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List of human spaceflights, 1981–90

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Title: List of human spaceflights, 1981–90  
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Subject: Human spaceflight, Space/Topics/Lists, Spaceflight lists and timelines, List of Ariane launches, List of Proton launches
Collection: 20Th Century-Related Lists, Human Spaceflight, Lists of Astronauts, Spaceflight Timelines
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List of human spaceflights, 1981–90

This is a detailed listing of human spaceflights from 1981 to 1990, spanning the end of the Soviet Union's Salyut space station program, the beginning of Mir, and the start of the US Space Shuttle program.

  • Red indicates fatalities.
  • Green indicates suborbital flights (including flights that failed to attain intended orbit).
# Crew Launch
spacecraft
Habitation Return
spacecraft
Brief mission summary
80 Vladimir Kovalyonok
Viktor Savinykh
13 March 1981
Soyuz T-4
Salyut 6 26 May 1981
Soyuz T-4
81 Vladimir Dzhanibekov
Jügderdemidiin Gürragchaa
22 March 1981
Soyuz 39
Salyut 6 29 March 1981
Soyuz 39
First Mongolian in space (Gürragchaa).
82 John W. Young
Robert L. Crippen
12 April 1981
STS-1, Columbia
14 April 1981
STS-1, Columbia
First space shuttle flight. Systems test.
83 Leonid Popov
Dumitru Prunariu
14 May 1981
Soyuz 40
Salyut 6 22 May 1981
Soyuz 40
First Romanian in space (Prunariu). Magnetic field observations. Final Soyuz flight.
84 Joseph H. Engle
Richard H. Truly
12 November 1981
STS-2, Columbia
14 November 1981
STS-2, Columbia
First re-use of a manned spacecraft. Systems test. Earth science observations.
85 Jack R. Lousma
C. Gordon Fullerton
22 March 1982
STS-3, Columbia
30 March 1982
STS-3, Columbia
Further system testing. Miscellaneous scientific experiments and Earth science observations.
86 Anatoli Brergovoy
Valentin Lebedev
12 May 1982
Soyuz T-5
Salyut 7 10 December 1982
Soyuz T-7
First mission to Salyut 7. Deployment of radio communications satellite.
87 Vladimir Dzhanibekov
Aleksandr Ivanchenkov
Jean-Loup Chrétien
24 June 1982
Soyuz T-6
Salyut 7 2 July 1982
Soyuz T-6
First French citizen in space (Chrétien).
88 Thomas K. Mattingly
Henry W. Hartsfield
27 June 1982
STS-4, Columbia
4 July 1982
STS-4, Columbia
Final space shuttle R&D flight. Miscellaneous scientific experiments plus classified US Air Force payload.
89 Leonid Popov
Aleksandr Serebrov
Svetlana Savitskaya
19 August 1982
Soyuz T-7
Salyut 7 27 August 1982
Soyuz T-5
Second woman in space (Savitskaya).
90 Vance D. Brand
Robert F. Overmyer
Joseph P. Allen
William B. Lenoir
11 November 1982
STS-5, Columbia
16 November 1982
STS-5, Columbia
Launched commercial ANIK C-3 and SBS-C communications satellites. Planned EVA cancelled due to space suit malfunction.
91 Paul J. Weitz
Karol J. Bobko
Donald H. Peterson
F. Story Musgrave
4 April 1983
STS-6, Challenger
9 April 1983
STS-6, Challenger
First Space Shuttle EVA (Peterson and Musgrave). Deployment of first Tracking and Data Relay Satellite (TDRS-1). Miscellaneous science experiments.
92 Vladimir Titov
Gennadi Strekalov
Aleksandr Serebrov
20 April 1983
Soyuz T-8
22 April 1983
Soyuz T-8
Failed to dock with Salyut 7.
93 Robert L. Crippen
Frederick H. Hauck
John M. Fabian
Sally K. Ride
Norman E. Thagard
18 June 1983
STS-7, Challenger
24 June 1983
STS-7, Challenger
Two communications satellites launched. First American woman in space (Ride). Investigation into behavior of ant colony in zero gravity. Various microgravity experiments.
94 Vladimir Lyakhov
Aleksandr Aleksandrov
26 June 1983
Soyuz T-9
Salyut 7 23 November 1983
Soyuz T-9
95 Richard H. Truly
Daniel C. Brandenstein
Dale A. Gardner
Guion Bluford
William E. Thornton
30 August 1983
STS-8, Challenger
5 September 1983
STS-8, Challenger
First African-American in space (Bluford). First night launch and landing. Deployed INSAT-1B satellite for India. Observation of behavior of rats in space.
