătrân; 1st rule
Dan II 1421–1423 Dăneşti 2nd rule
Radu II Chelul 1423 Basarab 2nd rule
Dan II 1423–1424 Dăneşti 3rd rule
Radu II Chelul 1424–1426 Basarab 3rd rule
Dan II 1426–1427 Dăneşti 4th rule
Radu II Chelul 1427 Basarab 4th rule
Dan II 1427–1431 Dăneşti 5th rule
Alexandru I Aldea 1431–1436 Drăculeşti son of Mircea cel Bătrân; 1st rule
Vlad II Dracul 1436–1442 Drăculeşti illegitimate son of Mircea cel Bătrân; member of the Order of the Dragon (thus Dracul); 1st rule
Mircea II 1442 Drăculeşti son of Vlad II Dracul
Basarab II 1442–1443 Dăneşti son of Dan II
Vlad II Dracul 1443–1447 Drăculeşti 2nd rule
Vladislav II 1447–1448 Dăneşti son of Dan II; supported by John Hunyadi, Regent of Hungary; 1st rule
Vlad III Ţepeş
(Vlad the Impaler)
1448 Drăculeşti son of Vlad II Dracul; 1st rule
Vladislav II 1448–1456 Dăneşti son of Dan II; supported by John Hunyadi, Regent of Hungary; 2nd rule
Vlad III Ţepeş 1456–1462 Drăculeşti 2nd rule
Radu III cel Frumos
(Radu III the Fair)
1462–1473 Drăculeşti son of Vlad II Dracul; 1st rule
Basarab III Laiotă cel Bătrân
(Basarab III Laiotă the Elder)
1473 Dăneşti son of Dan II; 1st rule
Radu III cel Frumos 1473–1474 Drăculeşti 2nd rule
Basarab III Laiotă cel Bătrân 1474 Dăneşti 2nd rule
Radu III cel Frumos 1474 Drăculeşti 3rd rule
Basarab III Laiotă cel Bătrân 1474 Dăneşti 3rd rule
Radu III cel Frumos 1474–1475 Drăculeşti 4th rule
Basarab III Laiotă cel Bătrân 1475–1476 Dăneşti 4th rule
Vlad III Ţepeş 1476 Drăculeşti 3rd rule
Basarab III Laiotă cel Bătrân 1476–1477 Dăneşti 5th rule
Basarab IV Ţepeluş cel Tânăr
(Basarab IV Ţepeluş the Younger)
1477–1481 Dăneşti son of Basarab II; 1st rule
Mircea (III) 1481
Vlad IV Călugărul
(Vlad IV the Monk)
1481 Drăculeşti son of Vlad II Dracul; 1st rule
Basarab IV Ţepeluş cel Tânăr 1481–1482 Dăneşti 2nd rule
Vlad IV Călugărul 1482–1495 Drăculeşti 2nd rule
Radu IV cel Mare
(Radu IV the Great)
1495–1508 Drăculeşti son of Vlad Călugărul
Mihnea I cel Rău
(Mihnea the Mean)
1508–1509 Drăculeşti son of Vlad III Ţepeş
Mircea III 1509–1510 Drăculeşti son of Mihnea cel Rău
Vlad V cel Tânăr
(Vlad V the Younger)
1510–1512 Drăculeşti nephew of son Radu cel Mare; also known as Vlăduţ
Neagoe Basarab V 1512–1521 Craioveşti
Teodosie 1521–1522 Craioveşti
Radu V 1522–1523 Drăculeşti illegitimate son of Radu cel Mare; allied with Craioveşti; 1st rule
Vladislav III 1523 Dăneşti nephew of Vladislav II; 1st rule
Radu VI Bădica 1523–1524
Radu V 1524 Craioveşti 2nd rule
Vladislav III 1524 Dăneşti 2nd rule
Radu V 1524–1525 Craioveşti 3rd rule
Vladislav III 1525 Dăneşti 3rd rule
Radu V 1525–1529 Craioveşti 4th rule
Basarab VI 1529
Moise 1529–1530
Vlad VI Înecatul
(Vlad VI the Drowned)
1530–1532 Drăculeşti son of Vlad cel Tânăr
Vlad VII Vintilă de la Slatina 1532–1535 Drăculeşti son of Radu cel Mare
Radu VII Paisie 1535–1545 Drăculeşti son of Vlad Vintilă de la Slatina
Mircea IV Ciobanul
(Mircea IV the Shepherd)
1545–1552 Drăculeşti son of Radu cel Mare; 1st rule
