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List of official languages

 

List of official languages

This is a list of official languages.

Contents

  • Official languages by country 1
  • Official languages of supra-national institutions 2
  • Official languages of sovereign countries 3
    • A 3.1
    • B 3.2
    • C 3.3
    • D 3.4
    • E 3.5
    • F 3.6
    • G 3.7
    • H 3.8
    • I 3.9
    • J 3.10
    • K 3.11
    • L 3.12
    • M 3.13
    • N 3.14
    • O 3.15
    • P 3.16
    • Q 3.17
    • R 3.18
    • S 3.19
    • T 3.20
    • U 3.21
    • V 3.22
    • W 3.23
    • X 3.24
    • Y 3.25
    • Z 3.26
  • Number of countries with the same official language 4
  • Official regional and minority languages 5
  • See also 6
  • References 7

Official languages by country

For a list ordered by country names, see List of official languages by state. For a list ordered by language, see below.

Official languages of supra-national institutions

See List of official languages by institution.

Official languages of sovereign countries

A

Afar:

Afrikaans:

Aja-Gbe:

Akan (Akuapem Twi, Ashante Twi, Fante):

Albanian:

Amharic:

Anii:

Arabic (see also List of countries where Arabic is an official language):

Armenian:

Aymara:

Azerbaijani:

B

Balanta:

Bambara:

Bariba:

Bassari:

Bedik:

Belarusian:

Bengali:

  • Bangladesh[14]
  • India (with 21 other regional languages, and with English as a link language)

Berber:

Biali:

Bislama:

Boko:

Bomu:

Bosnian:

Bozo:

Buduma:

Bulgarian:

Burmese:

  • Burma (called Myanmar in the constitution)[19]

C

Cantonese:

Catalan:

  • Andorra,[20] co-official in some autonomous communities of Spain

Chinese, Mandarin:

Chichewa:

Chirbawe (Sena):

  • see Sena

Chokwe

Comorian

Croatian:

Czech:

  • Czech Republic
  • Slovakia (legislation states that a person using Czech language at a Slovak institution must be treated as if using Slovak language)

D

Dagaare:

Dagbani:

Dangme

Danish:

Dari:

  • Afghanistan (a local variant of Persian, but defined as "Dari" in the Afghan constitution; together with Pashto)[24]

Dendi:

Dhivehi:

Dioula:

Dogon:

Dutch:

Dzongkha:

E

English (see also List of countries where English is an official language):

Estonian:

Ewe-Gbe:

F

Fijian:

Filipino:

Finnish:

Fon-Gbe:

Foodo:

French (see also List of countries where French is an official language):

Fula:

G

Ga:

Gbe:

  • see Aja-Gbe, Ewe-Gbe, Fon-Gbe, Gen-Gbe, Waci-Gbe, Xwela-Gbe

Gen-Gbe:

Georgian:

  • [37]
  • South Ossetia (with Ossetian and Russian; independence is disputed)[38]
  • [37]

German:

Gonja:

Gourmanché

Greek:

Guaraní:

Gujarati:

H

Haitian Creole:

Hassaniya:

Hausa:

Hebrew:

Hindi:

Hiri Motu:

Hungarian:

I

Igbo:

Icelandic:

Indonesian:

  • Indonesia (a standardized dialect of Malay)[45]

Irish:

Italian:

J

Japanese:

Jola:

K

Kabye:

Kalanga:

Kanuri:

Kasem:

Kazakh:

Khmer:

Kikongo-Kituba:

Kimbundu:

Kinyarwanda:

Kirundi:

Kissi

Khoisan:

Korean:

Kpelle:

Kurdish:

Kwanyama:

Kyrgyz:

L

Lao:

Latin:

Latvian:

Lingala:

Lithuanian:

Lukpa:

Luxembourgish:

M

Macedonian:

Malagasy:

Malay:

Malinke:

Maltese:

Mamara:

Manding (Mandinka, Malinke):

  • see Bambara, Dioula, Malinke, Mandinka

Mandinka:

Mandjak:

Mankanya:

Manx Gaelic:

Māori:

  • New Zealand (with English and New Zealand Sign Language)

Marshallese:

Mbelime:

Moldovan

Mongolian:

Montenegrin:

Mossi:

N

Nambya:

Nateni:

Nauruan

Ndau:

Ndebele (Northern):

Ndebele (Southern):

Nepali:

New Zealand Sign Language:

Noon:

North Korean:

Northern Sotho:

Norwegian:

  • Norway (two official written forms - Bokmål and Nynorsk)

Nzema:

O

Oniyan:

Ossetian:

  • [38]

P

Palauan:

Papiamento:

Pashto:

Persian:

Polish:

Portuguese:

Q

Quechua:

R

Romanian:

  • Romania
  • Moldova (officially called Moldovan, although identical to Romanian according to the law of Moldova)[49]

Romansh:

Russian:

  • Russia (in some regions together with regional languages)[52]
  • Abkhazia (with Abkhaz according to the Abkhazian constitution;[53] independence is disputed)
  • Belarus (with Belarusian)[13]
  • Kazakhstan (with Kazakh)[46]
  • Kyrgyzstan (with Kyrgyz)[48]
  • [38]
  • Tajikistan ("inter-ethnic communication"; with Tajik)[51]
  • Transnistria (with Moldovan and Ukrainian; independence is disputed)[50]

S

Safen:

Samoa

Sango

Sena:

Serbian:

Serer:

Seychellois Creole

Shona:

Sinhala:

Slovak:

Slovene:

Somali:

Songhay-Zarma:

Soninke:

Sotho:

Spanish:

Susu:

Swahili:

Swati:

Swedish:

Syenara:

T

Tajik:

  • Tajikistan (a variant of Persian written in Cyrillic)[51]

Tagalog:

  • see Filipino

Tamasheq:

Tamil:

Tammari:

Tasawaq:

Tebu:

Telugu:

  • India (with 21 other regional Languages, and with Englishas a link language)

Tetum:

Thai:

Tigrinya:

Tok Pisin:

Toma:

Tonga:

Tongan

Tshiluba

Tsonga:

Tswana:

Turkish:

Turkmen:

Tuvaluan

U

Ukrainian:

Umbundu:

Urdu:

  • Pakistan (with English)
  • Fiji (with English and Bau Fijian; known constitutionally as Hindustani as an umbrella term to cover Urdu, as well as Hindi.)

Uzbek:

V

Venda:

Vietnamese:

W

Waama:

Waci-Gbe:

Wamey:

Welsh:

Wolof:

X

Xhosa:

Xwela-Gbe:

Y

Yobe:

Yom:

Yoruba:

Z

Zimbabwean sign language:

Zulu:

Number of countries with the same official language

This is a ranking of languages by number of sovereign countries in which they are de jure or de facto official (or with a national language status).
Language World Africa Americas Asia Europe Oceania Countries
English 59 24 16 4 3 12 India, United States, Pakistan, United Kingdom. See the full list
French 29 21 2 - 5 1 France, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Canada, Madagascar. See the full list
Arabic 26 14 - 12 - - Egypt, Lebanon, Saudi Arabia, Morocco. See the full list
Spanish 21 1 19 - 1 1 Spain, Mexico, Equatorial Guinea, Easter Island in (Oceania). See the full list
Portuguese 10 6 1 1 2 - Brazil, Portugal, Mozambique, Angola. See full list
Russian 8 - - 3 5 - Russia, Kazakhstan, Belarus, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, Abkhazia*, South Ossetia*, Transnistria*. See also the full list
German 8 1 - - 7 - Germany, Austria, Switzerland, Belgium, Liechtenstein, Luxembourg, Italy, Namibia
Fula 7 7 - - - - Benin, Burkina Faso, Guinea, Mali, Mauritania, Niger, Senegal
Italian 6 - - - 6 - Italy, Croatia, San Marino, Slovenia, Switzerland, Vatican City
Malay 4 - - 4 - - Malaysia, Indonesia, Singapore, Brunei
Manding 4 4 - - - - Burkina Faso (Dioula), Guinea (Malinke), Mali (Bambara), Senegal (Maninka)
Swahili 4 4 - - - - Democratic Republic of the Congo, Kenya, Tanzania, Uganda
Chinese, Mandarin 3 - - 3 - - China, Taiwan, Singapore
Dutch 3 - 1 - 2 - Netherlands, Belgium, Suriname
Gbe 3 3 - - - - Benin, Ghana, Togo
Kikongo 3 3 - - - - Angola, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Republic of the Congo
Persian 3 - - 3 - - Iran, Afghanistan (known as Dari), Tajikistan (known as Tajik)
Romanian 3 - - - 3 - Romania, Moldova, Transnistria* (uses Cyrillic script there)
Serbian 3 - - - 3 - Serbia, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Kosovo*
Somali 3 3 - - - - Djibouti, Somalia, Somaliland*
Soninke 3 3 - - - - Mali, Mauritania, Senegal
Tamil 3 - - 3 - - India, Singapore, Sri Lanka
Tswana 3 3 - - - - Botswana, South Africa, Zimbabwe
Albanian 2 - - - 2 - Albania and Kosovo*
Armenian 2 - - - 2 - Armenia and Nagorno-Karabakh*
Aymara, Quechua 2 - 2 - - - Bolivia and Peru
Berber 2 2 - - - - Algeria and Morocco
Chichewa 2 2 - - - - Malawi and Zimbabwe
Croatian 2 - - - 2 - Croatia and Bosnia and Herzegovina
Greek 2 - - - 2 - Greece and Cyprus
Hausa 2 2 - - - - Niger and Nigeria
Korean 2 - - 2 - - North Korea and South Korea
Lingala 2 2 - - - - Democratic Republic of the Congo and Republic of the Congo
Slovak 2 - - - 2 - Slovakia and Czech Republic
Songhay-Zarma 2 2 - - - - Mali, Niger
Sotho 2 2 - - - - Lesotho and South Africa
Swati 2 2 - - - - Swaziland and South Africa
Swedish 2 - - - 2 - Sweden and Finland
Tamasheq 2 2 - - - - Mali and Niger
Turkish 2 - - - 2 - Turkey and Cyprus
Ukrainian 2 - - - 2 - Ukraine and Transnistria*
Venda 2 2 - - - - South Africa and Zimbabwe
Wolof 2 2 - - - - Mauritania and Senegal
Yoruba 2 2 - - - - Benin and Nigeria
Xhosa 2 2 - - - - South Africa and Zimbabwe
Note
Asterisk shows the countries which independence is disputed

