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List of wars involving Iran

 

List of wars involving Iran

The following is an historical overview of the list of wars and conflicts involving the Islamic Republic of Iran (Persia). This list is far from complete.

Conflict Iran
and allies
Opponents Results
Medes
(678–549 BCE)
Battle of Nineveh
(612 BCE)
Medes
Babylonia
Assyrian Empire Victory
  • Destruction of Assyria's capital

Founding of Neo-Babylonian Empire

Fall of Assur
(614 BCE)
Medes
Babylonia
Assyrian Empire Victory
Battle of Eclipse
(585 BCE)
Medes Kingdom of Lydia Undecided
Battle of Hyrba
(552 BCE)
Medes Persis Decisive Persian victory
Battle of the persian border
(551 BCE)
Medes Persis Victory
  • Persian retreat to Pasargadae
Achaemenid Empire
(550–330 BCE)
Persian Revolt
(552–549 BCE)
Persis Median Empire Victory
  • By conquering Media, Iran became an empire.
Conquest of Lydia
(547 BCE)
Achaemenid Empire Lydian Empire Victory
  • Lydia annexed by Iran.
Conquest of Babylonia
(540–539 BCE)
Achaemenid Empire Neo-Babylonian Empire Victory
  • Neo-Babylonian Empire annexed by Iran.
Conquest of Egypt
(525 BCE)
Achaemenid Empire Kingdom of Egypt Victory
  • Egypt annexed by Iran.
Invasion of Indus Valley
(518 BCE)
Achaemenid Empire Haryanka dynasty Victory
Greco-Persian Wars
(499–449 BCE)
Achaemenid Empire Greek city states
Delian League
Defeat
Battle of Cunaxa
(401 BCE)
Achaemenid Empire Cyrus the Younger Victory
Artaxerxes' II Cadusian Campaign
(385 BCE)
Achaemenid Empire Cadusii Defeat, but diplomatic success
  • Negotiated peace with rival chiefs.
Revolt of the Satraps
(372–362 BCE)
Achaemenid Empire Rebel satrapies Victory
  • Rebellions chrushed.
Battle of Pelusium (343 BC)
(343 BCE)
Achaemenid Empire Egypt Victory
  • Egypt is conquered for a second time by Iran.
Macedon invasion of Iran
(355–328 BCE)
Achaemenid Empire Macedon Defeat
Parthian Empire
(247 BCE–224 BC)
Seleucid–Parthian Wars
(238 BCE–129 BCE)
Parthian Empire Seleucid Empire Victory
  • Expulsion of the Seleucids from Iran.
Armenian–Parthian War
(87–85 BCE)
Parthian Empire Kingdom of Armenia Defeat
Roman–Parthian Wars
(66 BCE–217 CE)
Parthian Empire
Kingdom of Armenia
Roman Republic
Pontus
Status quo ante bellum
  • Borders changed several times.
Sassanid Empire
(224–651)
Roman-Sassanid Wars
(232–440)
Sassanid Empire Roman Empire Status quo ante bellum
  • Borders changed several times.
Byzantine–Sassanid Wars
(502–628)
Sassanid Empire Byzantine Empire Status quo ante bellum
  • Borders changed several times.
Ethiopian–Persian Wars
(570–578)
Sassanid Empire Kingdom of Aksum Victory
First Perso-Turkic War
(588–589)
Sassanid Empire Hephthalite Empire
Göktürks
Victory
  • The Sassanids captured Balkh.
Second Perso-Turkic War
(588–589)
Sassanid Empire Western Turkic Khaganate
Hephthalite Empire
Victory
  • Turkic invasion of Iran repelled.
Third Perso-Turkic War
(627–629)
Sassanid Empire Western Turkic Khaganate
Byzantine Empire
Defeat
  • Byzantine control of Georgia.
Muslim conquest of Persia
(633–644)
Sassanid Empire
Arab Christians
Rashidun Caliphate Defeat
Saffarid Dynasty
(861–1003)
Ghaznavid Dynasty
(962–1186)
Seljuq Empire
(1037–1194)
Battle of Manzikert
(1071)
Seljuk Empire Byzantine Empire Victory
  • Seljuks enter Anatolia
Byzantine–Seljuq wars
(1048–1308)
Seljuk Empire Byzantine Empire
Empire of Trebizond
Crusader states
Victory
  • Most of Anatolia conquered by the Seljuks
Khwarazmian Dynasty
(1077–1231)
Mongol invasion of Khwarezmia
(1218–1221)
Khwarazmian dynasty Mongol Empire Defeat
  • Khwarezmia added to the Mongol Empire.
Timurid Dynasty
(1370–1507)
Campaigns of Timur
(1380–1402)
Timurid dynasty Golden Horde
Ottoman Empire
Muzaffarids
Jalayirid Sultanate
Tughlaq dynasty
Victory
Timurid Civil Wars
(1405–~1501)
Various factions Various factions Collapse of the dynasty
Safavid Dynasty
(1501–1736)
Persian-Uzbek Wars
(1502–1510)
Safavid dynasty Shaybanids Victory
  • Fall of the Shaybanid Empire.
