World Library  
Flag as Inappropriate
Email this Article

Macron

Article Id: WHEBN0000019891
Reproduction Date:

Title: Macron  
Author: World Heritage Encyclopedia
Language: English
Subject: , Diacritic, Latin spelling and pronunciation, Hawaii, Pinyin
Collection: Alphabetic Diacritics, Greek Words and Phrases, Lithuanian Language, Poetic Rhythm
Publisher: World Heritage Encyclopedia
Publication
Date:
 

Macron

◌̄
Macron
Diacritics
accent
acute( ´ )
double acute( ˝ )
grave( ` )
double grave(  ̏ )
breve( ˘ )
inverted breve(  ̑ )
caron, háček( ˇ )
cedilla( ¸ )
circumflex( ˆ )
diaeresis, umlaut( ¨ )
dot( · )
hook, hook above(   ̡   ̢  ̉ )
horn(  ̛ )
iota subscript(  ͅ  )
macron( ¯ )
ogonek, nosinė( ˛ )
perispomene(  ͂  )
ring( ˚, ˳ )
rough breathing( )
smooth breathing( ᾿ )
Marks sometimes used as diacritics
apostrophe( )
bar( ◌̸ )
colon( : )
comma( , )
hyphen( ˗ )
tilde( ~ )
Diacritical marks in other scripts
Arabic diacritics
Early Cyrillic diacritics
titlo(  ҃ )
Gurmukhī diacritics
Hebrew diacritics
Indic diacritics
anusvara( )
chandrabindu( )
nukta( )
virama( )
chandrakkala( )
IPA diacritics
Japanese diacritics
dakuten( )
handakuten( )
Khmer diacritics
Syriac diacritics
Thai diacritics
Related
Dotted circle
Punctuation marks
Logic symbols
Ā ā
Ā́ ā́
Ā̀ ā̀
Ā̂ ā̂
Ā͂ ā͂
Ǟ ǟ
Ǡ ǡ
Ǣ ǣ
Ē ē
Ē̂ ē̂
Ē͂ ē͂
Ī ī
Ī́ ī́
Ī̀ ī̀
Ī̂ ī̂
Ī͂ ī͂
Ō ō
Ō̂ ō̂
Macron ō͂
Ȫ ȫ
Ǭ ǭ
Ȭ ȭ
Ȱ ȱ
Ū ū
Ū́ ū́
Ū̀ ū̀
Ū̂ ū̂
Ū͂ ū͂
Ǖ ǖ
Ȳ ȳ
Ȳ́ ȳ́
Ȳ̀ ȳ̀
Ȳ̂ ȳ̂
Ȳ͂ ȳ͂

A macron () is a diacritical mark, a straight bar ( ¯ ) placed above a letter, usually a vowel. Its name derives from the Greek makrón (μακρόν) meaning "long" and was originally used to mark long or heavy syllables in Greco-Roman metrics. It now more often marks a long vowel. In the International Phonetic Alphabet, the macron is used to indicate a mid-tone; the sign for a long vowel is instead a modified triangular colon ː.

The opposite is the breve ˘, which marks a short or light syllable or a short vowel.

Contents

  • Uses 1
    • Syllable weight 1.1
    • Vowel length 1.2
    • Tone 1.3
    • Omission 1.4
    • Letter extension 1.5
    • Other uses 1.6
    • Medicine 1.7
    • Mathematics and science 1.8
    • Music 1.9
  • Technical notes 2
  • See also 3
  • References 4
  • External links 5

Uses

Syllable weight

In Greco-Roman metrics and in the description of the metrics of other literatures, the macron was introduced and is still widely used to mark a long (heavy) syllable. Even relatively recent classical Greek and Latin dictionaries[1] are still concerned with indicating only the length (weight) of syllables; that is why most still do not indicate the length of vowels in syllables that are otherwise metrically determined. Many textbooks about Ancient Rome and Greece use the macron even if it was not actually used at that time.

