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Mahmoud Abbas

Mahmoud Abbas
(Abu Mazen)
مَحْمُود عَبَّاس
2nd President of the State of Palestine
Assumed office
8 May 2005
Acting: 8 May 2005 – 23 November 2008[1]
Preceded by Yasser Arafat
Chairman of the Palestine Liberation Organization
Assumed office
29 October 2004
Acting: 29 October 2004 – 11 November 2004
Preceded by Yasser Arafat
Succeeded by TBD
2nd President of the Palestinian National Authority
In office
15 January 2005 – present
Prime Minister Ahmed Qurei
Nabil Shaath (Acting)
Ahmed Qurei
Ismail Haniyeh
Salam Fayyad
Rami Hamdallah
Preceded by Rawhi Fattouh (interim)
Succeeded by Position abolished
Prime Minister of the Palestinian National Authority
In office
19 March 2003 – 6 September 2003
President Yasser Arafat
Preceded by Position established
Succeeded by Ahmad Qurei
Personal details
Born (1935-03-26) 26 March 1935
Safed, Mandatory Palestine
Political party Fatah
Spouse(s) Amina Abbas
Children Mazen Abbas
Yasser Abbas
Tareq
Residence Ramallah, West Bank
Alma mater Damascus University
Patrice Lumumba Peoples' Friendship University
Religion Sunni Islam[2]
 • Abbas's term as President expired 15 January 2009, since then Aziz Duwaik has been recognised as President by the Haniyeh government in the Gaza Strip, while Abbas is recognised as President by the Fayyad government in the West Bank and all the states that recognise the independence of Palestine, as well as the UN.[3]

Mahmoud Abbas (PLO) since 11 November 2004 and has been Palestinian president since 15 January 2005 (Palestinian National Authority since 15 January 2005 and State of Palestine since 8 May 2005). Abbas is a member of the Fatah party.

Mahmoud Abbas was elected to serve until 9 January 2009, but due to [84] While acknowledging the existence of the Holocaust in 2006 and 2014,[85] Abbas has defended the position that Zionists collaborated with the Nazis to perpetrate it. In 2012, Abbas told Al Mayadeen, a Beirut TV station affiliated with Iran and Hezbollah, that he "challenges anyone who can deny that the Zionist movement had ties with the Nazis before World War II".[86]

