World Library  
Flag as Inappropriate
Email this Article

List of accidents and incidents involving airliners by location

This list of accidents and incidents on airliners by location summarizes airline accidents by states location, airline company with flight number, date, and cause.

There are 380 listed at the last count, as of 1.11.2015, not including those on linked articles.

It is also available grouped

For alternative, more exhaustive lists, see:

  • Aircraft Crash Record Office or
  • Aviation Safety Network.

Airlines often seem to be remembered by their worst accidents and incidents. In that sense this list presents a good overview. While all the accidents and incidents in this list are noteworthy, not all involve fatalities.

If the aircraft crashed on land, it will be listed under a continent and a country. If the aircraft crashed on a body of water, it will be listed under that body of water.


  • Africa 1
    • Algeria 1.1
    • Angola 1.2
    • Benin 1.3
    • Canary Islands, Spain 1.4
    • Cameroon 1.5
    • Chad 1.6
    • Democratic Republic of the Congo 1.7
    • Republic of the Congo 1.8
    • Egypt 1.9
    • Ivory Coast 1.10
    • Liberia 1.11
    • Libya 1.12
    • Mali 1.13
    • Namibia 1.14
    • Niger 1.15
    • Nigeria 1.16
    • Rwanda 1.17
    • South Africa 1.18
    • Sudan 1.19
    • Togo 1.20
    • Zimbabwe 1.21
  • Antarctica 2
  • Asia 3
    • Afghanistan 3.1
    • Armenia 3.2
    • Bahrain 3.3
    • Bangladesh 3.4
    • China 3.5
    • Georgia 3.6
    • Hong Kong SAR (China) 3.7
    • Guam (United States) 3.8
    • India 3.9
    • Indonesia 3.10
    • Iran 3.11
    • Japan 3.12
    • Malaysia 3.13
    • Pakistan 3.14
    • Philippines 3.15
    • Qatar 3.16
    • Saudi Arabia 3.17
    • Singapore 3.18
    • Sri Lanka 3.19
    • Republic of China (Taiwan) 3.20
    • Thailand 3.21
    • United Arab Emirates 3.22
    • South China Sea 3.23
    • Various countries 3.24
  • Central America and the Caribbean 4
    • Costa Rica 4.1
    • Dominican Republic 4.2
    • Guatemala 4.3
    • Honduras 4.4
    • Panama 4.5
    • Puerto Rico 4.6
    • Montserrat 4.7
  • Europe 5
    • Austria 5.1
    • Belgium 5.2
    • Bulgaria 5.3
    • Croatia 5.4
    • Czech Republic 5.5
    • Denmark 5.6
    • France 5.7
    • Germany 5.8
    • Greece 5.9
    • Ireland 5.10
    • Italy 5.11
    • Luxembourg 5.12
    • Netherlands 5.13
    • Norway 5.14
    • Poland 5.15
    • Portugal 5.16
    • Romania 5.17
    • Russia 5.18
    • Serbia 5.19
    • Slovakia 5.20
    • Slovenia 5.21
    • Spain 5.22
    • Sweden 5.23
    • Turkey 5.24
    • Ukraine 5.25
    • United Kingdom 5.26
    • Various countries 5.27
  • International waters 6
    • Atlantic Ocean 6.1
    • Black Sea 6.2
    • Indian Ocean 6.3
    • Pacific Ocean 6.4
  • Oceania 7
    • Australia 7.1
    • New Zealand 7.2
  • North America 8
    • Canada 8.1
    • United States 8.2
  • South America 9
    • Argentina 9.1
    • Brazil 9.2
    • Chile 9.3
    • Colombia 9.4
    • Ecuador 9.5
    • Peru 9.6
    • Suriname 9.7
    • Uruguay 9.8
    • Venezuela 9.9
  • References 10
  • External links 11





Canary Islands, Spain

  • KLM Flight 4805 and Pan Am Flight 1736 crashed during takeoff from Tenerife in the Canary Islands on 27 March 1977 in what has become known as the Tenerife airport disaster, the worst aviation disaster in history. The ground collision was caused by a number of factors, including weather conditions, pilot error, and technical limitations. A total of 583 people aboard both aircraft died. Survivors numbered 61 (54 passengers, 7 crew).
  • Dan-Air Flight 1008 crashed into a mountain on Tenerife near Los Rodeos due to pilot error on 25 April 1980. All 146 people aboard were killed. The accident was the greatest loss of life on a British-registered aircraft.