Vladimir Titov
Gennady Strekalov
26 September 1983
Soyuz T-10-1
Launch failed due to fire. Crew ejected.
96 John W. Young
Brewster H. Shaw
Owen K. Garriott
Robert A. Parker
Byron K. Lichtenberg
Ulf Merbold
28 November 1983
STS-9, Columbia
8 December 1983
STS-9, Columbia
First Spacelab (orbital laboratory) mission. First ESA astronaut, first West German astronaut and first non-American on US flight (Merbold).
97 Vance D. Brand
Robert L. Gibson
Bruce McCandless II
Ronald E. McNair
Robert L. Stewart
3 February 1984
STS-41-B,
Challenger
11 February 1984
STS-41-B,
Challenger
First untethered spacewalk (McCandless and Stewart). WESTAR-VI and PALAPA-B2 satellites deployed but failed to attain correct orbits.
98 Leonid Kizim
Vladimir Solovyov
Oleg Atkov
4 February 1984
Soyuz T-10
Salyut 7 2 October 1984
Soyuz T-11
99 Yury Malyshev
Gennadi Strekalov
Rakesh Sharma
3 April 1984
Soyuz T-11
Salyut 7 11 April 1984
Soyuz T-10
First Indian in space (Sharma). Earth observation program. Life sciences and materials processing experiments.
100 Robert L. Crippen
Francis R. Scobee
George D. Nelson
James D. A. van Hoften
Terry J. Hart
6 April 1984
STS-41-C,
Challenger
13 April 1984
STS-41-C,
Challenger
LDEF deployed for later retrieval. Capture, repair and redeployment of malfunctioning Solar Maximum Mission satellite.
101 Vladimir Dzhanibekov
Igor Volk
Svetlana Savitskaya
17 July 1984
Soyuz T-12
Salyut 7 29 July 1984
Soyuz T-12
First EVA by a female astronaut (Savitskaya).
102 Henry W. Hartsfield
Michael L. Coats
Judith A. Resnik
Steven A. Hawley
Richard M. Mullane
Charles D. Walker
30 August 1984
STS-41-D,
Discovery
5 September 1984
STS-41-D,
Discovery
Testing of experimental solar arrays. Three satellites deployed.
103 Robert L. Crippen
Jon A. McBride
Kathryn D. Sullivan
Sally K. Ride
David C. Leestma
Marc Garneau
Paul D. Scully-Power
5 October 1984
STS-41-G,
Challenger
13 October 1984
STS-41-G,
Challenger
ERBS satellite deployed. Radar imaging. First EVA by an American woman (Sullivan). First Canadian in space (Garneau). First flight including two women.
104 Frederick H. Hauck
David M. Walker
Anna L. Fisher
Dale A. Gardner
Joseph P. Allen
8 November 1984
STS-51-A,
Discovery
16 November 1984
STS-51-A,
Discovery
Deployed two communications satellites. Retrieved two malfunctioning satellites.
105 Thomas K. Mattingly
Loren J. Shriver
Ellison S. Onizuka
James F. Buchli
Gary E. Payton
24 January 1985
STS-51-C,
Discovery
27 January 1985
STS-51-C,
Discovery
First mission for the U.S. Department of Defense. Classified payload, possibly intelligence-gathering satellite.
106 Karol J. Bobko
Donald E. Williams
M. Rhea Seddon
Jeffrey A. Hoffman
S. David Griggs
Charles D. Walker
E. Jake Garn
12 April 1985
STS-51-D,
Discovery
19 April 1985
STS-51-D,
Discovery
Communications satellite deployed. Miscellaneous scientific experiments. First senator in space (Garn).
107 Robert F. Overmyer
Frederick D. Gregory
Don L. Lind
Norman E. Thagard
William E. Thornton
Lodewijk van den Berg
Taylor G. Wang
29 April 1985
STS-51-B,
Challenger
6 May 1985
STS-51-B,
Challenger
Second Spacelab mission; microgravity experiments. Observation of behaviour of monkeys and rodents in space.
108 Vladimir Dzhanibekov 5 June 1985
Soyuz T-13
Salyut 7 26 September 1985
Soyuz T-13
Repair of crippled Salyut 7 station.
Viktor Savinykh 21 November 1985
Soyuz T-14
109 Daniel C. Brandenstein
John O. Creighton
Shannon W. Lucid
Steven R. Nagel
John M. Fabian
Patrick Baudry
Sultan Salman Al Saud
17 June 1985
STS-51-G,
Discovery
24 June 1985
STS-51-G,
Discovery
Three communications satellites deployed. Miscellaneous scientific experiments. First Saudi and the first Arab in space (Al-Saud).