Vowel length

The following languages or transliteration systems use the macron to mark long vowels:

  • Slavicists use the macron to indicate a non-tonic long vowel, or a non-tonic syllabic liquid, such as on l, lj, m, n, nj, and r. Languages with this feature include standard and dialect varieties of Serbo-Croatian, Macedonian, Slovene, Bulgarian.[2]
  • Transcriptions of Arabic typically use macrons to indicate long vowels — ا (alif when pronounced /aː/), و (waw, when pronounced /uː/), and ي (ya', when pronounced /iː/). Thus the Arabic word ثلاثة (three) is transliterated ṯalāṯah.
  • Some modern dictionaries and coursebooks of classical Greek and Latin, where the macron is sometimes used in conjunction with the breve. However, many such dictionaries still have ambiguities in their treatment and distinction of long vowels or heavy syllables.
  • In romanization of Greek, the letters η (eta) and ω (omega) are transliterated, respectively, as ē and ō. This corresponds to vowel length, by contrast with the short vowels ε (epsilon) and ο (omicron), which are transliterated as plain e and o.
  • The Hepburn romanization system of Japanese, for example, kōtsū (交通, こうつう) "traffic" as opposed to kotsu (, こつ) "bone" or "knack".
  • Baltic languages and Baltic-Finnic languages:
    • Latvian. Ā, ē, ī, ū are separate letters that sort in alphabetical order immediately after a, e, i, u respectively. Ō was also used in Latvian, but it was discarded as of 1957.
    • Lithuanian. Ū is a separate letter but is given the same position in collation as the unaccented u. It marks a long vowel; other long vowels are indicated with an ogonek (which used to indicate nasalization, but it no longer does): ą, ę, į, ų and o being always long in Lithuanian except for some recent loanwords. For the long counterpart of i, y is used.
    • Livonian. Ā, ǟ, ē, ī, ō, ȱ, ȭ and ū are separate letters that sort in alphabetical order immediately after a, ä, e, i, o, ȯ, õ and u respectively.
    • Samogitian. Ā, ē, ī, ū and ō are separate letters that sort in alphabetical order immediately after a, e, i, u and o respectively.
  • Transcriptions of Nahuatl, the Aztecs' language, spoken in Mexico. When the Spanish conquistadors arrived, they wrote the language in their own alphabet without distinguishing long vowels. Over a century later, in 1645, Horacio Carochi defined macrons to mark long vowels ā, ē, ī and ō, and short vowels with grave (`) accents. This is rare nowadays since many people write Nahuatl without any orthographic sign and with the letters k, s and w, not present in the original alphabet.
  • Modern transcriptions of Old English.
  • Latin transliteration of Pali and Sanskrit.
  • Polynesian languages:
    • Cook Islands Māori. In Cook Islands Māori, the macron or mākarōna is not commonly used in writing, but is used in references and teaching materials for those learning the language.[3][4]
    • Hawaiian. The macron is called kahakō, and it indicates vowel length, which changes meaning and the placement of stress.
    • Māori. Early writing in Māori did not distinguish vowel length. Some, notably Professor Bruce Biggs,[5] have advocated that double vowels be written to mark long vowel sounds (for example, Maaori), but he was more concerned with their being marked at all than with the method that was chosen. The Māori Language Commission (Te Taura Whiri i te Reo Māori) advocates that macrons be used to designate long vowels. The use of the macron is widespread in modern Māori, although sometimes the trema mark is used instead (for example, "Mäori" instead of "Māori") if the macron is not available for technical reasons.[6] The Māori words for macron are pōtae ("hat") or tohutō.
    • Niuean. In Niuean, "popular spelling" does not worry too much about vowel quality’ (length), so the macron is primarily used in scholarly study of the language.[7]
    • Tahitian. The use of the macron is comparatively recent in Tahitian. The Fare Vānaʻa or Académie Tahitienne (Tahitian Academy) recommends using the macron, called the tārava, to represent long vowels in written text, especially for scientific or teaching texts.[8][9] The macron seems to have received more widespread acceptance than the Academy's version of the glottal stop (called the ʻeta), as evidenced by the use of the macron (but not the ʻeta) in references not published by the Academy.[10][11][12] There are, however, multiple ways of representing or ignoring vowel length in written text. The Tahitian Academy enumerates 14 orthographies in Tahitian, though not all are in common use.[13] Furthermore not all of those systems represent long vowels in distinctly different fashions.
    • Tongan and Samoan. Called the toloi/fakamamafa or fa'amamafa, respectively. Its usage is similar to that in Māori, including its substitution by a trema. Its usage is not universal in Samoan, but recent academic publications and advanced study textbooks promote its use.[14]

