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Melvin Calvin

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Melvin Calvin

Melvin Calvin
Born Melvin Ellis Calvin
April 8, 1911
St. Paul, Minnesota, USA
Died January 8, 1997(1997-01-08) (aged 85)
Berkeley, California, USA
Nationality United States
Fields Chemistry · Biology
Institutions University of Manchester
University of California, Berkeley
Berkeley Radiation Laboratory
Science Advisory Committee
Alma mater Michigan College of Mining and Technology
University of Minnesota
Academic advisors Michael Polanyi
Known for Calvin cycle
Notable awards Nobel Prize for Chemistry (1961)
Davy Medal (1964)
Priestley Medal (1978)
AIC Gold Medal (1979)
National Medal of Science (1989)[1]
Spouse Genevieve Elle Jemtegaard (m. 1942; 3 children) (d.1987)

Melvin Ellis Calvin (April 8, 1911 – January 8, 1997)[2] was an American chemist most famed for discovering the Calvin cycle along with Andrew Benson and James Bassham, for which he was awarded the 1961 Nobel Prize in Chemistry. He spent most of his five-decade career at the University of California, Berkeley.

Contents

  • Life 1
  • Controversy 2
  • Legacy 3
  • Publications 4
  • See also 5
  • References 6
  • External links 7

Life

Calvin was born in Georgia (also part of Russian Empire).

As a small child Calvin's family moved to [3] and they had three children, two daughters and a son.

Calvin joined the faculty at the carbon dioxide as was previously believed. Calvin was the sole recipient of the 1961 Nobel Prize for Chemistry for what is sometimes known as the Calvin-Benson-Bassham Cycle. Calvin wrote an autobiography three decades later titled Following the Trail of Light: A Scientific Odyssey.[7] During the 1950s he was among the first members of the Society for General Systems Research. In 1963 he was given the additional title of Professor of Molecular Biology. He was founder and Director of the Laboratory of Chemical Biodynamics and simultaneously Associate Director of Berkeley Radiation Laboratory, where he conducted much of his research until his retirement in 1980. In his final years of active research, he studied the use of oil-producing plants as renewable sources of energy. He also spent many years testing the chemical evolution of life and wrote a book on the subject that was published in 1969.[8]

Controversy

In his 2011 television history of Botany for the BBC, Timothy Walker, Director of the University of Oxford Botanic Garden, criticised Calvin's treatment of Andrew Benson, claiming that Calvin had got the credit for Benson's work after firing him, and had failed to mention Benson's role when writing his autobiography decades later.[9] Benson himself has also mentioned being fired by Calvin, and has complained about not being mentioned in his autobiography.[10]

Legacy

Calvin was featured on the 2011 volume of the American Scientists collection of US postage stamps, along with Asa Gray, Maria Goeppert-Mayer, and Severo Ochoa. This was the third volume in the series, the first two having been released in 2005 and 2008.