110 C. Gordon Fullerton
Roy D. Bridges
F. Story Musgrave
Anthony W. England
Karl G. Henize
Loren W. Acton
John-David F. Bartoe
29 July 1985
STS-51-F,
Challenger
6 August 1985
STS-51-F,
Challenger
Spacelab-2 mission. Miscellaneous science experiments. Three communications satellites deployed.
111 Joseph H. Engle
Richard O. Covey
James D.A. van Hoften
John M. Lounge
William F. Fisher
27 August 1985
STS-51-I,
Discovery
3 September 1985
STS-51-I,
Discovery
Three communications satellites deployed. Retrieval, repair and redeployment of LEASAT-3 satellite.
112 Vladimir Vasyutin
Aleksandr Volkov
17 September 1985
Soyuz T-14
Salyut 7 21 November 1985
Soyuz T-14
Georgi Grechko 26 September 1985
Soyuz T-13
113 Karol J. Bobko
Ronald J. Grabe
David C. Hilmers
Robert L. Stewart
William A. Pailes
3 October 1985
STS-51-J,
Atlantis
7 October 1985
STS-51-J,
Atlantis
Second U.S. Department of Defense mission. Classified payload, believed to be two communications satellites.
114 Henry W. Hartsfield
Steven R. Nagel
James F. Buchli
Guion Bluford
Bonnie J. Dunbar
Reinhard Furrer
Ernst Messerschmid
Wubbo J. Ockels
30 October 1985
STS-61-A,
Challenger
6 November 1985
STS-61-A,
Challenger
German-sponsored Spacelab mission. Microgravity experiments. First Dutchman in space (Ockels).
115 Brewster H. Shaw
Bryan D. O'Connor
Mary L. Cleave
Sherwood C. Spring
Jerry L. Ross
Rodolfo Neri Vela
Charles D. Walker
26 November 1985
STS-61-B,
Atlantis
3 December 1985
STS-61-B,
Atlantis
Three communications satellites deployed. Demonstration of in-orbit construction techniques. First Mexican in space (Neri Vela).
116 Robert L. Gibson
Charles F. Bolden
Franklin R. Chang-Diaz
Steven A. Hawley
George D. Nelson
Robert J. Cenker
Clarence W. Nelson
12 January 1986
STS-61-C,
Columbia
18 January 1986
STS-61-C,
Columbia
Deployment of communications satellite. Miscellaneous science experiments.
Francis R. Scobee
Michael J. Smith
Judith A. Resnik
Ellison S. Onizuka
Ronald E. McNair
Gregory B. Jarvis
S. Christa McAuliffe
28 January 1986
STS-51-L, Challenger
Disintegrated 73 seconds after launch with loss of all crew.
117 Leonid Kizim
Vladimir Solovyov
13 March 1986
Soyuz T-15
Mir
Salyut 7
Mir
16 July 1986
Soyuz T-15
First expedition to Mir. Last expedition to Salyut 7.
118 Alexander Laveykin 7 February 1987
Soyuz TM-2
Mir 30 July 1987
Soyuz TM-2
Mir crew rotation and maintenance.
Yuri Romanenko 29 December 1987
Soyuz TM-3
119 Aleksandr Viktorenko
Mohammed Faris
22 July 1987
Soyuz TM-3
Mir 30 July 1987
Soyuz TM-2
Mir crew rotation. First Syrian in space (Faris).
Aleksandr Aleksandrov 29 December 1987
Soyuz TM-3
120 Anatoli Levchenko 21 December 1987
Soyuz TM-4
Mir 29 December 1987
Soyuz TM-3
Mir crew rotation. Biological experiments and astronomical observations.
Vladimir Titov
Musa Manarov
21 December 1988
Soyuz TM-6
121 Anatoly Solovyev
Victor Savinykh
Aleksandr Aleksandrov
7 June 1988
Soyuz TM-5
Mir 17 June 1988
Soyuz TM-4
122 Vladimir Lyakhov
Abdul Ahad Mohmand
29 August 1988
Soyuz TM-6
Mir 7 September 1988
Soyuz TM-5
Mir crew rotation. First Afghan in space (Mohmand).
Valeri Polyakov 27 April 1989
Soyuz TM-7
123 Frederick H. Hauck
Richard O. Covey
John M. Lounge
George D. Nelson
David C. Hilmers
28 September 1988
STS-26, Discovery
3 October 1988
STS-26, Discovery
First "Return to Flight" Space Shuttle mission after Challenger Disaster. Deployment of Tracking and Data Relay Satellite-3 (TDRS-3).