  • Through Secret Channels (1995) Memoirs of the Oslo agreement

References

  1. ^ PLO body elects Abbas 'president of Palestine' at the Wayback Machine (archived 8 June 2011), AFP (23 November 2008): "I announce that the PLO Central Council has elected Mahmud Abbas president of the Palestinian Authority. He takes on this role from this day, November 23, 2008," the body's chairman Salem al-Zaanun told reporters.
  2. ^
  3. ^
  4. ^
  5. ^ Abbas no longer president/UPI-19361231560412/ Hamas: Abbas no longer president, United Press International (9 January 2009)
  6. ^ Abbas planning to extend his own term. The Jerusalem Post, 14 December 2008
  7. ^ a b Hamas: Abbas no longer heads PA The Jerusalem Post (9 January 2009)
  8. ^ PLO body elects Abbas 'president of Palestine', AFP (23 November 2008)
  9. ^ PLO asks Mahmud Abbas to be acting president of "state of Palestine", Al-Jazeera 8 May 2005
  10. ^ [1]
  11. ^ a b "Palestinian prime minister Abbas resigns". CNN. 6 September 2003
  12. ^ a b Sela, Avraham. Abbas, Mahmud The Continuum Political Encyclopedia of the Middle East. Ed. Sela. New York: Continuum, 2002. p. 11
  13. ^ a b Аббас на глиняных ногах (Abbas on the feet of clay), Kommersant-Vlast No. 2(605), 17 January 2005) (Russian)
  14. ^
  15. ^
  16. ^ Abu Toameh, Khaled. "PA officials scandalised at disclosure by Abbas's son of vast personal fortune". The Jerusalem Post. 16 April 2009.
  17. ^
  18. ^
  19. ^ "The Stateless Statesman". Time, 15 October 2012
  20. ^ Book published by Garnet Publishing, United Kingdom.
  21. ^ Arafat vs Abbas. Al-Ahram Weekly, 17–23 July 2003, Issue No. 647
  22. ^ Final Report on Monitoring the Presidential Palestinian Elections (Ibn Khaldun Center for Development Studies) 1 January 2005
  23. ^ Abbas achieves landslide poll win BBC. 10 January 2005
  24. ^ a b Suicide and Other Bombing Attacks in Israel Since the Declaration of Principles (Sept 1993). Israeli Ministry of Foreign Affairs
  25. ^ CNN, 14 January 2005
  26. ^ BBC, 16 January 2005
  27. ^ Palestinian Elections Set For Jan. CBS/AP 20 August 2005
  28. ^ Abbas: Palestinian polls on schedule. Aljazeera, 15 January 2006
  29. ^ "Report Highlights Corruption In Palestinian Institutions" by Hazem Balousha, for Al-Monitor Palestine Pulse, 6 May 2013. Retrieved June 2013
  30. ^ "Arafat's Swiss Bank Account". Issam Abu Issa, Middle East Quarterly, Fall 2004, pp. 15–23. Retrieved June 2013
  31. ^ "Arafat's Billions". Tricia McDermott, 60 Minutes, 11 February 2009. Retrieved June 2013
  32. ^ "Palestinian Elections". Aaron D. Pina, Congressional Research Service, The Library of Congress, 9 February 2006, p. 2. Retrieved June 2013
  33. ^ "Palestinian Authority wants Ottawa’s help seizing former Arafat advisor’s Canadian assets". Adrian Humphreys, National Post, 4 April 2001. Retrieved June 2013
  34. ^ "U.S. lawmakers slam Mahmoud Abbas for alleged corruption". Natasha Mozgovaya, Haaretz, 11 July 2012. Retrieved June 2013
  35. ^ "Chronic Kleptocracy: Corruption Within the Palestinian Political Establishment", Elliot Abrams: Testimony before the House Committee on Foreign Affairs, July 10, 2012. Retrieved July 2012
  36. ^ [2] Chronic Kleptocracy: Corruption Within the Palestinian Political Establishment, July 10, 2012. Retrieved July 2013
  37. ^ "Firms run by President Abbas's sons get US contracts", Reuters, 22 April 2009. Retrieved July 2013
  38. ^ "The Brothers Abbas" Are the sons of the Palestinian president growing rich off their father's system? by Jonathan Schanzer, Foreign Policy, 5 June 2012. Retrieved July 2013
  39. ^ "US District Court, District of Columbia, Civil Action No. 12-cv-01565"
  40. ^ "Palestinian President's Son Sues Magazine for Libel", The BLT: The Blog of LegalTimes, 25 September 2012. Retrieved July 2013
  41. ^ "Foreign Policy magazine tries to deflect Abbas son’s lawsuit". Suzanne Pollak, JTA, 19 November 2012. Retrieved July 2012
  42. ^ "Libel Suit Highlights Abbas Corruption" by Jonathon S. Tobin, Commentary 27 September 2012. Retrieved July 2013
  43. ^ a b
  44. ^
  45. ^ Israeli troops kill Palestinian teenagers (Aljazeera) 10 April 2005
  46. ^ Canada pledges aid to Abbas (Aljazeera) 28 May 2005
  47. ^ Abbas moves to Gaza for pullout (BBC) 25 July 2005
  48. ^ Haaretz, 2009 Nov 8, Ephraim Sneh, "The Partner Who Had No Partner: The Conduct of Abbas, the Most Courageous Partner We Have Had, Is in Large Measure a By-Product of Our Missed Opportunities," http://www.haaretz.com/print-edition/opinion/the-partner-who-had-no-partner-1.4591
  49. ^ Abbas 'will not be leader again' (BBC) 16 January 2006
  50. ^ Palestinian president calls for early elections (CNN) 16 December 2006
  51. ^ Whose Coup Exactly?, The Electronic Intifada, 18 June 2007
  52. ^ Opinion of lawyer who drafted Palestinian law, Reuters, 8 July 2007. Retrieved 7 August 2007
  53. ^
  54. ^ U.S. ends embargo on Palestinian Authority in move to bolster Fatah (International Herald Tribune) 19 June 2007
  55. ^ Fatah's leadership decides to cut off all contacts with Hamas (IHT/AP) 19 June 2007
  56. ^ Abbas suspends peace talks with Israel (CNN/AP) 2 March 2008
  57. ^
  58. ^ Hamas: Abbas no longer president, United Press International (9 January 2009)
  59. ^ Abbas planning to extend his own term The Jerusalem Post (14 December 2008)
  60. ^
  61. ^ No Exit? Gaza & Israel Between Wars, International Crisis Group Middle East Report N°162, 26 August 2015
  62. ^
  63. ^
  64. ^ Pope calls for Palestinian state BBC
  65. ^  – via Questia (subscription required)
  66. ^ "President of Palestinian Authority Mahmoud Abbas visits Hiroshima"
  67. ^
  68. ^
  69. ^
  70. ^
  71. ^ Vadim Gorelik (Вадим Горелик) "Как товарищи Махмуд Аббас и Евгений Примаков Холокост отрицали" ("Comarades' Mahmoud Abbas' and Yevgeniy Primakov's denial")
  72. ^ a b A Holocaust-Denier as Prime Minister of "Palestine"? by Dr. Rafael Medoff (The David S. Wyman Institute for Holocaust Studies)
  73. ^ Akiva Eldar, "U.S. told us to ignore Israeli map reservations", Haaretz, 27 May 2003. [3] "A partnership was established between Hitler's Nazis and the leadership of the Zionist movement... [the Zionists] gave permission to every racist in the world, led by Hitler and the Nazis, to treat Jews as they wish, so long as it guaranteed immigration to Palestine." *Source: The Other Side: the Secret Relationship Between Nazism and Zionism, by Mahmoud Abbas, 15 February 1984
  74. ^
  75. ^
  76. ^
  77. ^ Was Abu Mazen a Holocaust Denier? By Brynn Malone (History News Network)
  78. ^ Abu Mazen: A Political Profile. Zionism and Holocaust Denial by Yael Yehoshua (MEMRI) 29 April 2003
  79. ^ a b
  80. ^
  81. ^ Abu Mazen and the Holocaust by Tom Gross
  82. ^
  83. ^ PA Holocaust Denial by Itamar Marcus (Palestinian Media Watch) In his thesis Abbas expressed the belief that that gas chambers were never used to murder Jews.
  84. ^
  85. ^
  86. ^

