World Library  
Flag as Inappropriate
Email this Article

Microchromosome

Article Id: WHEBN0025559445
Reproduction Date:

Title: Microchromosome  
Author: World Heritage Encyclopedia
Language: English
Subject: Chromosome, Telomere-binding protein, DbCRID, CENPF, CENPI
Collection: Chromosomes, Cytogenetics, Nuclear Substructures
Publisher: World Heritage Encyclopedia
Publication
Date:
 

Microchromosome

Image of chicken chromosomes featuring the many microchromosomes (appearing as dots). The arrows indicate a stained gene locus on homologous macrochromosomes.

A microchromosome is a type of very small chromosome which is a typical component of the karyotype of birds, some reptiles, fish, and amphibians; they tend to be absent in mammals.[1] They are less than 20 Mb in size; chromosomes which are greater than 40 Mb in size are known as macrochromosomes, while those between 20 and 40 Mb are classified as intermediate chromosomes.[2] Microchromosomes are characteristically very small and often cytogenetically indistinguishable in a karyotype. While originally thought to be insignificant fragments of chromosomes, in species where they have been studied they have been found to be rich in genes. In chickens, microchromosomes have been estimated to contain between 50 and 75% of all genes.[3][4] The presence of microchromosomes makes ordering and identifying chromosomes into a coherent karyotype particularly difficult. During metaphase, they appear merely as 0.5-1.5 μm long specks. Their small size and poor condensation into heterochromatin means they generally lack the diagnostic banding patterns and distinct centromere locations used for chromosome identification.[1]

Contents

  • In avians 1
    • Chickens 1.1
    • Turkey 1.2
  • In humans and other animals 2
  • See also 3
  • References 4

In avians

Birds (except

  1. ^ a b c d e f Fillon, Valérie (1998). "The chicken as a model to study microchromosomes in birds: a review". Genetics Selection Evolution 30 (3): 209–19.  
  2. ^ a b Axelsson, Erik; Webster, Matthew T.; Smith, Nick G. C.; Burt, David W.; Ellegren, Hans (2005). "Comparison of the chicken and turkey genomes reveals a higher rate of nucleotide divergence on microchromosomes than macrochromosomes". Genome Research 15 (1): 120–5.  
  3. ^ a b c McQueen, Heather A.; Siriaco, Giorgia; Bird, Adrian P. (1998). "Chicken microchromosomes are hyperacetylated, early replicating, and gene rich". Genome Research 8 (6): 621–30.  
  4. ^ a b c Burt, D.W. (2002). "Origin and evolution of avian microchromosomes". Cytogenetic and Genome Research 96 (1–4): 97–112.  
  5. ^ a b c Groenen, Martien A. M.; Cheng, Hans H.; Bumstead, Nat; Benke, Bernard F.; Briles, W. Elwood; Burke, Terry; Burt, Dave W.; Crittenden, Lyman B. et al. (2000). "A consensus linkage map of the chicken genome". Genome Research 10 (1): 137–47.  
  6. ^ a b Ka-Shu Wong, Gane; Liu, Bin; Wang, Jun; Zhang, Yong; Yang, Xu; Zhang, Zengjin; Meng, Qingshun; Zhou, Jun et al. (2004). "A genetic variation map for chicken with 2.8 million single-nucleotide polymorphisms". Nature 432 (7018): 717–22.  
  7. ^ Reed, K.M.; Chaves, L.D.; Mendoza, K.M. (2007). "An integrated and comparative genetic map of the turkey genome". Cytogenetic and Genome Research 119 (1–2): 113–26.  
  8. ^ Roberts, Richard J.; Dalloul, Rami A.; Long, Julie A.; Zimin, Aleksey V.; Aslam, Luqman; Beal, Kathryn; Ann Blomberg, Le; Bouffard, Pascal et al. (2010). "Multi-Platform Next-Generation Sequencing of the Domestic Turkey (Meleagris gallopavo): Genome Assembly and Analysis". PLoS Biology 8 (9): e1000475.  
  9. ^ Ramos, C; Rivera, L; Benitez, J; Tejedor, E; Sanchez-Cascos, A (1979). "Recurrence of Down's syndrome associated with microchromosome". Human Genetics 49 (1): 7–10.  
  10. ^ López-Pajares, I.; Delicado, A.; Pascual-Castroviejo, I.; López-Martin, V.; Moreno, F.; Garcia-Marcos, J. A. (2008). "Fragile X syndrome with extra microchromosome". Clinical Genetics 45 (4): 186–9.  