  • Air West Flight 612 was hijacked shortly after takeoff from Khartoum, Sudan, and flown to N'Djamena, Chad on 24 January 2007. There were no casualties, and the hijacker gave himself up upon reaching Chad.
  • On 19 September 1989 UTA Flight 772, a McDonnell Douglas DC-10-30 (registration N54629)[1] operating the Brazzaville-N'Djamena-Paris CDG sector, was bombed 46 minutes after take-off from N'Djamena causing the aircraft to crash while flying over Niger. All 156 passengers and 14 crew members on board perished.[1][2] For nearly 20 years, this incident marked the deadliest air disaster involving a French-operated airliner, in terms of loss of life. As of June 2009, it ranks as the second-deadliest (see Air France Flight 447).

Democratic Republic of the Congo

  • Hewa Bora Airways Flight 122 crashed into a residential and market area of Goma on 15 April 2008 after its engines failed during takeoff. Three passengers and 37 people on the ground died; 83 passengers and 8 crew survived. Additionally 111 injuries were reported, 40 of whom were passengers.
  • An Antonov An-26 operated by Africa One crashed and burned shortly after takeoff from Kinshasa on 4 October 2007. Deaths numbered 51, including 31 on the ground. One, possibly two, passengers survived. The cause of the crash is under investigation.
  • An Antonov An-32B (NATO reporting name "Cline") operated by the Great Lakes Business Company, overloaded with nine tons of cassiterite and other minerals, and carrying 12 passengers and a crew of three develops engine failure about ten minutes after takeoff from Kongolo Airport in Kongolo on 26 August 2007. It attempts to return to the airport but strikes trees, crashes, and burns short of the runway, killing 14 of the 15 people on board.[3]
  • A L-410 aircraft operated by Free Airlines crashed in a swamp shortly after takeoff from Kamina Airport on 21 June 2007. The plane was overloaded, carrying 21 passengers and crew rather than the 17 maximum specified. One person died, and four others were badly injured.
  • An Antonov An-26B (NATO reporting name "Curl") operated by Air Kasai in the Democratic Republic of the Congo on a flight from Boende to Kinshasa on 9 September 2005 crashes 50 km (31 miles) north of Brazzaville in the neighboring Republic of the Congo, killing all 13 people on board.[4]
  • An Antonov An-26B (NATO reporting name "Curl") operated as a Kavatshi Airlines flight under an airworthiness certificate that had expired in September 2004, strikes a tree, crashes, and burns while landing in fog at Matari Airport in Isiro, Democratic Republic of the Congo, killing all 11 people on board.[5]
  • In the 1996 Air Africa crash, an Antonov An-32 operated by Air Africa failed to takeoff and overran the runway at N'Dolo Airport and crashed into a crowded street market on 8 January 1996. The aircraft was operating illegally. At least two passengers died, along with an estimated 350 on the ground. An estimated 500 others were injured. Both pilots were charged and convicted of 225 counts of manslaughter and served two-year sentences.

Republic of the Congo


  • Pan Am Flight 93 was hijacked as a part of the Dawson's Field hijackings on 6 September 1970 and flown to Beirut and then to Cairo. The aircraft was blown up by the hijackers seconds after the passengers were deplaned.
  • Flash Airlines Flight 604 crashed into the Red Sea shortly after takeoff from Sharm el-Sheikh International Airport on 3 January 2004. All 148 aboard were killed. The findings of the crash investigation are controversial, with accident investigators from the different countries involved not agreeing on the cause.
  • Libyan Arab Airlines Flight 114 was shot down by Israeli fighter jets on 21 February 1973 after it entered Israeli airspace and its pilots ignored instructions from the fighter pilots. Deaths were 108 of those aboard; one of the five survivors included the copilot.
  • PIA Flight 705 crashed while attempting to land at Cairo International Airport on 20 May 1965 when the pilot descended too quickly. Six passengers survived; the other 121 people aboard died.
  • TWA Flight 903 crashed during a forced emergency landing in the desert near Cairo after an engine caught fire and separated from the aircraft mid-flight on 1 September 1950. All 55 aboard were killed.
  • Kogalymavia Flight 9268 crashed in northern Sinai on 31 October 2015. All 224 aboard were killed.