Official regional and minority languages

Abaza:

Adyghe:

  • Adygea (state language; with Russian)[58]

Aghul:

  • Dagestan (as one of the Dagestan peoples languages; with Russian)[59]

Aklanon:

  • Visayas (Philippines) (with Filipino, English, Bikol, Cebuano, Hiligaynon, Ilocano, Kinaray-a, Surigaonon, Tagalog, and Waray-Waray)[60]

Albanian:

  • Serbia (in Kosovo and several municipalities in Central-Serbia)
  • Macedonia (in some municipalities)

Albanian:

Altay:

Arabic:

Aranese see Occitan

Armenian:

Assamese:

Avar:

  • Dagestan (as one of the Dagestan peoples languages; with Russian)[59]

Azeri:

  • Dagestan (as one of the Dagestan peoples languages; with Russian)[59]

Balkar:

Bashkir:

Basque:

Bengali:

Bikol:

  • Luzon and Visayas (Philippines) (with Filipino, English, Aklanon, Cebuano, Hiligaynon, Ibanag, Ilocano, Ivatan, Kapampangan, Kinaray-a, Pangasinan, Sambal, Surigaonon, Tagalog, and Waray-Waray)[60]

Bosnian:

Buryat:

Cantonese Chinese:

  • Hong Kong (for Chinese language, Cantonese is spoken de facto; co-official with English)
  • Macau (for Chinese language, Cantonese is spoken de facto; co-official with Portuguese)
  • parts of China

Catalan:

Cebuano:

  • Luzon and Mindanao (Philippines) (with Filipino, English, Aklanon, Bikol, Chavacano, Hiligaynon, Ilocano, Kinaray-a, Maguindanao, Maranao, Surigaonon, Tagalog, Tausug, Waray-Waray, and Yakan)[60]

Chavacano:

  • Mindanao (Philippines) (with Filipino, English, Cebuano, Hiligaynon, Ilocano, Maguindanao, Maranao, Surigaonon, Tagalog, Tausug, and Yakan)[60]

Chechen:

  • Chechnya (state language; with Russian)[66]
  • Dagestan (as one of the Dagestan peoples languages; with Russian)[59]

Cherkess:

Cherokee:

Chipewyan:

  • Northwest Territories (with Cree, English, French, Gwich'in, Innuinaqtun, Inuktitut, Inuvialuktun, North Slavey, South Slavey and Tłįchǫ (Dogrib))

Chukchi:

  • Sakha (local official language; in localities with Chukchi population)[68]

Chuvash

  • Chuvashia (state language; with Russian)[69]

Cree:

  • Northwest Territories (with Chipewyan, English, French, Gwich'in, Innuinaqtun, Inuktitut, Inuvialuktun, North Slavey, South Slavey and Tłįchǫ (Dogrib))

Crimean Tatar

  • Crimea (with Russian and Ukrainian)

Croatian:

Dargwa:

  • Dagestan (as one of the Dagestan peoples languages; with Russian)[59]

Dolgan:

  • Sakha (local official language; in localities with Dolgan population)[68]

Dutch:

English:

  • parts of Canada:
  • The United Kingdom:

Erzya:

  • Mordovia (state language; with Moksha and Russian)[70]

Even:

  • Sakha (local official language; in localities with Even population)[68]

Evenki:

  • Sakha (local official language; in localities with Evenki population)[68]

Faroese:

Finnish:

  • Karelia (authorized language; with Karelian and Veps)[71]

French:

  • parts of Canada

Frisian (West):

Gagauz:

Galician:

  • part of Spain

German:

Greek:

Guaraní:

Gujarati:

Gwich'in:

  • Northwest Territories (with Cree, Chipewyan, English, French, Innuinaqtun, Inuktitut, Inuvialuktun, North Slavey, South Slavey and Tłįchǫ (Dogrib))

Hawaiian:

Hiligaynon:

  • Visayas and Mindanao (Philippines) (with Filipino, English, Aklanon, Bikol, Cebuano, Chavacano, Hiligaynon, Ilocano, Kinaray-a, Maguindanao, Maranao, Surigaonon, Tagalog, Tausug, Waray-Waray, and Yakan)[60]

Hungarian:

Ibanag:

  • Luzon (Philippines) (with Filipino, English, Bikol, Ilocano, Ivatan, Kapampangan, Pangasinan, Sambal, and Tagalog)[60]

Ilocano:

  • Luzon and Mindanao (Philippines) (with Filipino, English, Bikol, Cebuano, Chavacano, Hiligaynon, Ibanag, Ilocano, Ivatan, Kapampangan, Maguindanao, Maranao, Pangasinan, Sambal, Surigaonon, Tagalog, Tausug, and Yakan.)[60]

Ingush:

Inuinnaqtun:

  • Northwest Territories (with Cree, Chipewyan, English, French, Gwich'in, Inuktitut, Inuvialuktun, North Slavey, South Slavey and Tłįchǫ (Dogrib))
  • Nunavut (with English, French, and Inuktitut)

Inuktitut:

  • Nunavut (with English, French, and Inuinnaqtun)
  • Northwest Territories (with Cree, Chipewyan, English, French, Gwich'in, Inuinnaqtun, Inuvialuktun, North Slavey, South Slavey and Tłįchǫ (Dogrib))

Inuvialuktun:

  • Northwest Territories (with Cree, Chipewyan, English, French, Gwich'in, Innuinaqtun, Inuktitut, North Slavey, South Slavey and Tłįchǫ (Dogrib))

Irish:

Italian:

Ivatan:

  • Luzon (Philippines) (with Filipino, English, Bikol, Ibanag, Ilocano, Kapampangan, Pangasinan, Sambal, and Tagalog)[60]

Japanese:

Kabardian

Kalaallisut:

Kalmyk:

  • Kalmykia (state language; with Russian)[73]

Kannada:

  • India (with 21 other regional languages)

Kapampangan:

  • Luzon (Philippines) (with Filipino, English, Bikol, Ilocano, Ibanag, Ivatan, Pangasinan, Sambal, and Tagalog)[60]

Karachay:

Karelian:

  • Karelia (authorized language; with Finnish and Veps)[71]

Kashmiri:

Kazakh:

Khakas:

  • Khakassia (state language; with Russian)[75]

Khanty:

Kinaray-a:

  • Visayas (Philippines) (with Filipino, English, Aklanon, Bikol, Cebuano, Hiligaynon, Surigaonon, Tagalog, and Waray-Waray)[60]

Komi:

  • Komi (state language; with Russian)[78]

Komi-Permyak:

Korean:

Kumyk:

  • Dagestan (as one of the Dagestan peoples languages; with Russian)[59]

Kyrgyz:

Lak:

  • Dagestan (as one of the Dagestan peoples languages; with Russian)[59]

Lezgian

  • Dagestan (as one of the Dagestan peoples languages; with Russian)[59]

Macedonian:*part of Albania

Maguindanao:

  • Mindanao (Philippines) (with Filipino, English, Cebuano, Chavacano, Hiligaynon, Ilocano, Maranao, Surigaonon, Tagalog, Tausug, and Yakan)[60]

Malayalam:

Mansi:

Maranao:

  • Mindanao (Philippines) (with Filipino, English, Cebuano, Chavacano, Hiligaynon, Ilocano, Maguindanao, Surigaonon, Tagalog, Tausug, and Yakan)[60]

Marathi:

Mari (Hill and Meadow):

  • Mari El (state language; with Russian)[80]

Mayan:

Moksha:

  • Mordovia (state language; with Erzya and Russian)[70]

Mongolian:

Náhuatl:

Nenets:

Nepali:

  • India (with 21 other regional languages)

Nissart:

Nogai:

  • Dagestan (as one of the Dagestan peoples languages; with Russian)[59]
  • Karachay–Cherkessia (state language; with Abaza, Cherkess, Karachay and Russian)[57]

Occitan:

Odia:

Ossetic (Digor and Iron dialects):

Pangasinan:

  • Luzon (Philippines) (with Filipino, English, Bikol, Ibanag, Ilocano, Ivatan, Kapampangan, Sambal, and Tagalog)[60]

Portuguese:*part of the People's Republic of China

Punjabi:

Romanian:

  • Vojvodina (with Croatian, Serbian, Hungarian, Slovak and Ruthenian)

Russian. Russian is fixed as a state language in the Constitutions of the republics of the Russian Federation:

Rusyn:

  • Vojvodina (with Croatian, Serbian, Romanian, Hungarian, Slovak)
  • Ukraine
    • Zakarapts'ka region (with Ukrainian, Hungarian)

Rutul:

  • Dagestan (as one of the Dagestan peoples languages; with Russian)[59]

Sakha:

  • Sakha (state language; with Russian)[83]

Sambal:

  • Luzon (Philippines) (with Filipino, English, Bikol, Ibanag, Ilocano, Ivatan, Kapampangan, Pangasinan, and Tagalog)[60]

Sami:

  • Finland (in four municipalities)
  • Norway (in six municipalities in two provinces)
  • Sweden (in four municipalities and surrounding municipalities)

Sanskrit:

  • India (with 21 other regional languages)

Saraiki

Sarikoli:

Scottish Gaelic:

Scots:

Selkup:

Serbian:

Sindhi:

North and South Slavey:

  • Northwest Territories (with Cree, Chipewyan, English, French, Gwich'in, Innuinaqtun, Inuktitut, Inuvialuktun, and Tłįchǫ (Dogrib))

Slovak:

  • part of Serbia
  • Vojvodina (with Croatian, Serbian, Hungarian, Romanian and Ruthenian)

Slovene:

Spanish:

Surigaonon:

  • Visayas and Mindanao (Philippines) (with Filipino, English, Aklanon, Bikol, Cebuano, Chavacano, Hiligaynon, Ilocano, Kinaray-a, Maguindanao, Maranao, Tagalog, Tausug, Waray-Waray, and Yakan)[60]

Tabasaran:

  • Dagestan (as one of the Dagestan peoples languages; with Russian)[59]

Tagalog:

  • Luzon, Visayas, and Mindanao (Philippines) (with Filipino, English, Aklanon, Bikol, Cebuano, Chavacano, Hiligaynon, Ibanag, Ilocano, Ivatan, Kapampangan, Kinaray-a, Maguindanao, Maranao, Pangasinan, Sambal, Surigaonon, Tausug, Waray-Waray, and Yakan)[60]

Tahitian:

Tamil:

Tat:

  • Dagestan (as one of the Dagestan peoples languages; with Russian)[59]

Tatar:

  • Tatarstan (state language; with Russian)[84]

Tausug:

  • Mindanao (Philippines) (with Filipino, English, Cebuano, Chavacano, Hiligaynon, Ilocano, Maguindanao, Surigaonon, Tagalog, Maranao, and Yakan)[60]

Telugu:

Tibetan:

  • Tibet Autonomous Region (with Chinese (Mandarin))
  • Aba (with Chinese (Mandarin))
  • Garzê (with Chinese (Mandarin))
  • Diqing (with Chinese (Mandarin))
  • Wenshan (with Chinese (Mandarin))
  • Gannan (with Chinese (Mandarin))
  • Haibai (with Chinese (Mandarin))
  • Hainan (with Chinese (Mandarin))
  • Huangnan (with Chinese (Mandarin))
  • Golog (with Chinese (Mandarin))
  • Gyêgu (with Chinese (Mandarin))
  • Haixi (with Mongolian and Chinese (Mandarin))
  • Muli (with Chinese (Mandarin))
  • Tianzhu (with Chinese (Mandarin))