Tone

The following languages or alphabets use the macron to mark tones:

Omission

Sometimes the macron marks an omitted n or m, like the tilde:

  • In Old English texts a macron above a letter indicates the omission of an m or n that would normally follow that letter.
  • In older handwriting such as the German Kurrentschrift, the macron over an a-e-i-o-u or ä-ö-ü stood for an n, or over an m or an n meant that the letter was doubled. This continued into print in English in the sixteenth century. Over a u at the end of a word, the macron indicated um as a form of scribal abbreviation.

Letter extension

The macron is used in the orthography of a number of vernacular languages of the Solomon Islands and Vanuatu, particularly those first transcribed by Anglican missionaries. The macron has no unique value, and is simply used to distinguish between two different phonemes.

Thus, in several languages of the Banks Islands, including Mwotlap,[15] the simple m stands for /m/, but an m with a macron () is a rounded labial-velar nasal /ŋ͡mʷ/; while the simple n stands for the common alveolar nasal /n/, an n with macron () represents the velar nasal /ŋ/; the vowel ē stands for a (short) higher /ɪ/ by contrast with plain e /ɛ/; likewise ō /ʊ/ contrasts with plain o /ɔ/.

In Hiw orthography, the consonant stands for the prestopped velar lateral approximant /ᶢʟ/.[16] In Araki, the same symbol encodes the alveolar trill /r/ – by contrast with r, which encodes the alveolar flap /ɾ/.[17]

In Kokota, is used for the velar stop /ɡ/, but g without macron is the voiced velar fricative /ɣ/.[18]

In Marshallese, a macron is used on four letters—ā n̄ ō ū —whose pronunciations differ from the unmarked a n o u. Marshallese uses a vertical vowel system with three to four vowel phonemes, but traditionally their allophones have been written out, so vowel letters with macron are used for some of these allophones. Though the standard diacritic involved is a macron, there are no other diacritics used above letters, so in practice other diacritics can and have been used in less polished writing or print, yielding nonstandard letters like ã ñ õ û, depending on displayability of letters in computer fonts.

  • The letter ā is pronounced [æ~ɛ], the palatalized allophone of the phoneme /a/.
  • The letter represents the velar nasal phoneme /ŋ/ and the labialized velar nasal phoneme /ŋʷ/, depending on context. The standard letter does not exist as a precombined glyph in Unicode, so the nonstandard variant ñ is often used in its place.
  • The letter ō is pronounced [ʌ] or [ɤ], which are the unrounded velarized allophones of the phonemes /ɜ/ and /ɘ/ respectively.
  • The letter ū is pronounced [ɯ], the unrounded velarized allophone of the phoneme /ɨ/.

Other uses

  • In older German and in the German Kurrent handwriting, a macron is used on some consonants, especially n and m, as a shortform for a double consonant (for example, instead of nn).
  • In modernized Hepburn romanization of Japanese, an n with macron represents a syllabic n.
  • In Russian cursive, as well as in some others based on the Cyrillic script (for example, Macedonian), a lowercase Т looks like a lowercase m, and a macron is often used to distinguish it from Ш, which looks like a lowercase w (see Т). Some writers also underline the letter ш to reduce ambiguity further.