Battle of Chaldiran
(1514)
Safavid dynasty  Ottoman Empire Defeat
  • End of Shia uprisings in the Ottoman Empire.
Ottoman–Safavid War of 1523
(1532–1555)
Safavid dynasty  Ottoman Empire Defeat
Ottoman–Safavid War of 1578
(1578–1590)
Safavid dynasty  Ottoman Empire Defeat
Ottoman–Safavid War of 1603
(1603–1618)
Safavid dynasty  Ottoman Empire Victory
Ottoman–Safavid War of 1623
(1623–1639)
Safavid dynasty  Ottoman Empire Defeat
  • Permanent partition of the Azerbaijan remain under Persian rule. Ottomans gain control over Mesopotamia.
Hotaki-Safavid War
(1709–~1722)
Safavid dynasty Hotaki dynasty Regime change
  • Afghan control of most of Iran.
Russo-Persian War of 1722
(1722–1723)
Safavid dynasty  Russian Empire
Cossack Hetmanate
Georgia
Armenia
Defeat
Hotaki Dynasty
(1709–1738)
Ottoman-Hotaki War of 1722
(1722–1727)
Hotaki dynasty  Ottoman Empire Victory, but diplomatic defeat
  • Persian territorial cessions to the Ottomans.
Afsharid-Hotaki War
(1720s–1738)
Hotaki dynasty Afsharid dynasty Regime change
  • End of the Afghan rule in Persia.
Afsharid Dynasty
(1736–1796)
Afsharid–Ottoman War War of 1730
(1730–1735)
Afsharid dynasty  Ottoman Empire Victory
  • Persian reconquest of the entire Caucasus.
Nadir Shah's invasion of India
(1738–1739)
Afsharid dynasty   Mughal Empire Victory
  • Persian plundering of India.
Afsharid–Ottoman War War of 1743
(1743–1746)
Afsharid dynasty  Ottoman Empire Stalemate
Civil War between Afsharid and Qajar
(1747–1796)
Afsharid dynasty Qajar Dynasty Regime change
Qajar Dynasty
(1785–1925)
Battle of Krtsanisi
(1795)
Qajar dynasty Kartli-Kakheti
Imereti
Victory
  • Tbilisi sacked by Iranian troops. Persian reconquest of the Caucasus and Georgia.
Persian Expedition
(1796)
Qajar dynasty  Russian Empire Victory
  • Tactical Russian withdrawal from Iran.
Russo-Persian War of 1804
(1804–1813)
Qajar dynasty  Russian Empire Defeat
  • Russia held on to disputed territories.
Ottoman–Persian War of 1821
(1821–1823)
Qajar dynasty  Ottoman Empire Stalemate
Russo-Persian War of 1826
(1826–1828)
Qajar dynasty  Russian Empire Defeat
Siege of Herat
(1838)
Qajar dynasty Afghanistan Defeat
  • Persian withdrawal from Herat.
Anglo-Persian War
(1856–1857)
Qajar dynasty United Kingdom
East India Company
Afghanistan
Defeat
  • Persian withdrawal from Herat.
Pahlavi Dynasty
(1925–1979)
Anglo-Soviet invasion of Iran
(1941)
Iran
United Kingdom
 India
Defeat
Iran-Azerbaijan Crisis
(1945–1946)
Iran Mahabad
Azerbaijan
Victory
Dhofar Rebellion
(1973–1976)[1]
Iran
 Oman
PFLOAG
PFLO
Victory
  • Defeat of insurgents, modernization of Oman.
Islamic Republic of Iran
(1979–)
Iran–Iraq War
(1980–1988)
 Iran
KDP
PUK
Badr Brigades
Iraq
MEK
PDKI
Stalemate
Iran–PJAK Conflict
(2004–present)
 Iran PJAK Ongoing
  • Clashes renew in 2013.
Syrian Civil War
(2011–present)
Syria
Hezbollah
 Iran
Free Syrian Army
Islamic Front
al-Nusra Front
Islamic State
Ongoing
  • Rebel and Islamist uprising in much of Syria
  • Much of Syria controlled by the Islamic State.
Iranian intervention in Iraq
(2014–present)
 Iraq
 Iraqi Kurdistan
 Iran
Asa'ib Ahl al-Haq
Badr Organization
Hezbollah
Kata'ib Hezbollah
Islamic State in Iraq and the Levant Ongoing
  • Iran launches airstrikes on ISIL positions in Iraq.
  • Iranian military troops engage ISIL on ground.
  • Much of Iraq controlled by the Islamic State.

See also

Iranian subcontinent

Cyrus in Babylon and the Jewish connection

Persian Corridor (AKA Anglo-Soviet invasion of Iran)

Consolidation of the Iranian Revolution (1979–1982/83)

Notes

  1. ^ The rebellion started already in 1962, but Iran did not intervene before 1973.

External links

  • BBC WW2 People's War - Persia Invaded
  • The Document Collection on the 1945–46 Iranian Crisis at the Cold War International History Project
  • Dr. Mohammad Mosaddeq: Symbol of Iranian Nationalism and Struggle Against Imperialism by the Iran Chamber Society
  • GlobalSecurity.org
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