Publications

  • Calvin, M. and A. A. Benson. "The Path of Carbon in Photosynthesis", Ernest Orlando Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, University of California Radiation Laboratory-Berkeley, United States Department of Energy (through predecessor agency the Atomic Energy Commission), (March 8, 1948).
  • Stepka, W., Benson, A. A., and M. Calvin. "The Path of Carbon in Photosynthesis II. Amino Acids", Ernest Orlando Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, University of California Radiation Laboratory-Berkeley, United States Department of Energy (through predecessor agency the Atomic Energy Commission), (May 25, 1948).
  • Benson, A. A. and M. Calvin. "Path of Carbon in Photosynthesis III.", Ernest Orlando Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, University of California Radiation Laboratory-Berkeley, United States Department of Energy (through predecessor agency the Atomic Energy Commission), (June 1, 1948).
  • Calvin, M. and A. A. Benson "The Path of Carbon in Photosynthesis IV. The Identity and Sequence of the Intermediates in Sucrose Synthesis.", Ernest Orlando Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, University of California Radiation Laboratory-Berkeley, United States Department of Energy (through predecessor agency the Atomic Energy Commission), (December 14, 1948).
  • Benson, A. A., Bassham, J. A., Calvin, M., Goodale, T. C., Haas, V. A. and W. Stepka. "The Path of Carbon in Photosynthesis V. Paper Chromatography and Radioautography of the Products.", Ernest Orlando Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, University of California Radiation Laboratory-Berkeley, United States Department of Energy (through predecessor agency the Atomic Energy Commission), (June 13, 1949).
  • Calvin, M. "The Path of Carbon in Photosynthesis VI.", Ernest Orlando Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, University of California Radiation Laboratory-Berkeley, United States Department of Energy (through predecessor agency the Atomic Energy Commission), (June 30, 1949).
  • Benson, A. A. and M. Calvin. "The Path of Carbon in Photosynthesis VII. Respiration and Photosynthesis.", Ernest Orlando Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, University of California Radiation Laboratory-Berkeley, United States Department of Energy (through predecessor agency the Atomic Energy Commission), (July 21, 1949).
  • Bassham, J. A., Benson, A. A. and M. Calvin. "The Path of Carbon in Photosynthesis VIII. The Role of Malic Acid.", Ernest Orlando Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, University of California Radiation Laboratory-Berkeley, United States Department of Energy (through predecessor agency the Atomic Energy Commission), (January 25, 1950).
  • Badin, E. J.and M. Calvin. "The Path of Carbon in Photosynthesis IX. Photosynthesis, Photoreduction, and the Hydrogen-Oxygen-Carbon Dioxide Dark Reaction.", Ernest Orlando Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, University of California Radiation Laboratory-Berkeley, United States Department of Energy (through predecessor agency the Atomic Energy Commission), (February 1, 1950).
  • Calvin, M., Bassham, J. A., Benson, A. A., Lynch, V., Ouellet, C., Schou, L., Stepka, W. and N. E. Tolbert. "The Path of Carbon in Photosynthesis X. Carbon Dioxide Assimilation in Plants.", Ernest Orlando Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, University of California Radiation Laboratory-Berkeley, United States Department of Energy (through predecessor agency the Atomic Energy Commission), (April 1, 1950).
  • Schou, L., Benson, A. A., Bassham, J. A. and M. Calvin. "The Path of Carbon in Photosynthesis XI. The Role of Glycolic Acid.", Ernest Orlando Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, University of California Radiation Laboratory-Berkeley, United States Department of Energy (through predecessor agency the Atomic Energy Commission), (September 11, 1950).
  • Calvin, M., Bassham, J. A., Benson, A. A., Kawaguchi, S., Lynch, V. H., Stepka, W. and N. E. Tolbert. " The Path of Carbon in Photosynthesis XIV.", Ernest Orlando Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, University of California Radiation Laboratory-Berkeley, United States Department of Energy (through predecessor agency the Atomic Energy Commission), (June 30, 1951).
  • Benson, A. A., Bassham, J. A., Calvin, M., Hall, A. G., Hirsch, H., Kawaguchi, S., Lynch, V. and N. E. Tolbert. "The Path of Carbon in Photosynthesis XV. Ribulose and Sedoheptulose.", Ernest Orlando Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, University of California Radiation Laboratory-Berkeley, United States Department of Energy (through predecessor agency the Atomic Energy Commission), (January 1952).
  • Benson, A. A., Kawaguchi, S., Hayes, P. and M. Calvin. "The Path of Carbon in Photosynthesis XVI. Kinetic Relationships of the Intermediates in Steady State Photosynthesis.", Ernest Orlando Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, University of California Radiation Laboratory-Berkeley, United States Department of Energy (through predecessor agency the Atomic Energy Commission), (June 5, 1952).
  • Buchanan, J. G., Bassham, J. A., Benson, A. A., Bradley, D. F., Calvin, M., Daus, L. L., Goodman, M., Hayes, P. M., Lynch, V. H., Norris, L. T. and A. T. Wilson. "The Path of Carbon in Photosynthesis XVII. Phosphorus Compounds as Intermediates in Photosynthesis.", Ernest Orlando Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, University of California Radiation Laboratory-Berkeley, United States Department of Energy (through predecessor agency the Atomic Energy Commission), (July 8, 1952).
  • Buchanan, J. G., Lynch, V. H., Benson, A. A., Calvin, M. and D. F. Bradley. "The Path of Carbon in Photosynthesis XVIII. The Identification of Nucleotide Coenzymes.", Ernest Orlando Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, University of California Radiation Laboratory-Berkeley, United States Department of Energy (through predecessor agency the Atomic Energy Commission), (January 19, 1953).
  • Calvin, M. and P. Massini. "The Path of Carbon in Photosynthesis XX. The Steady State.", Ernest Orlando Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, University of California Radiation Laboratory-Berkeley, United States Department of Energy (through predecessor agency the Atomic Energy Commission), (September 1952).
  • Calvin, M. "Photosynthesis: The Path of Carbon in Photosynthesis and the Primary Quantum Conversion Act of Photosynthesis.", Ernest Orlando Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, University of California Radiation Laboratory-Berkeley, United States Department of Energy (through predecessor agency the Atomic Energy Commission), (November 22, 1952).
  • Bassham, J. A., Benson, A. A., Kay, L. D. Harris, A. Z., Wilson, A. T. and Calvin, M. "The Path of Carbon in Photosynthesis XXI. The Cyclic Regeneration of Carbon Dioxide Acceptor.", Ernest Orlando Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, University of California Radiation Laboratory-Berkeley, United States Department of Energy (through predecessor agency the Atomic Energy Commission), (October 1, 1953).
  • Bassham, J. A. and M. Calvin. "The Path of Carbon in Photosynthesis", Ernest Orlando Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, University of California Lawrence Radiation Laboratory-Berkeley, United States Department of Energy (through predecessor agency the Atomic Energy Commission), (October 1960).
  • Calvin, M. "The Path of Carbon in Photosynthesis (Nobel Prize Lecture).", Ernest Orlando Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, University of California Radiation Laboratory-Berkeley, United States Department of Energy (through predecessor agency the Atomic Energy Commission), (December 11, 1961).