References

See also

In rare cases, microchromosomes have been observed in the karotypes of individual humans. A link has been suggested between microchromosome presence and certain genetic disorders like Down syndrome[9] and fragile X syndrome.[10] The smallest chromosome in humans is normally chromosome 21, which is 47 Mb.

Microchromosomes are absent from the karyotypes of mammals, crocodilians, and frogs.[1]

In humans and other animals

The turkey has a diploid number of 80 (2n = 80) chromosomes. The karyotype contains an additional chromosomal pair relative to the chicken due to the presence of at least two fission/fusion differences (GGA2 = MGA3 and MGA6 and GGA4 = MGA4 and MGA9). Given these differences involving the macrochromosomes, an additional fission/fusion must also exist between the species involving the microchromosomes if the diploid numbers are valid. Other rearrangements have been identified through comparative genetic maps,[7] physical maps and whole genome sequencing.[8]

Turkey

For the many small linkage groups in the chicken genome which have not been placed on chromosomes, the assumption has been made that they are located on the microchromosomes. Interestingly, groups of these correspond almost exactly with large sections of certain human chromosomes. For example linkage groups E29C09W09, E21E31C25W12, E48C28W13W27, E41W17, E54 and E49C20W21 correspond with chromosome 7.[5]

Replication timing and recombination rates have been found to differ between microchromosomes and macrochromosomes in chickens. Microchromosomes replicate earlier in the S phase of interphase than macrochromosomes.[3] Recombination rates have also been found to be higher on microchromosomes.[6] Possibly due to the high recombination rates, chicken chromosome 16 (a microchromosome) has been found to contain the most genetic diversity of any chromosome in certain chicken breeds.[6] This is likely due to the presence on this chromosome of the major histocompatibility complex (MHC).

Chickens have a diploid number of 78 (2n = 78) chromosomes, and as is usual in birds, the majority are microchromosomes. Classification of chicken chromosomes varies by author. Some classify them as 8 pairs of macrochromosomes, one pair of sex chromosomes, with the remaining 32 pairs being intermediate or microchromosomes.[3] Other arrangements such as that used by the International Chicken Genome Sequencing Consortium include five pairs of macrochromosomes, five pairs of intermediate chromosomes, and twenty-eight pairs of microchromosomes.[2][5] Microchromosomses represent approximately one third of the total genome size, and have been found to have a much higher gene density than macrochromosomes. Because of this, it is estimated that the majority of genes are located on microchromosomes,[4] though due to the difficulty in physically identifying microchromosomes and the lack of microsatellite markers, it has been difficult to place genes on specific microchromosomes.[5]

Chickens

[4].mya analysis shows that microchromosomes contain genetic information which has been conserved across multiple classes of chromosomes. This indicates that at least ten chicken microchromosomes arose from fission of larger chromosomes and that the typical bird karyotype arose 100-250 genomic Comparative [1] Examination of microchromosomes in birds has led to the hypotheses that they may have originated as conserved fragments of ancestral macrochromosomes, and conversely that macrochromosomes could have arisen as aggregates of microchromosomes.[1]

This article was sourced from Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License; additional terms may apply. World Heritage Encyclopedia content is assembled from numerous content providers, Open Access Publishing, and in compliance with The Fair Access to Science and Technology Research Act (FASTR), Wikimedia Foundation, Inc., Public Library of Science, The Encyclopedia of Life, Open Book Publishers (OBP), PubMed, U.S. National Library of Medicine, National Center for Biotechnology Information, U.S. National Library of Medicine, National Institutes of Health (NIH), U.S. Department of Health & Human Services, and USA.gov, which sources content from all federal, state, local, tribal, and territorial government publication portals (.gov, .mil, .edu). Funding for USA.gov and content contributors is made possible from the U.S. Congress, E-Government Act of 2002.
 
Crowd sourced content that is contributed to World Heritage Encyclopedia is peer reviewed and edited by our editorial staff to ensure quality scholarly research articles.
 
By using this site, you agree to the Terms of Use and Privacy Policy. World Heritage Encyclopedia™ is a registered trademark of the World Public Library Association, a non-profit organization.
 



Copyright © World Library Foundation. All rights reserved. eBooks from World eBook Library are sponsored by the World Library Foundation,
a 501c(4) Member's Support Non-Profit Organization, and is NOT affiliated with any governmental agency or department.