Ivory Coast

  • Kenya Airways Flight 431 crashed shortly after takeoff from Abidjan on 30 January 2000. Ten passengers survived. Of the 169 fatalities, 146 bodies were recovered, and 103 of those bodies were identified.
  • Varig Flight 797 crashed into the jungle near Abidjan after engine failure on 3 January 1987. Of 51 on board, 50 people died; a single passenger survived.







  • ADC Airlines Flight 53 crashed into a corn field on 29 October 2006 shortly after take off from Abuja. Deaths numbered 97 people, including one on the ground; nine people survived. The exact cause of the crash is disputed.
  • ADC Airlines Flight 86 crashed on 7 November 1996, killing all 144 aboard.
  • Bellview Airlines Flight 210 crashed shortly after takeoff from Lagos on 22 October 2005, killing all 117 people aboard. The cause of the crash is under investigation, though a lightning strike is considered to be the most likely explanation.
  • EAS Airlines Flight 4226 crashed in a residential section of the city of Kano on 4 May 2002 due to pilot error. Deaths included 71 people aboard the aircraft, as well as 78 people on the ground, in the crash and ensuing fire. Six passengers survived with injuries. The crash was the highest death toll in an accident involving a BAC One-Eleven.
  • Sosoliso Airlines Flight 1145 crash landed on the runway at Port Harcourt International Airport on 10 December 2005. Deaths were 108 people on board, including 61 secondary school students, in the impact and fire. Two passengers survived. The cause of the crash is believed to be weather-related, though this has not been confirmed by authorities.
  • Dana Air Flight 992 crashed into a two-story building at Iju Railway, Ishaga a suburb of Lagos on 3 June 2012. All 153 people on board the aircraft and ten more on the ground were killed. Following the crash, all flights by Dana Air were halted by Nigeria's Civil Aviation Authority (NCAA).
  • An Alia (Royal Jordanian) Boeing 707 crashed on landing at Kano Airport on 22 January 1973 when a landing gear strut collapsed, killing 176.


  • RwandAir Flight 205 crashed into a building after its engine speed's were jammed causing a crash

and an emergency landing was made in Kigali on 12 November 2009, killing one passenger. The accident is currently under investigation.

South Africa


  • Sudan Airways Flight 109 crashed, broke apart, and caught fire upon landing at Khartoum on 10 June 2008. The cause of the accident is still under investigation. Thirty people are confirmed dead, and 6 are missing.
  • Sudan Airways Flight 139 crashed in Port Sudan on 8 July 2003 killing all 117 aboard. The flight crew was not able to see the runway in the low visibility and crashed when attempting a missed approach.
  • Sudan Airways Flight 111 was hijacked on 30 March 2007. The hijacker demanded to be flown to South Africa, but agreed to stop to refuel in Khartoum, where he was arrested.




  • Air New Zealand Flight 901 crashed into the side of Mount Erebus, Antarctica, on 28 November 1979 for various reasons including pilot error, maintenance crew error, and whiteout conditions. All 257 aboard died.








  • Sukhumi.

Hong Kong SAR (China)

Guam (United States)