Radu VIII Ilie Haidăul
(Radu VIII Ilie the Cowherd)
1552–1553 Drăculeşti son of Radu de la Afumaţi
Mircea IV Ciobanul 1553–1554 Drăculeşti 2nd rule
Pătraşcu cel Bun
(Pătraşcu the Kind)
1554–1558 Drăculeşti son of Radu Paisie; 3rd rule
Mircea IV Ciobanul 1558–1559 Drăculeşti 3rd rule
Petru I cel Tânăr
(Peter I the Younger)
1559–1568 Drăculeşti son of Mircea Ciobanul
Alexandru II Mircea 1568–1574 Drăculeşti son of Mircea II; popularly called Oaie Seacă (Barren Sheep); 1st rule
Vintilă 1574 Drăculeşti son of Petru Pătraşcu cel Bun
Alexandru II Mircea 1574–1577 Drăculeşti 2nd rule
Mihnea II Turcitul
(Mihnea the Turned-Turk)
1577–1583 Drăculeşti son of Alexandru II Mircea; 1st rule
Petru II Cercel
(Peter II Earring)
1583–1585 Drăculeşti son of Petru Pătraşcu cel Bun
Mihnea II Turcitul 1585–1591 Drăculeşti 2nd rule
Ştefan I Surdul
(Stephen the Deaf)
1591–1592
Alexandru III cel Rău
(Alexander III the Mean)
1592–1593 also ruled Moldavia (1592)
Mihail II Viteazul
(Michael the Brave)
1593–1600 Drăculeşti illegitimate son of Petru Pătraşcu cel Bun; also ruled Transylvania (1599-1600) and Moldavia (1600), briefly uniting the three principalities.
Simion Movilă 1600–1601 Movileşti 1st rule
Radu IX Mihnea 1601–1602 Drăculeşti son of Minhea II Turcitul; 1st rule
Simion Movilă 1602 Movileşti 2nd rule
Radu X Şerban 1602–1610 1st rule
Gabriel I Báthory 1611 Báthory also Prince of Transylvania
Radu IX Mihnea 1611 Drăculeşti 2nd rule
Radu X Şerban 1611 2nd rule
Radu IX Mihnea 1611–1616 Drăculeşti 3rd rule
Gabriel II Movilă 1616 Movileşti son of Simion Movilă; 1st rule
Alexandru IV Iliaş 1616–1618 1st rule
Gabriel II Movilă 1618–1620 Movileşti 2nd rule
Radu IX Mihnea 1620–1623 Drăculeşti 4th rule
Alexandru V Coconul
(Alexander the Child-Prince)
1623–1627 Drăculeşti son of Radu Mihnea
Alexandru IV Iliaş 1627–1629 2nd rule
Leon Tomşa 1629–1632
Radu XI Iliaş 1632
Matei Basarab 1632–1654 Brâncoveneşti
Constantin I Şerban 1654–1658 illegitimate son of Radu Şerban
Mihnea III 1658–1659
Gheorghe I Ghica 1659–1660 Ghica
Grigore I Ghica 1660–1664 Ghica 1st rule
Radu XII Leon 1664–1669
Antonie Vodă din Popeşti 1669–1672
Grigore I Ghica 1672–1673 Ghica 2nd rule
Gheorghe II Ducas 1673–1678
Şerban Cantacuzino 1678–1688 Cantacuzene
Constantin II Brâncoveanu 1688–1714 Brâncoveneşti
Ştefan II Cantacuzino 1714–1715 Cantacuzene
Phanariote rule (1715–1821)
Nicolae Mavrocordat 1715–1716 Mavrocordato 1st rule
- Habsburg occupation 1716
Ioan Mavrocordat 1716–1719 Mavrocordato
Nicolae Mavrocordat 1719–1730 Mavrocordato 2nd rule
Constantin Mavrocordat 1730 Mavrocordato 1st rule
Mihai Racoviţă 1730–1731 Racoviţă 1st rule
Constantin Mavrocordat 1731–1733 Mavrocordato 2nd rule
Grigore II Ghica 1733–1735 Ghica 1st rule
Constantin Mavrocordat 1735–1741 Mavrocordato 3rd rule
Mihai Racoviţă 1741–1744 Racoviţă 2nd rule
Constantin Mavrocordat 1744–1748 Mavrocordato 4th rule
Grigore II Ghica 1748–1752 Ghica 2nd rule