Further reading

  • Encyclopedia of World Biography: Supplement #27 (Thomson-Gale, 2007) pp1–3

External links

Articles
  • Abbas: No Force Against Arab Militants, AP (9 June 2003)
  • Someone Was Going to Kill at the Wayback Machine (archived 14 June 2004) Newsweek Interview of Mahmoud Abbas (21 June 2004)
  • Palestinian Head Meets Barghouti, BBC News (26 November 2004)
  • I Don't Have a Magic Wand, Der Spiegel (21 February 2005)
  • Bush pledges $50 million to Palestinian Authority, CNN (26 May 2005)
  • Chairman Abbas' address to the 63rd session of the United Nations General Assembly (26 September 2008)
  • After Abbas' by Matthew Kalman, Tablet Magazine, 15 March 2011
Political offices
New office Prime Minister of the Palestinian National Authority
2003
Succeeded by
Ahmed Qurei
Preceded by
Yasser Arafat
Chairman of the Palestine Liberation Organization
2004–present
Incumbent
Preceded by
Rawhi Fattouh
Acting
President of the Palestinian National Authority
2005–present
Vacant
Title next held by
Yasser Arafat
President of the State of Palestine
2005–present
In his 1983 book [79][78][77] The thesis of 1982 doctoral dissertation of Mahmoud Abbas, was "The Secret Connection between the Nazis and the Leaders of the Zionist Movement".