Also, in some instances, a diacritic will be written like a macron, although they are technically a form of the correct diacritic, and not a proper macron:

  • In some Finnish, Estonian and Swedish comic books that are hand-lettered, or in handwriting, a macron-style umlaut is used for ä or ö (also õ and ü in Estonian), sometimes known colloquially as a "lazy man's umlaut". This can also be seen in some types of modern handwritten German.
  • In informal Hungarian handwriting, a macron is often a substitute for either a double acute or an umlaut. For this very reason, using it is often regarded as bad practice.
  • In informal handwriting, the Spanish ñ is sometimes written with a macron-shaped tilde: ().

Medicine

In medical prescriptions and other handwritten notes, macrons mean:

  • ā, before, abbreviating Latin ante
  • , with, abbreviating Latin cum
  • , after, abbreviating Latin post
  • , every, abbreviating Latin quisque (and its inflected forms)
  • , without, abbreviating Latin sine
  • , except

Mathematics and science

The overline is a typographical symbol similar to the macron, used in a number of ways in mathematics and science.

Music

In music, the tenuto marking resembles the macron.

Technical notes

description character Unicode HTML
macron
above
◌̄
combining
U+0304 ̄
◌¯
spacing
U+00AF ¯
¯
◌ˉ
spacing
U+02C9 ˉ
macron
below
◌̱
combining
U+0331 ̱
◌ˍ
spacing
U+02CD ˍ
additional
diacritic
Latin
Ā
ā
U+0100
U+0101
Ā
ā
Ē
ē
U+0112
U+0113
Ē
ē
Ī
ī
U+012A
U+012B
Ī
ī
Ō
ō
U+014C
U+014D
Ō
ō
Ū
ū
U+016A
U+016B
Ū
ū
Ȳ
ȳ
U+0232
U+0233
Ȳ
ȳ
Ǣ
ǣ
U+01E2
U+01E3
Ǣ
ǣ

U+1E20
U+1E21

diaeresis Ǟ
ǟ
U+01DE
U+01DF
Ǟ
ǟ
Ȫ
ȫ
U+022A
U+022B
Ȫ
ȫ
Ǖ
ǖ
U+01D5
U+01D6
Ǖ
ǖ

U+1E7A
U+1E7B

dot above Ǡ
ǡ
U+01E0
U+01E1
Ǡ
ǡ
Ȱ
ȱ
U+0230
U+0231
Ȱ
ȱ
dot below
U+1E38
U+1E39


U+1E5C
U+1E5D

ogonek Ǭ
ǭ
U+01EC
U+01ED
Ǭ
ǭ
tilde Ȭ
ȭ
U+022C
U+022D
Ȭ
ȭ
acute
U+1E16
U+1E17


U+1E52
U+1E53

grave
U+1E14
U+1E15


U+1E50
U+1E51

Cyrillic
Ӣ
ӣ
U+04E2
U+04E3
Ӣ
ӣ
Ӯ
ӯ
U+04EE
U+04EF
Ӯ
ӯ
Greek

U+1FB9
U+1FB1


U+1FD9
U+1FD1


U+1FE9
U+1FE1

In LaTeX a macron is created with the command "\=", for example: M\=aori for Māori.