Matei Ghica 1752–1753 Ghica
Constantin Racoviţă 1753–1756 1st rule
Constantin Mavrocordat 1756–1758 5th rule
Scarlat Ghica 1758–1761 Ghica 1st rule
Constantin Mavrocordat 1761–1763 6th rule
Constantin Racoviţă 1763–1764 Racoviţă 2nd rule
Ştefan Racoviţă 1764–1765 Racoviţă
Scarlat Ghica 1765–1766 Ghica 2nd rule
Alexandru Ghica 1766–1768 Ghica
- Russian occupation 1768
Grigore III Ghica 1768–1769 Ghica
- Russian occupation 1769–1770
Emanuel Giani Ruset 1770-1771 Rosetti also called Manole or Manolache
Alexander Ypsilantis 1774–1782 Ypsilanti 1st rule
Nicolae Caragea 1782–1783 Caradja
Mihail Suţu 1783–1786 Soutzos 1st rule
Nicolae Mavrogheni 1786–1789
- Habsburg occupation 1789–1790 military commander: Prince Josias of Saxe-Coburg
Mihail Suţu 1791–1793 Soutzos 2nd rule
Alexandru Moruzi 1793–1796 Mourousi 1st rule
Alexander Ypsilantis 1796–1797 Ypsilanti 2nd rule
Constantin Hangerli 1797–1799
Alexandru Moruzi 1799–1801 Mourousi 2nd rule
Mihail Suţu 1801–1802 Soutzos 3rd rule
Alexandru Suţu 1802 Soutzos
Constantin Ypsilanti 1802-1806 Ypsilanti
- Russian occupation 1806–1812
Ioan Gheorghe Caragea 1812–1818 Caradja
Caimacam
Grigore Brâncovenu
1818 assisted by Vornic Barbu Văcărescu, Vistier Grigore Ghica and Logofăt Samurcaş
Alexandru Suţu 1818–1821 Soutzos
Caimacam
Grigore Brâncoveanu
1821
Tudor Vladimirescu 1821 leader of the anti-Phanariote uprising
Scarlat Callimachi 1821 Callimachi
Grigore IV Ghica 1822–1828 Ghica
- Russian occupation 1828–1834 military commanders: Fyodor Pahlen, Pyotr Zheltukhin, and Pavel Kiseleff
Organic Statute government (1832–1856)
Alexandru II Ghica 1834–1842 Ghica
Gheorghe Bibescu 1842–1848 Bibescu
Provisional Government 1848 Metropolitan Neofit II, assisted by Christian Tell, Ion Heliade Rădulescu, Ştefan Golescu, Gheorghe Magheru, Gheorghe Scurti
Locotenenţa domnească
(Regency of three)
1848 Christian Tell, Ion Heliade Rădulescu, Nicolae Golescu
Joint Ottoman and Russian occupation 1848–1851 military commanders: Omar Pasha and Alexander von Lüders
Caimacam
Constantin Cantacuzino
1848
Barbu Ştirbei 1848–1853 Ştirbei 1st rule
Russian occupation 1853–1854
Ottoman occupation 1854
Austrian occupation 1854–1856 military commander: Johann Coronini-Cronberg
Barbu Ştirbei 1854–1856 Ştirbei 2nd rule
Protectorate established by the Treaty of Paris (1856–1859)
Caimacam
Alexandru II Ghica
1856–1858
Caimacam of three 1858–1859 Ioan Manu, Emanoil Băleanu, Ioan A. Filipide
Alexander John Cuza 1859–1862 also ruled Moldavia in personal union
United Principalities of Moldavia and Wallachia since 1862.
Alexander John Cuza 1862–1866 also ruled Moldavia in personal union
Carol I 1866–1881 Hohenzollern-Sigmaringen A new constitution came into effect in 1866 giving the country the official name Romania, and on 14 March (O.S.) (26 March) 1881, it became the Kingdom of Romania.

For later rulers, see Kings of Romania.

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