The dissertation and book discussed topics such as the [73] In 2013, he reasserted the veracity of the contents of his thesis which stated "the Zionist movement had ties with the Nazis".[74][75] The following year, he described the Holocaust as "the most heinous crime in modern history."[76]

The Connection between the Nazis and the Leaders of the Zionist Movement 1933 – 1945 is the title of Mahmoud Abbas' CandSc thesis, completed in 1982 at the Peoples' Friendship University of Russia, and defended at the Institute of Oriental Studies of the Soviet Academy of Sciences. In 1984 it was published as a book in Arabic titled "The Other Side: the Secret Relationship Between Nazism and Zionism" (Arabic: al-Wajh al-Akhar: al-'Alaqat as-Sirriya bayna an-Naziya wa's-Sihyuniya).

Published works and statements about the Holocaust

In July 2012, Abbas accused former U.S. Secretary of State [70]

In February 2010, Abbas visited Japan for the third time as Palestinian President. In this visit he met Prime Minister Yukio Hatoyama. He also visited Hiroshima, the first such visit by a Palestinian leader, and spoke about the suffering of Hiroshima, which he compared to the suffering of the Palestinians.[66]

In May 2009, he welcomed Pope Benedict XVI to the West Bank, who supported Abbas' goal of a Palestinian State.[64] Also in May 2009, Abbas made a visit to Canada, where he met with foreign affairs minister Lawrence Cannon and Prime Minister Stephen Harper. The same year Abbas visited Venezuela and met Hugo Chavez.[65]

Abbas, Vladimir Putin, and Recep Tayyip Erdoğan opened Moscow's Cathedral Mosque, 23 September 2015

Relations with foreign leaders

In 2015, Abbas stated that Israel is responsible for the "execution of our children in cold blood as they did with the child Ahmed Manasra."[62] Ahmed Manasra was a 13 year old Palestinian who critically stabbed a 13 year old Jewish boy and became the symbol of the Third Intifada. Ahmed Manasra was found alive in an Israeli hospital the next day.[63]

According to an International Crisis Group report, most Israeli officials "do not see [Abbas] as a peace partner but consider [him] a nonthreatening,violence-abhorring, strategic asset."[61]

In 2011, Abbas stated that the Arab rejection of the United Nations Partition Plan in 1947 was a mistake he hoped to rectify.[60]

On 9 January 2009, Abbas term as president, at least as he was originally elected, ended. Abbas extended his term for another year, stating the Basic Law gave him the right to do so, so he could align the next presidential and parliamentary elections. Pointing to the Palestinian constitution, Hamas disputes the validity of this move, and considers Abbas' term to have ended, in which case Abdel Aziz Duwaik, Speaker of the Palestinian Legislative Council has become acting president. Abbas remains as the president even though his one-year extended term has expired.[7][58][59]

On 20 May 2008, Abbas stated he would resign from his office if the current round of peace talks had not yielded an agreement in principle "within six months". He also stated that the current negotiations were, in effect, deadlocked: "So far, we have not reached an agreement on any issue. Any report indicating otherwise is simply not true."[57]

Abbas meets with then U.S. Secretary of State Hillary Clinton and Israeli Prime Minister Benjamin Netanyahu.