Tłįchǫ:

  • Northwest Territories (with Cree, Chipewyan, English, French, Gwich'in, Innuinaqtun, Inuktitut, Inuvialuktun, North Slavey, and South Slavey)

Tsakhur:

  • Dagestan (as one of the Dagestan peoples languages; with Russian)[59]

Tswana:

Turkish:

Tuvan:

  • Tyva (state language; with Russian)[85]

Udmurt:

  • Udmurtia (state language; with Russian)[86]

Urdu:

Uyghur:

Veps:

  • Karelia (authorized language; with Finnish and Karelian)[71]

Vietnamese:

Waray-Waray:

  • Visayas (Philippines) (with Filipino, English, Aklanon, Cebuano, Hiligaynon, Kinaray-a, and Tagalog)[60]

Welsh:

Yakan:

  • Mindanao (Philippines) (with Filipino, English, Cebuano, Chavacano, Hiligaynon, Ilocano, Maguindanao, Maranao, Surigaonon, Tagalog, and Tausug)[60]

Yiddish:

Yukaghir:

  • Sakha (local official language; in localities with Yukaghir population)[68]

Zhuang:

See also

References

  1. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l Section 6. Constitution of the Republic of South Africa, 1996
  2. ^ Article 14. Albanian Constitution
  3. ^ Article 5. Kosovo Constitution
  4. ^ Article 5. Ethiopian Constitution
  5. ^ a b Article 4. Constitution of Iraq
  6. ^ a b Article 5. Constitution du Maroc
  7. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k Loi n° 2001-037 du 31 décembre 2001 fixant les modalités de promotion et de développement des langues nationales
  8. ^ Article 12. Constitution of Armenia
  9. ^ Article 15. Constitution of the Nagorno-Karabakh Republic
  10. ^ a b c d Artículo 5. Constitución Política del Estado
  11. ^ a b c Artículo 48. Constitución Política del Perú
  12. ^ Article 21. Constitution of the Republic of Azerbaijan
  13. ^ a b Article 17. Constitution of the Republic of Belarus
  14. ^ 3. The state language. Constitution of Bangladesh
  15. ^ 02-03 du 27 Moharram 1423 correspondant au 10 avril 2002 portant révision constitutionnelleoLoi n.
  16. ^ a b c Article 3. Constitution of the Republic of Vanuatu
  17. ^ a b c
  18. ^ Article 3. Constitution of the Republic of Bulgaria
  19. ^ Article 450. Constitution of the Republic of the Union of Myanmar
  20. ^ Article 2. La Constitució del Principat d’Andorra
  21. ^ a b c d Articles 44, 53, 123. Constitution of the Republic of Singapore
  22. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n Constitution of Zimbabwe 2013, Africatime.com, 22 March 2013
  23. ^ Article 12. Constitution of the Republic of Croatia
  24. ^ a b c Article 16. Constitution of Afghanistan
  25. ^ Article 11. Constitution of the Republic of Maldives
  26. ^ Article 1. Constitution of the Kingdom of Bhutan
  27. ^ a b c Section 4. Fiji Constitution
  28. ^ a b Article 8. Constitution of Ireland 1937
  29. ^ Article 152 - National Language and Other Languages, Constitution of Malaysia
  30. ^ a b Article 49. Constitution of Mauritius
  31. ^ (Article 3)
  32. ^ a b Article 18. Constitution de la République Centrafricaine
  33. ^ a b c d e Article 1. Constitution of the Democratic Republic of the Congo
  34. ^ a b c Article 5. Constitution de la République du Congo
  35. ^ a b Article 5. La Constitution de la République d’Haïti
  36. ^ a b c d Article 4. Constitution fédérale de la Confédération Suisse
  37. ^ a b Article 8. Constitution of Georgia
  38. ^ a b c (Russian) Статья 4. Конституция Республики Южная Осетия
  39. ^ a b App. D., Part 1, Art. 3. Constitution of Cyprus
  40. ^ a b Artículo 140. Constituciones de la República del Paraguay
  41. ^ a b c Article 55. Constitution of the Federal Republic of Nigeria
  42. ^
  43. ^ Part XVII. Constitution of India
  44. ^ Article H. Fundamental Law of Hungary
  45. ^ a b Article 36. Constitution of the Republic of Indonesia
  46. ^ a b Article 7. Constitution of the Republic of Kazakhstan