  • 6 September 1929 — Imperial Airways de Havilland DH.66 Hercules G-EBMZ stalls when it flares too early while attempting a night landing at Jask Airport in Jask, Persia. It crashes and bursts into flames when its wing fuel tanks rupture and emergency flares in its wingtips ignite the fuel. Both crew members and one of the three passengers die.
  • 4 December 1946 — Aeroflot Lisunov Li-2 crashed at Mashhad, Iran, killing 24.
  • 14 September 1950 — An Iran Air Douglas C-47 Skytrain (registration EP-AAG) crashed on takeoff from Mehrabad Airport, killing all eight on board.
  • 1 December 1950 — An Iran Air C-47A (registration EP-AAJ) struck a mountain near Chamaran en route to Tehran from Tabriz, killing all eight on board.
  • 22 December 1951 — An Egypt Air SNCASE Languedoc circled Tehran twice in a snow storm and crashed 10 km W of Tehran, killing 22 on board.
  • 25 December 1952 — Iran Air Douglas DC-3; Tehran, Iran: 27 fatalities and two survivors.
  • 10 September 1958 — Martin PBM-5A Mariner was being ferried to the Netherlands from Biak, Indonesia. Due to technical problems, a forced landing was carried out at Abadan, Iran. About two weeks later, repairs had been accomplished, and the aircraft took off. Shortly after takeoff, an oil leak was observed on engine number one. While on finals for landing at Abadan, the aircraft suddenly lost height and crashed, killing all aboard. It appeared that the remaining engine went into reverse, causing the crew to lose control.
  • 20 June 1961 — A Douglas C-47 (DC-3) of Imperial Iranian Air Force (IIAF) crashed from 400 meters altitude while dropping skydivers and equipment over exercise area, killing all 9 on board.
  • 15 March 1963 — A TMA Cargo Avro York crashed seven miles southeast of Karaj, killing all 4 on board.
  • 18 April 1967 — A C-130 Hercules of IIAF crashed due to a lightning strike, near Zarandieh, Iran. All 23 people on board were killed.
  • 25 August 1973 — A Fokker F-27 Friendship of IIAF crashed near Chalus, Iran, killing all 5 on board.
  • 28 February 1974 — A C-130 Hercules of IIAF crashed near Mehrabad International Airport, killing all 10 on board.
  • 15 March 1974 — A Sud Aviation Caravelle of Sterling Airlines damaged beyond repair while taxiing in Mehrabad International Airport, causing 15 casualties.
  • 21 December 1976 — A C-130 Hercules of IIAF crashed near Shiraz, Iran, killing all 9 on board.
  • 19 September 1978 — A C-130 Hercules of IIAF crashed near Doshan Tappah AB, killing 9 out of 13 on board.
  • 21 January 1980 — Iran Air Boeing 727-86; near Tehran, Iran. The aircraft hit high ground in a snowstorm during the approach to land. All 8 crew members and 120 passengers were killed.
  • 29 September 1981 — A C-130 Hercules of Islamic Rep. of Iran Air Force (IRIAF) crashed near Kahrizak, Iran, killing all 80 on board.
  • 3 May 1982 - A Gulfstream II was en route from Cyprus to Tehran at FL370 with the Algerian foreign minister, Mohammed Seddik Ben Yahia, on board when it was shot down by an Iraqi Air Force MiG-25PD fighter aircraft in the border area of Iraq, Iran and Turkey, killing all 15 on board.
  • 2 November 1986 — A C-130 Hercules of IRIAF crashed near Zahedan, Iran, killing all 96 on board.
  • 3 July 1988 — Iran Air Flight 655, an Iranian passenger jet carrying 290 passengers, is shot down over the Persian Gulf by the United States Navy guided missile cruiser USS Vincennes killing all aboard including 66 children.
  • 24 May 1991 — A forced landing near Kermanshah, Iran, due to fuel shortage had to be made after three missed approaches by Soviet Metro Cargo Ilyushin Il-76. 4 on board casualties.
  • 26 April 1992 — A Fokker F-27 Friendship of IRIAF crashed near Saveh, Iran, killing all 39 on board.
  • 8 February 1993 — A Tupolev Tu-154 was departing on a non-scheduled flight from Mehrabad International Airport, Tehran, to Mashhad International Airport when it became involved in a mid-air collision with an Iranian Air Force Sukhoi Su-24 fighter plane that was on approach to the same airport. All 12 crew members and 119 passengers on board, plus both pilots of the Su-24, were killed for a total of 133 fatalities.
  • 12 October 1994 — Iran Aseman Airlines Flight 746, a Fokker F28 Fellowship (registered EP-PAV) en route from Isfahan to Tehran suffered a sudden loss of power in both engines at 23:05 local time, 35 minutes after take-off from Isfahan International Airport. The aircraft went into an uncontrolled descent and crashed near Natanz, killing all 59 passengers and 7 crew members on board.
  • May 17, 2001 — A Rahman Dadman, two deputy ministers and seven more members of parliament. It was forced to divert due to bad weather conditions and was later discovered crashed in the Alborz mountains, near Sari, Iran. All on board perished.
  • 12 February 2002 — Iran Air Tours Flight 956, a Tupolev Tu-154, crashed into the Sefid Kouh mountains during heavy rain, snow and dense fog while descending for Khorramabad Airport. All twelve crew members and 107 passengers were killed.
  • 20 April 2005 — Saha Airlines Flight 171, a Boeing 707-320C, registration EP-SHE, flying from Kish Island, crashed on landing at Mehrabad Airport, Tehran following an unstabilised approach with a higher than recommended airspeed. Gear and/or a tire failed after touchdown and the flight overran the far end of the runway. Of the 12 crew and 157 passengers, 3 passengers were killed.
  • 1 September 2006 — Iran Air Tours Flight 9545, A Tupolev Tu-154 from Bandar Abbas Airport with 11 crew and 137 passengers on board burst into flames upon landing at Mashhad International Airport, Iran killing 28 of those on board.
  • 15 July 2009 — Caspian Airlines Flight 7908, a Tupolev Tu-154M, traveling from Tehran to Yerevan crashed near Qazvin, killing all 168 people (156 passengers, 12 crew) on board.
  • 24 January 2010 — Taban Air Flight 6437, a Tupolev Tu-154, crashed whilst making an emergency landing at Mashhad International Airport due to a medical emergency; all 157 and 13 crew survived the accident with 42 receiving minor injuries.
  • 9 January 2011 — Iran Air Flight 277; near Urmia Airport, Iran. The aircraft impacted terrain during go-around due to bad weather. Of 105 aboard, 77 were killed.