On 2 March 2008, Abbas stated he was suspending peace talks with Israel, while Israeli Prime Minister Ehud Olmert vowed to press on with military operations against militants who have been launching home-made rockets into southern Israel.[56]

On 18 June 2007, the European Union promised to resume direct aid to the Palestinian Authority, and Abbas dissolved the National Security Council, a sticking point in the defunct unity government with Hamas.[53] That same day, the United States decided to end its fifteen-month embargo on the Palestinian Authority and resume aid, attempting to strengthen Abbas's West Bank government.[54] A day later, the Fatah Central Committee cut off all ties and dialogue with Hamas, pending the return of Gaza.[55]

On 14 June, 2007, Abbas dissolved the Hamas-led unity government of Haniyeh, declared a state of emergency, and appointed Salam Fayyad in his place. This followed action by Hamas armed forces to take control of Palestinian Authority positions controlled by Fatah militias. The appointment of Fayyad to replace Haniyeh has been challenged as illegal, because under the Palestinian Basic Law, the president may dismiss a sitting prime minister, but may not appoint a replacement without the approval of the Palestinian Legislative Council. According to the law, until a new prime minister is thus appointed, the outgoing prime minister heads a caretaker government. Fayyad's appointment was never placed before, or approved by the Legislative Council.[51] For this reason, Haniyeh, the Hamas prime minister has continued to operate in Gaza, and is recognised by a large number of Palestinians as the legitimate acting prime minister. Anis al-Qasem, a constitutional lawyer who drafted the Basic Law, is among those who publicly declared Abbas' appointment of Fayyad to be illegal.[52]

On 17 March 2007, a unity government was formed incorporating members of both Hamas and Fatah, with Ismail Haniyeh as Prime Minister and independent politicians taking many key portfolios.

Abbas meets with then United States Secretary of State Condoleezza Rice and then Israeli Prime Minister Ehud Olmert.

On 16 December, 2006, Abbas called for new legislative elections, to bring an end to the parliamentary stalemate between Fatah and Hamas in forming a national coalition government.[50]

Abbas warned Hamas on 8 October, 2006, that he would call new legislative elections if it did not accept a coalition government. To recognize Israel was a condition he has presented for a coalition. But it was not clear if Abbas had the power to call new elections.

On 2 June, Abbas again announced that if Hamas did not approve the prisoners' document—which calls for a two-state solution to the Israeli-Palestinian conflict according to the 1967 borders—within two days, he would present the initiative as a referendum. This deadline was subsequently extended until 10 June 2006. Hamas spokesmen stated that their stance would not change, and that Abbas is not constitutionally permitted to call a referendum, especially so soon after the January elections.

On 25 May, Abbas gave Hamas a ten-day deadline to accept the 1967 ceasefire lines.

On 16 January 2006, Abbas said that he would not run for office again at the end of his term.[49]

Efraim Sneh, a former minister in the Israeli cabinet, has called Abbas the most "courageous partner we have had." He wrote that on 19 April, 2006, following the elections in Israeli but before Ehud Olmert was sworn in, he met with Abbas, and Abbas requested that negotiations resume immediately with the new Israeli government and that he be put in touch right away with a contact person to be appointed by the prime minister. Sneh reported that he immediately conveyed the substance of their meeting to the prime minister's office, but was told that the prime minister had no interest in the matter. Despite this, Sneh mentions that the Annapolis Conference convened a year and a half later, and that in September 2008, Prime Minister Olmert and Abbas came to understandings that would lead to an actual agreement.[48]

On 25 July 2006, he announced that he would move his office to Gaza until the complete withdrawal of Israeli troops in order to coordinate the Palestinian side of the withdrawal, mediating between the different factions.[47]

In May 2006, Abbas travelled to the Paul Martin of Canada pledged 9.5 million CAD in new aid for judicial reform and housing projects, monitors for the coming Palestinian elections, border management and scholarships for Palestinian refugee women in Lebanon.[46]

In response to the teens' deaths, Abbas said, "The Palestinian National Authority will not turn a blind eye to the shedding of the blood of our people and our children. We can never accept opening fire at our children who pose no danger at all." Abbas said the Palestinian children "are as precious to their parents as the Israeli children to their parents." Condemning the Israeli shooting as "unjustified", Abbas urged Israel to take serious actions to show commitment to the truce.