See also

References

  1. ^ National Science Foundation – The President's National Medal of Science
  2. ^  
  3. ^ a b http://www.royalsoced.org.uk/cms/files/fellows/biographical_index/fells_indexp1.pdf
  4. ^ http://www.bookrags.com/biography/melvin-calvin/
  5. ^ CALVIN, M (1956). "[The photosynthetic cycle.]". Bull. Soc. Chim. Biol. 38 (11) (December 7, 1956). pp. 1233–44.  
  6. ^ BARKER, S A; BASSHAM, J A; CALVIN, M; QUARCK, U C (1956). "Intermediates in the photosynthetic cycle". Biochim. Biophys. Acta 21 (2) (Aug 1956). pp. 376–7.  
  7. ^ Calvin, Melvin (1992). Following the Trail of Light: A Scientific Odyssey (Profiles, Pathways & Dreams) . Wiley VCH.  
  8. ^ Calvin, Melvin. Chemical evolution: molecular evolution towards the origin of living systems on the earth and elsewhere. Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1969. ISBN 0-19-855342-0.
  9. ^  
  10. ^ Interview conducted by Bob B. Buchanan,  

External links

  • Biography and Bibliographic Resources, from the Office of Scientific and Technical Information, United States Department of Energy
  • Nobel speech and biographmems/mcalvin.html Tribute by Glenn Seaborg and Andrew Benson
  • Research on the carbon dioxide assimilation in plants at the Wayback Machine (archived February 22, 2007)
  • Biographical memoir by Glenn Seaborg and Andrew Benson
  • U.S. Patent 4427511 Melvin Calvin – Photo-induced electron transfer method
  • Encyclopædia Britannica article
  • USPS News Release: Celebrating American Scientists Press release for the new Forever Stamp designs featuring Melvin Calvin.
  • National Academy of Sciences Biographical Memoir
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