Saudi Arabia


Sri Lanka

Republic of China (Taiwan)


United Arab Emirates

South China Sea

  • Qantas Flight 30 — 25 July 2008, Mid-air decompression after departure from Hong Kong, landed safely in Manila; no injuries.

Various countries

Central America and the Caribbean

Costa Rica

Dominican Republic




Puerto Rico





  • British Eagle International Airlines Flight 802 crashed into the Glungezer mountain near Innsbruck on 29 February 1964, killing all 83 people on board.
  • Hapag-Lloyd Flight 3378 crash-landed 650 m short of the runway in Vienna on 12 July 2000 due to fuel exhaustion 22 km out, arising from erroneous fuel management combined with failure to divert. There were no serious injuries.
  • A Super Puma helicopter collided mid-air on 5 March 2007 with a smaller private airplane at low altitude near the Zell am See Airport, due to failure of both pilots to visually detect the other aircraft in good weather. All eight people on the two craft were killed.


  • An Imperial Airways Argosy crashed on 28 March 1933 near Diksmuide following an onboard fire suspected to be the first case of aerial sabotage. All 12 passengers and 3 crew were killed.
  • Sabena OO-AUB crashed on 16 November 1937 while attempting to land in bad weather near Ostend. All 11 aboard were killed.
  • Sabena Flight 548 crashed due to mechanical failure while attempting to land in Brussels on 15 February 1961. All 72 passengers and crew were killed, along with a single ground casualty.



Czech Republic





  • Olympic Airways Flight 954 (December 8, 1969) — A Douglas DC-6 (SX-DAE) crashed during its approach to Athens Hellenicon Airport from Chania on Paneio mountain near Keratea amidst bad weather killing 90 passengers and crew. This was the worse aircraft accident in Greece until 2005.[12]
  • TWA Flight 841 (September 8, 1974) — A Boeing 707-331B (N8734) crushed in Ionian sea 30 minutes after its departure from Athens. An explosive device in the luggage area destroyed flight controls and resulted in 88 fatalities.[12]
  • Swissair Flight 316 (October 8, 1979) — A Douglas DC-8 (HB-IDE) landed near the middle of runway 15L of Athens Hellenicon Airport at more than 270 km/h overrun the runway and stopped on a public road outside the airport area. Its left wing was severed from the fuselage and in the resulting fire 14 out of 154 passengers died.[12]
  • TWA Flight 840 — Bombed on the way to Athens, Greece, sucking out 4 on board — the plane landed safely.
  • Olympic Aviation Flight 545 (August 3, 1989) — A Shorts 330-200 (SX-BGE) crashed on Kerkis mountain coming from Thessaloniki towards airport Pythagoras in Samos. All 31 passengers and crew of 3 died.[12]
  • Helios Airways Flight 522 — destroyed near Kalamos on way to Athens, with a manifest of 121.

