On 9 April 2006, Abbas said that the killing of three Palestinians in southern Gaza by Israeli soldiers was a deliberate violation of the declared ceasefire deal. "This violation is made on purpose," Abbas said in a written statement sent to reporters in the West Bank capital of Ramallah. Abbas made the statement shortly after three Palestinian teenage boys were shot dead by Israeli troops in the southern Gaza town of Rafah. Israel claimed they thought the boys were attempting to smuggle weapons, while Palestinians claimed a group of boys were playing soccer and three of them went to retrieve the ball near the border fence.[45]

On 23 January 2006, Israeli radio reported that Abbas had secured a thirty-day ceasefire from Hamas and Palestinian Islamic Jihad. On 12 February, lone Palestinians attacked Israel settlements and Abbas quickly fired some of his security officers for not stopping the attacks during the ceasefire.

Abbas with President Barack Obama in the Oval Office.

Relations with Israel

In September, 2013, U.S. District Judge Emmet Sullivan dismissed the suit using D.C.'s anti-SLAPP measure. Sullivan determined the lawsuit intended to censor, intimidate, and silence critics by burdening them with the cost of a legal defense until they abandoned their criticisms or opposition.[43][43] The decision has been appealed.[44]

Some analysts believed the Abbas family would not proceed with the case as it would allow Foreign Policy and Schanzer to dig in too deep into the PA's secret finances and records.[42] However, the case proceeded.

One of his sons, Yasser Abbas, (but not brother Tarek or father Mahmoud) filed a $10 million libel lawsuit in the United States District Court, District of Columbia, in September 2012 against Foreign Policy Group LLC and Schanzer alleging "false and defamatory statements. It seems every statement will be challenged, in a jury trial, if the court accepts jurisdiction."[39] Abbas also accused Schanzer of not contacting him for comment and of relying on untrustworthy sources of information. Abbas accused Schanzer of acting with malice and pursuing an agenda against the brothers, even though he also contended that he's a private citizen and not a public figure, so we wouldn't need to prove actual malice to win.[40] In reply, the magazine has argued that Abbas’ suit is aimed at intimidating his critics and stopping debate. "In the final analysis, the commentary falls well within the protections of both the First Amendment and the common law," lawyers for the magazine assert.[41]

The conspicuous wealth of Abbas's own sons, Yasser and Tarek, has been noted in Palestinian society since at least 2009, when Reuters first published a series of articles tying the sons to several business deals, including a few that had U.S. taxpayer support.[37] In a Foreign Policy article author Jonathan Schanzer suggested four ways in which the Abbas family has become rich. They include monopolies on American made cigarettes sold in the territories; USAid funding; public works projects, such as road and school construction, on behalf of the Palestinian Authority and special preferences for retail enterprises. It was strongly implied that the sons lineage was the main credential in receiving these contracts.[38]

On 10 July 2012 Abbas and his sons were attacked, in the US Congress, for their alleged corruption. The debate was entitled Chronic Kleptocracy: Corruption Within the Palestinian Political Establishment[34] In his testimony before the House Committee on Foreign Affairs, Subcommittee on Middle East and South Asia, Elliott Abrams stated that "Corruption is an insidious destroyer not only of Palestinian public finance but of faith in the entire political system. And it has certainly had an impact on potential donors. I can tell you from my own experience, as an American official seeking financial assistance for the PA from Gulf Arab governments, that I was often told "why should we give them money when their officials will just steal it?"[35][36]"

The source for specific allegations against Abbas was one of Arafat's most trusted aides, Mohammed Rashid, accused by the PA of embezzling hundreds of millions of dollars, who threatened to expose corruption scandals in the Palestinian Authority. For many years, Rashid served as Arafat's financial advisor and was given a free hand to handle hundreds of millions of dollars that were poured on the Palestinian Authority and the PLO by US, EU and Arab donors. According to Rashid Abbas's net worth was $US100 million[33]

Abbas's mentor and predecessor, Yasser Arafat, was accused of embezzling billions of dollars of Palestinian money.[30][31] This perceived corruption of the Fatah leadership is believed to have contributed to a convincing win by Hamas in the January 2006 parliamentary election. Fatah leaders were accused of siphoning funds from ministry budgets, passing out patronage jobs, accepting favors and gifts from suppliers and contractors.[32]