  47. ^ Article 5. Constitution of the Kingdom of Cambodia
  48. ^ a b (Russian) Статья 10. Конституция Кыргызской Республики
  49. ^ a b Article 13. Constitution of the Republic of Moldova
  50. ^ a b c Article 12. Constitution of the Pridnestrovskaia Moldavskaia Respublica
  51. ^ a b c Article 2. Constitution of Tajikistan
  52. ^ Article 68. Constitution of the Russian Federation
  53. ^ (Russian) Статья 6. Конституция Республики Абхазия
  54. ^ Slovak language is defined as official language together with Czech language by several laws - e.g. law 500/2004, 337/1992. Source: http://portal.gov.cz Cited: "Například Správní řád (zákon č. 500/2004 Sb.) stanovuje: "V řízení se jedná a písemnosti se vyhotovují v českém jazyce. Účastníci řízení mohou jednat a písemnosti mohou být předkládány i v jazyce slovenském..." (§16, odstavec 1). Zákon o správě daní a poplatků (337/1992 Sb.) „Úřední jazyk: Před správcem daně se jedná v jazyce českém nebo slovenském. Veškerá písemná podání se předkládají v češtině nebo slovenštině..." (§ 3, odstavec 1). http://portal.gov.cz
  55. ^ Section 3. Spanish Constitution
  56. ^ Article 7. The Constitution of Kenya (2010)
  57. ^ a b c d e Article 11 of the Constitution of the Karachay-Cherkess Republic
  58. ^ a b Article 5 of the Constitution of the Republic of Adygea
  59. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n Article 11 of the Constitution of the Republic of Dagestan
  60. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s DepEd adds 7 languages to mother tongue-based education for Kinder to Grade 3. GMA News. July 13, 2013.
  61. ^ a b Article 13 of the Constitution of the Republic of Altay
  62. ^ a b c Article 76 of the Constitution of the Kabardino-Balkar Republic
  63. ^ a b Article 1 of the Constitution of the Republic of Bashkortostan
  64. ^ a b Article 67 of the Constitution of the Republic of Buryatia
  65. ^ Article 108 of the Statute of the Zabaykalsky Krai
  66. ^ a b Article 10 of the Constitution of the Chechen Republic
  67. ^
  68. ^ a b c d e On languages in the Republic of Sakha (Yakutia)Article 6 of the Law of the Republic of Sakha (Yakutia)
  69. ^ a b Article 8 of the Constitution of the Chuvash Republic
  70. ^ a b c Article 12 of the Constitution of the Republic of Mordovia
  71. ^ a b c On state support of Karelian, Veps and Finnish languages in the Republic of KareliaLaw of the Republic of Karelia
  72. ^ a b Article 14 of the Constitution of the Republic of Ingushetia
  73. ^ a b Article 17 of the Constitution of the Republic of Kalmykia
  74. ^ On languagesArticle 4 of the Law of the Republic of Altay
  75. ^ a b Article 69 of the Constitution of the Republic of Khakassia
  76. ^ a b c On the languages of the aboriginal minorities of the North living within the territory of the Khanty-Mansi Autonomous OkrugLaw of the Khanty-Mansi Autonomous Okrug
  77. ^ a b c On native languages of the aboriginal minorities of the North within the territory of the Yamalo-Nenets Autonomous OkrugLaw of the Yamalo-Nenets Autonomous Okrug
  78. ^ a b Article 67 of the Constitution of the Republic of Komi
  79. ^ Article 42 of the Statute of the Perm Krai
  80. ^ a b Article 15 of the Constitution of the Republic of Mari El
  81. ^ a b Article 15 of the Constitution of the Republic of North Ossetia—Alania
  82. ^ Article 11 of the Constitution of the Republic of Karelia
  83. ^ a b Article 46 of the Constitution of the Republic of Sakha (Yakutia)
  84. ^ a b Article 8 of the Constitution of the Republic of Tatarstan
  85. ^ a b Article 5 of the Constitution of the Republic of Tyva
  86. ^ a b Article 8 of the Constitution of the Udmurt Republic
  87. ^ a b c d e f g h
  88. ^ a b c d e f g h i
  89. ^ a b c
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