See also

References

  1. ^ P.G.W. Glare (ed.), Oxford Latin Dictionary (Oxford at the Clarendon Press 1990), p. xxiii: Vowel quantities. Normally, only long vowels in a metrically indeterminate position are marked.
  2. ^ Годечкият Говор от Михаил Виденов,Издателство на българската академия на науките,София, 1978, p. 19: ...характерни за всички селища от годечкия говор....Подобни случай са характерни и за книжовния език-Ст.Стойков, Увод във фонетиката на българския език , стр. 151.. (Bulgarian)
  3. ^ Buse, Jasper with Taringa, Raututi (Bruce Biggs and Rangi Moeka‘a, eds.). (1996). Cook Islands Maori Dictionary with English-Cook Islands Maori Finder List. Avarua, Rarotonga: The Ministry of Education, Government of the Cook Islands; The School of Oriental and African Studies, The University of London; The Institute of Pacific Studies, The University of the South Pacific; The Centre for Pacific Studies, The University of Auckland; Pacific Linguistics, The Research School of Pacific and Asian Studies, The Austrailian National University.
  4. ^ Carpentier, Tai Tepuaoterā Turepu and Beaumont, Clive. (1995). Kai kōrero: A Cook Islands Maori Language Coursebook. Auckland, New Zealand: Pasifika Press.
  5. ^ Yearbook of the Academy Council - 2000, Royal Society of New Zealand
  6. ^ Macron Issues - Te Taura Whiri i te Reo Māori - Māori Language Commission
  7. ^ Sperlich, Wolfgang B. (ed.) (1997). Tohi vagahau Niue – Niue language dictionary: Niuen-English with English-Niuean finderlist. Honolulu: University of Hawaii at Manoa Department of Linguistics.
  8. ^ Académie Tahitienne. (1986). Grammaire de la langue tahitienne. Papeete, Tahiti: Fare Vāna’a.
  9. ^ Académie Tahitienne. (1999). Dictionnaire tahitien-français: Faʻatoro parau tahiti-farāni. Papeete, Tahiti: Fare Vānaʻa.
  10. ^ LeMaître, Yves. (1995). Lexique du tahitien contemporain: tahitien-français français-tahitien. Paris: Éditions de l’IRD (ex-Orstom).
  11. ^ Montillier, Pierre. (1999). Te reo tahiti ’āpi: Dictionnaire du tahitien nouveau et biblique. Papeete, Tahiti: STP Multipress.
  12. ^ Jaussen, Mgr Tepano. (2001). Dictionnaire de la langue Tahitienne (10ème édition, revue et augmentée). Papeete, Tahiti: Société des Études Océaniennes.
  13. ^ Académie Tahitienne (6 January 2003). Graphie et graphies de la langue tahitienne.
  14. ^ Simanu, Aumua Mata'itusi. 'O si Manu a Ali'i: A Text for the Advanced Study of Samoan Language and Culture
  15. ^ François, Alexandre (2005), "A typological overview of Mwotlap, an Oceanic language of Vanuatu", Linguistic Typology 9 (1): 115–146 [118],  
  16. ^  , p.421.
  17. ^ François, Alexandre (2008). "The alphabet of Araki". 
  18. ^ Palmer, Bill. A grammar of the Kokota language, Santa Isabel, Solomon Islands. PhD dissertation.

External links

  • Diacritics Project — All you need to design a font with correct accents
  • Te māmā hoki o te patopato Information on typing macrons.
  • He Kupu o te Rā Information about typing macrons (Microsoft Windows only), macron support in email packages, and TXTing macrons.
This article was sourced from Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License; additional terms may apply. World Heritage Encyclopedia content is assembled from numerous content providers, Open Access Publishing, and in compliance with The Fair Access to Science and Technology Research Act (FASTR), Wikimedia Foundation, Inc., Public Library of Science, The Encyclopedia of Life, Open Book Publishers (OBP), PubMed, U.S. National Library of Medicine, National Center for Biotechnology Information, U.S. National Library of Medicine, National Institutes of Health (NIH), U.S. Department of Health & Human Services, and USA.gov, which sources content from all federal, state, local, tribal, and territorial government publication portals (.gov, .mil, .edu). Funding for USA.gov and content contributors is made possible from the U.S. Congress, E-Government Act of 2002.
 
Crowd sourced content that is contributed to World Heritage Encyclopedia is peer reviewed and edited by our editorial staff to ensure quality scholarly research articles.
 
By using this site, you agree to the Terms of Use and Privacy Policy. World Heritage Encyclopedia™ is a registered trademark of the World Public Library Association, a non-profit organization.
 



Copyright © World Library Foundation. All rights reserved. eBooks from World eBook Library are sponsored by the World Library Foundation,
a 501c(4) Member's Support Non-Profit Organization, and is NOT affiliated with any governmental agency or department.