124 Aleksandr Volkov
Sergei Krikalev
26 November 1988
Soyuz TM-7
Mir 27 April 1989
Soyuz TM-7
Mir crew rotation. Technology experiments. First European EVA (Chrétien).
Jean-Loup Chrétien 21 December 1988
Soyuz TM-6
125 Robert L. Gibson
Guy S. Gardner
Richard M. Mullane
Jerry L. Ross
William M. Shepherd
2 December 1988
STS-27, Atlantis
6 December 1988
STS-27, Atlantis
U.S. Department of Defense mission. Classified payload, reportedly Lacrosse 1 radar reconnaissance satellite.
126 Michael L. Coats
John E. Blaha
James P. Bagian
James F. Buchli
Robert C. Springer
13 March 1989
STS-29, Discovery
18 March 1989
STS-29, Discovery
Deployment of Tracking and Data Relay Satellite-4 (TDRS-4). Miscellaneous science experiments.
127 David M. Walker
Ronald J. Grabe
Norman E. Thagard
Mary L. Cleave
Mark C. Lee
4 May 1989
STS-30, Atlantis
8 May 1989
STS-30, Atlantis
Magellan probe deployed.
128 Brewster H. Shaw
Richard N. Richards
James C. Adamson
David C. Leestma
Mark N. Brown
8 August 1989
STS-28, Columbia
13 August 1989
STS-28, Columbia
U.S. Department of Defense mission. Classified payload, reportedly military communications and reconnaissance satellites.
129 Alexander Viktorenko
Aleksandr Serebrov
5 September 1989
Soyuz TM-8
Mir 19 February 1990
Soyuz TM-8
Mir equipment installation.
130 Donald E. Williams
Michael J. McCulley
Franklin R. Chang-Diaz
Shannon W. Lucid
Ellen S. Baker
18 October 1989
STS-34, Atlantis
23 October 1989
STS-34, Atlantis
Galileo probe deployed.
131 Frederick D. Gregory
John E. Blaha
F. Story Musgrave
Manley L. Carter
Kathryn C. Thornton
22 November 1989
STS-33, Discovery
27 November 1989
STS-33, Discovery
U.S. Department of Defense mission. Classified payload, reportedly reconnaissance satellite. First African-American Shuttle Commander.
132 Daniel C. Brandenstein
James D. Wetherbee
Bonnie J. Dunbar
G. David Low
Marsha S. Ivins
9 January 1990
STS-32, Columbia
20 January 1990
STS-32, Columbia
Deployment of defense communications satellite. Long Duration Exposure Facility (LDEF) retrieval.
133 Anatoly Solovyev
Alexander Balandin
11 February 1990
Soyuz TM-9
Mir 17 July 1990
Soyuz TM-9
134 John O. Creighton
John H. Casper
Richard M. Mullane
David C. Hilmers
Pierre J. Thuot
28 February 1990
STS-36, Atlantis
4 March 1990
STS-36, Atlantis
U.S. Department of Defense mission. Classified payload, reportedlyreconnaissance satellite.
135 Loren J. Shriver
Charles F. Bolden
Steven A. Hawley
Bruce McCandless II
Kathryn D. Sullivan
24 April 1990
STS-31, Discovery
29 April 1990
STS-31, Discovery
Hubble Space Telescope deployed.
136 Gennadi Strekalov
Gennadi Manakov
3 August 1990
Soyuz TM-10
Mir 10 December 1990
Soyuz TM-10
137 Richard N. Richards
Robert D. Cabana
William M. Shepherd
Bruce E. Melnick
Thomas D. Akers
6 October 1990
STS-41, Discovery
10 October 1990
STS-41, Discovery
Ulysses probe deployed. Miscellaneous science experiments.
138 Richard O. Covey
Frank L. Culbertson
Robert C. Springer
Carl J. Meade
Charles D. Gemar
15 November 1990
STS-38, Atlantis
20 November 1990
STS-38, Atlantis
U.S. Department of Defense mission. Classified payload, reportedly reconnaissance satellite.
139 Vance D. Brand
Guy S. Gardner
Jeffrey A. Hoffman
John M. Lounge
Robert A. Parker
Samuel T. Durrance
Ronald A. Parise
2 December 1990
STS-35, Columbia
10 December 1990
STS-35, Columbia
Ultraviolet and X-ray astronomy (ASTRO-1 observatory).
140 Viktor Afanasyev
Musa Manarov
2 December 1990
Soyuz TM-11
Mir 26 May 1991
Soyuz TM-11
Mir crew rotation. First Japanese in space (Akiyama).
Toyohiro Akiyama 10 December 1990
Soyuz TM-10

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