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Melon

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Title: Melon  
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Subject: Cucurbitaceae, List of Uzbek dishes, Canary melon, Melon (disambiguation), Melons
Collection: Cucurbitaceae, Edible Fruits, Fruit, Lists of Foods, Melons
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Melon

Canary melon and cantaloupe
Watermelon vendors in Kstovo, Russia

A melon is any of various plants of the family Cucurbitaceae with edible, fleshy fruit.

The word "melon" can refer to either the plant or specifically to the fruit. Many different cultivars have been produced, particularly of muskmelons.

Although the melon is a fruit (specifically, a berry), some varieties may be considered vegetables rather than fruits. The word melon derives from Latin melopepo,[1] which is the latinization of the Greek μηλοπέπων (mēlopepon), meaning "melon",[2] itself a compound of μῆλον (mēlon), "apple"[3] + πέπων (pepōn), amongst others "a kind of gourd or melon".[4]

Contents

  • History 1
  • Melons by genus 2
    • Benincasa 2.1
    • Citrullus 2.2
    • Cucumis 2.3
    • Momordica 2.4
  • See also 3
  • Notes 4
  • References 5
  • General references 6
  • External links 7

History

Watermelon and melon in India

Melons originated in Africa[5] and Native Seeds/SEARCH have made an effort to collect and preserve these and other heritage seeds.[9]

Melons by genus

Honeydew

Benincasa

  • Winter melon[note 1] (B. hispida) is the only member of the genus Benincasa. The mature winter melon is a cooking vegetable that is widely used in Asia and India. The immature melons are used as a culinary fruit (e.g., to make a distinctive fruit drink).

Citrullus

  • Egusi (C. lanatus) is a wild melon, similar in appearance to the watermelon. The flesh is inedible, but the seeds are a valuable food source in Africa.[10] Other species that have the same culinary role, and that are also called egusi include Cucumeropsis mannii and Lagenaria siceraria.[11]
  • Watermelon (C. lanatus) originated in Africa, where evidence indicates that it has been cultivated for over 4,000 years.[12] It is a popular summer fruit in all parts of the world.[13]

Cucumis

Melons in genus Cucumis are culinary fruits, and include the majority of culinary melons. All but a handful of culinary melon varieties belong to the species Cucumis melo L.

  • Horned melon (C. metuliferus), a traditional food plant in Africa with distinctive spikes. Now grown in California, Chile, Australia and New Zealand as well.[14]
  • Muskmelon (C. melo)
    • C. melo cantalupensis, with skin that is rough and warty, not netted.
    • C. melo inodorus, casabas, honeydew, and Asian melons
      Slice of Cantaloupe melon
      • Korean melon, a yellow melon with white lines running across the fruit and white inside. Can be crisp and slightly sweet or juicy when left to ripen longer.
      • Canary melon, a large, bright-yellow melon with a pale green to white inner flesh.
      • Casaba, bright yellow, with a smooth, furrowed skin. Less flavorful than other melons, but keeps longer.[17]
      • Hami melon, originally from Hami, Xinjiang, China. Flesh is sweet and crisp.[18]
      • Honeydew, with a sweet, juicy, green-colored flesh. Grown as bailan melon in Lanzhou, China. There is a second variety which has yellow skin, white flesh & tastes like a moist pear.
      • Kolkhoznitsa melon, with smooth, yellow skin and dense, white flesh.[19]
      • Piel de Sapo (toad skin) or Santa Claus melon, with a blotchy green skin and white sweet-tasting flesh.
      • Sugar melon a smooth, white, round fruit.[20]
      • Tiger melon, an orange, yellow and black striped melon from Turkey with a soft pulp.[21]
      • Japanese melons (including the Sprite melon).
    • C. melo reticulatus, true muskmelons, with netted (reticulated) skin.
      • North American cantaloupe, distinct from the European cantaloupe, with the net-like skin pattern common to other C. melo reticulatus varieties.[22]
      • Galia (or Ogen), small and very juicy with either faint green or rosy pink flesh.[16]
      • Sharlyn melons, with taste between honeydew and cantaloupes, netted skin, greenish-orange rind, and white flesh.[23]
    • Modern crossbred varieties, e.g. Crenshaw (Casaba × Persian), Crane (Japanese × N.A. cantaloupe).

Momordica

  • The young fruit of M. balsamina L. is eaten as a culinary vegetable in Cameroon, Sudan and southern Africa.[24]
  • The bitter melon (M. charantia) is the only significant melon that is a member of the genus Momordica. It is a culinary vegetable, widely used in Asian, Indian and Caribbean cuisines. The flesh of the bitter melon has a characteristic bitter flavor. In contrast, the red, gelatinous coating of the mature seeds is sweet and is used in some Asian cuisines as a sweetener. Bitter melon has an unusually large number of common names in various regions.[24]
  • The ripe fruit of M. foetida is eaten in Ghana, Gabon, Sudan, Kenya, Uganda and Tanzania.[25]

See also

Notes

  1. ^ Not to be confused with Cucumis melo inodorus varieties, also collectively called winter melon.

References

  1. ^
  2. ^
  3. ^ et alLiddell , "μῆλον"
  4. ^ et alLiddell , "πέπων"
  5. ^
  6. ^ a b
  7. ^ Archaeobotanical analysis of a Bronze Age well from Sardinia: A wealth of knowledge
  8. ^
  9. ^
  10. ^
  11. ^
  12. ^
  13. ^
  14. ^
  15. ^
  16. ^ a b
  17. ^
  18. ^
  19. ^
  20. ^
  21. ^
  22. ^
  23. ^
  24. ^ a b PROTA, p. 384
  25. ^ PROTA p. 390

General references

  • Interregional Research Project IR-4

External links

  • . List of photographed varieties of melons.
  • Melone, i primi a coltivarlo in Europa furono i sardi in epoca nuragica
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