There are frequent allegations that officials of the Palestinian Authority, including Mahmoud Abbas, have systematically embezzled public funds.[29]

Corruption allegations

On 9 August 2005, he announced that legislative elections, originally scheduled for 17 July, would take place in January 2006. On 20 August, he set the elections for 25 January.[27] On 15 January 2006, he declared that despite unrest in Gaza, he would not change the set date of the elections, unless Israel decided to prevent Palestinians in East Jerusalem from voting.[28] Hamas won a majority of votes in this vote.

Despite Abbas' call for a peaceful solution, attacks by militant groups continued after his election, in a direct challenge to his authority. The Palestinian Islamic Jihad Movement in Palestine launched a raid in Gaza on 12 January, 2005, that killed one and wounded three Israeli military personnel.[24] On 13 January, Palestinians from the Al-Aqsa Martyrs' Brigades, Hamas, and the Popular Resistance Committees launched a suicide attack on the Karni crossing, killing six Israelis.[24] As a result, Israel shut down the damaged terminal and broke off relations with Abbas and the Palestinian Authority, stating that Abbas must now show a gesture of peace by attempting to stop such attacks.[25] Abbas was formally sworn in as the President of the Palestinian National Authority in a ceremony held on 15 January, in the West Bank town of Ramallah.[26]

Presidency

In his speech, he addressed a crowd of supporters chanting "a million shahids", stating: "I present this victory to the soul of Yasser Arafat and present it to our people, to our martyrs and to 11,000 prisoners". He also called for Palestinian groups to end the use of arms against Israelis.[23]

With Israeli forces arresting and restricting the movement of other candidates, Hamas' boycott of the election, and his campaign being given 94% of the Palestinian electoral campaign coverage on TV, Abbas' election was virtually ensured,[22] and on 9 January Abbas was elected with 62% of the vote as President of the Palestinian National Authority.

After Yasser Arafat's death, Mahmoud Abbas was seen, at least by Fatah, as his natural successor. On 25 November 2004, Abbas was endorsed by Fatah's Revolutionary Council as its preferred candidate for the presidential election, scheduled for 9 January 2005. On 14 December Abbas called for an end to violence in the Second Intifada and a return to peaceful resistance. Abbas told the Asharq Al-Awsat newspaper that "the use of arms has been damaging and should end." However, he refused, or was not able, to disarm Palestinian militants and use force against groups designated (by the Israeli government) as terrorist organisations.

2005 presidential election

Abbas came into conflict with Palestinian militant groups, notably the Palestinian Islamic Jihad Movement and Hamas because his pragmatic policies were opposed to their hard-line approach. Initially, he pledged not to use force against the militants in the interest of avoiding a civil war, and attempted negotiation. This was partially successful, resulting in a pledge from the two groups to honor a unilateral Palestinian cease-fire. However, continuing violence and Israeli "targeted killings" of known leaders forced Abbas to pledge a crackdown in order to uphold the Palestinian Authority's side of the Road map for peace. This led to a power struggle with Arafat over control of the Palestinian security services; Arafat refused to release control to Abbas, thus preventing him from using them on the militants. Abbas resigned as prime minister in October 2003, citing lack of support from Israel and the United States as well as "internal incitement" against his government.[11]

However, a struggle for power between Arafat and Abbas followed.[21] Abbas' term as prime minister was characterised by numerous conflicts between him and Arafat over the distribution of power. The United States and Israel accused Arafat of undermining Abbas and his government. Abbas hinted he would resign if not given more control over the administration. In early September 2003, he confronted the Palestinian parliament over this issue.