United Kingdom

Various countries

  • Olympic Airways Flight 417: Dr. Abid Hanson,[14] a passenger on Olympic Airways Flight 417[15] from Cairo to Athens to New York City, who had a history of sensitivity to secondhand smoke requested a non-smoking seat prior. When the family boarded the aircraft in Athens, the people found that the assigned seats were three rows ahead of the economy class smoking area; there was no partition between the smoking and non-smoking section. The family requested a seat further away from the smoking section. The crew did not move the passenger to any of the 11 other unoccupied seats on the aircraft. The passenger felt a reaction to the smoke and died several hours later.[16] The case resulted in the Olympic Airways v. Husain case.

International waters

The following accidents and incidents occurred in international waters; that is, more than 12 nautical miles (22 km; 14 mi) off the coast of any territory.

Atlantic Ocean

Black Sea

Indian Ocean

  • Ethiopian Airlines Flight 961 was hijacked on 23 November 1996 en route from Addis Ababa to Nairobi by three Ethiopians seeking political asylum. The plane crash-landed in the Indian Ocean near Comoros after running out of fuel, killing 125 of the 175 passengers and crew on board.
  • Korean Air Flight 858 was destroyed by a bomb planted by North Korean agents on 29 November 1987. All 115 on board died.
  • South African Airways Flight 295 crashed into the Indian Ocean in international waters off the coast of Mauritius on 28 November 1987 after a catastrophic in-flight fire. The cause of the fire was never determined. All 159 aboard were killed.
  • Yemenia Flight 626 crashed into the Indian Ocean off the Northern coast of Comoros on 30 June 2009. Of 153 aboard, 152 died; a 12-year-old passenger was found alive. The crash is currently under investigation.

Pacific Ocean



New Zealand

North America


United States

South America







  • Aerolíneas Argentinas Flight 386 had in-flight meals loaded in Lima, Peru, and the aircraft landed in Los Angeles, California. The fish was contaminated with cholera, and several passengers later developed food poisoning. An elderly man died of the disease.[17][18]
  • TANS Peru Flight 204, a Boeing 737-200 passenger plane which crashed during a storm in the Peruvian jungle, killing at least 40 people of the approximately 100 on board.
  • LANSA Flight 508 on a flight from Lima to Pucallpa, Peru, broke apart in midair after being set aflame by lightning. It crashed in the Amazon rainforest. Deaths numbered 91 people; the sole survivor was Juliane Koepcke, a 17-year-old girl who survived a fall from 2 miles and 10-day walk through the jungle before being found by hunters. Her mother, famous ornithologist Maria Koepcke, died; director Werner Herzog had narrowly missed being on the same flight.





  1. ^ UTA 772: The forgotten flight
  2. ^ McDonnell Douglas DC-10-30 N54629
  3. ^ Accident Report at Aviation Safety Network.
  4. ^ a b Accident report at Aviation Safety Network
  5. ^ Accident report at Aviation Safety Network
  6. ^ Accident description for S2-ABJ at the Aviation Safety Network
  7. ^
  8. ^
  9. ^
  10. ^
  11. ^
  12. ^ a b c d
  13. ^
  14. ^
  15. ^
  16. ^
  17. ^
  18. ^ [2]
  19. ^
  20. ^

External links

  • Aircraft Crashes Record Office
  • AirSafe
  • Aviation Safety Network
  • BBC News
  • CNN International
  • Federal Aviation Administration
This article was sourced from Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License; additional terms may apply. World Heritage Encyclopedia content is assembled from numerous content providers, Open Access Publishing, and in compliance with The Fair Access to Science and Technology Research Act (FASTR), Wikimedia Foundation, Inc., Public Library of Science, The Encyclopedia of Life, Open Book Publishers (OBP), PubMed, U.S. National Library of Medicine, National Center for Biotechnology Information, U.S. National Library of Medicine, National Institutes of Health (NIH), U.S. Department of Health & Human Services, and, which sources content from all federal, state, local, tribal, and territorial government publication portals (.gov, .mil, .edu). Funding for and content contributors is made possible from the U.S. Congress, E-Government Act of 2002.
Crowd sourced content that is contributed to World Heritage Encyclopedia is peer reviewed and edited by our editorial staff to ensure quality scholarly research articles.
By using this site, you agree to the Terms of Use and Privacy Policy. World Heritage Encyclopedia™ is a registered trademark of the World Public Library Association, a non-profit organization.

Copyright © World Library Foundation. All rights reserved. eBooks from World eBook Library are sponsored by the World Library Foundation,
a 501c(4) Member's Support Non-Profit Organization, and is NOT affiliated with any governmental agency or department.