By early 2003, as Israel and the United States refused to negotiate with Yasser Arafat, Abbas began to emerge as a candidate for a more visible leadership role. As one of the few remaining founding members of Fatah, he had some degree of credibility within the Palestinian cause, and his candidacy was bolstered by the fact that other high-profile Palestinians were for various reasons not suitable (the most notable, Marwan Barghouti, was under arrest in an Israeli jail after being convicted of multiple murders in an Israeli court). Abbas' reputation as a pragmatist garnered him favor with the West and some members of the Palestinian legislature. Under international pressure, on 19 March 2003, Arafat appointed Abbas Prime Minister of the Palestinian National Authority.

Abbas with Sharon and Bush in Aqaba, Jordan, 4 June 2003

Political career

In 1995, he and Israeli negotiator Yossi Beilin wrote the Beilin-Abu Mazen agreement, which was meant to be the framework for a future Israeli-Palestinian peace deal.

Abbas has performed diplomatic duties, presenting a moderating face for PLO policies. Abbas was the first PLO official to visit Saudi Arabia after the Gulf War in January 1993 to mend fences with the Gulf countries after the PLO's support of Iraq during the Persian Gulf War strained relations. In the Oslo I Accord, Abbas was the signatory for the PLO on 13 September 1993. He published a memoir, Through Secret Channels: The Road to Oslo (1995).[20]

He was among the first members of Fatah to call for talks with moderate Israelis, doing so in 1977. In a 2012 interview he recalled, "[...] because we took up arms, we were in a position to put them down with credibility".[19]

Abu Daoud, who planned the 1972 Munich massacre, where members of the Israeli team at the Munich Olympic Games were taken hostage, and which ended in the murder of eleven Israeli athletes and coaches as well as a West German policeman, wrote that funds for the operation were provided by Abbas, though without knowledge of the money's intended purpose.[18]

In the mid-1950s, Abbas became heavily involved in underground Palestinian politics, joining a number of exiled Palestinians in Qatar, where he was Director of Personnel in the emirate's Civil Service. While there in 1961, he was recruited to become a member of Fatah, founded by Yasser Arafat and 5 other Palestinians in Kuwait in the late 1950s.[17] At the time, Arafat was establishing the groundwork of Fatah by enlisting wealthy Palestinians in Qatar, Kuwait, and other Gulf States.

Political activism

Abbas with President of the United States Prime Minister of Israel Ariel Sharon at the Red Sea Summit in Aqaba, Jordan, 4 June 2003

He is married to Amina Abbas and they have had three sons. The eldest, Mazen Abbas, ran a building company in Doha and died in Qatar of a heart attack in 2002 at the age of 42.[15] The kunya of Abu Mazen means "father of Mazen". Their second son is Yasser Abbas, a Canadian businessman who was named after former PA leader Yasser Arafat.[16] The youngest son is Tareq, a business executive.

Abbas later entered graduate studies at the Patrice Lumumba University in Moscow, where he earned a Candidate of Sciences degree[13][14] (the Soviet equivalent of a PhD). The theme of his doctoral dissertation was "The Other Side: The Secret Relationship Between Nazism and Zionism".

Mahmoud Abbas was born on 26 March 1935 in Safed, in the Galilee region of Mandatory Palestine.[12] His family fled to Syria during the 1948 Palestine war.[12] Before going to Egypt, Abbas graduated from the University of Damascus where he studied law.

Personal life

Contents

  • Personal life 1
  • Political activism 2
  • Political career 3
  • 2005 presidential election 4
  • Presidency 5
  • Corruption allegations 6
  • Relations with Israel 7
  • Relations with foreign leaders 8
  • Published works and statements about the Holocaust 9
  • References 10
  • Further reading 11
  • External links 12

Abbas served as the first Prime Minister of the Palestinian Authority from March to October 2003, when he resigned citing lack of support from Israel and the United States as well as "internal incitement" against his government.[11] Before being named prime minister, Abbas led the PLO Negotiations Affairs Department. One of his chief negotiators is Saeb Erekat.

[10] He resigned as leader of the PLO on 22 August 2015.[9] a job he had held unofficially since 8 May 2005.[8]

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