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Micronation

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Micronation

Taxonavigation

Species: Lecanora gisleriana

Name

Lecanora gisleriana Müll. Arg., 1874

Synonyms

  • Involucrothele gisleri (Müll. Arg.) Servít, Českoslov. Lišejn. Čeledi Verrucariaceae: 170 (1954)
  • Lecanora gisleri Poelt & Ulrich, Lich. Alp. 11: no. 216 (1964)

References

  • Müll. Arg., Flora, Regensburg 57: 185 (1874)
  • Müller, J. 1874: Lichenologische Beiträge, 1. - Flora (Regensburg)\Flora 1874: 185-192.   **[Mattick Rec. # 28710] - (Recent Literature on Lichens - Mattick No.)**

Links

  • Lecanora gisleriana in Index Fungorum.

Several micronations have issued coins, flags, postage stamps, passports, medals, and other items, which are rarely accepted outside of their own community.

The earliest known micronations date from the beginning of the 19th century. The advent of the Internet provided the means for people to create many new micronations, whose members are scattered all over the world and interact mostly by electronic means, often calling their nations Nomadic Countries. The differences between such Internet micronations, other kinds of social networking groups, and role playing games are often hard to define.[1]

The term "micronation" to describe those entities dates at least to the 1970s.[2] The term micropatrology is sometimes used to describe the study of both micronations and microstates by micronationalists, some of whom refer to sovereign nation-states as "macronations".

Etymology

The term 'micronation' literally means "small nation". It is a neologism originating in the mid-1970s to describe the many thousands of small unrecognised state-like entities that have mostly arisen since that time. It is generally accepted that the term was invented by Robert Ben Madison.

The term has since also come to be used retrospectively to refer to earlier unrecognised entities, some of which date to as far back as the 19th century. Supporters of micronations ("micronationalists") use the term "macronation" for any UN-recognized sovereign nation-state.

Not all micronations are small; some can be rather larg

A micronation, sometimes referred to as a model country or new country project, is an entity that claims to be an independent nation or state but is not officially recognized by world governments or major international organizations.

Micronations are distinguished from imaginary countries and from other kinds of social groups (suche, like the Dominion of British West Florida or those with claims on Antarctica or other planets.

Definition

Micronations generally have a number of common features, although these may vary widely. They may have a structure similar to established sovereign states, including territorial claims, government institutions, official symbols and citizens, albeit on a much smaller scale. Micronations are often quite small, in both their claimed territory and claimed populations — although there are some exceptions to this rule, with different micronations having different methods of citizenship. Micronations may also issue formal instruments such as postage stamps, coins, banknotes and passports, and bestow honours and titles of nobility.

The Montevideo Convention was one attempt to create a legal definition distinguishing between states and non-states. Some micronations meet this definition, while some do not, and others reject the Convention altogether.

The academic study of micronations, microstates, and alternative governments is known as micropatrology, and the hobby of establishing and operating micronations is known as micronationalism.

Categories

In the present day, ninree separate groups in 2005, of which two united in 2010 to the "Kingdom of Talossa", and the last one vanished into quiescence.[3][4][5]

  • Nova Roma, a group claiming a worldwide membership of several thousand that has minted its own coins, maintains its own wiki, and which engages in real-life Roman-themed re-enactments.
  • [6][7][8][9][10][11][12][13][14]
  • Republic of Jamtland, a self-proclaimed republic in the county of Jämtland, Sweden. It was founded in 1963 due to Sweden's social welfare politics, which wanted Jämtland to merge with the county of Västernorrland and wanted more people to move away from the countryside of northern Sweden and into the big cities of southern Sweden. This started protests in Jämtland and later that year they declared themselves a free republic within the Kingdom of Sweden. The Republic of Jämtland has a population of 130,573 inhabitants and has an area of 19,090.4 square miles. Jämtland also has embassies and consulates in 17 different countries, such as China, Germany, the USA, England, Norway and Russia. In 1967, Yngve Gamlin, the president of the republic at that time, went to see the Swedish prime minister Tage Erlander about merging with Västernorrland county. Yngve was greeted at Harpsund estate by Tage as a chief of state on a state visit to Sweden. This gave Jamtland some recognition from Sweden as a free republics, smiley-faced flag and a range of national holidays (called "niftydays," because "there's nothing holy about them") that includes "Topin Wagglegammon" amongst others.
  • Republic of Molossia, a desert-based micronation of 0.5 ha (1.3 acres) located near Reno, Nevada ruled by President Kevin Baugh, founded in 1977. There is a nationwide ban on smoking.[15]
  • The Kingdom of Lovely is an attempt by King Danny I (Danny Wallace) to create an internet nation based in his flat in London, the central feature of his 2005 TV series How to Start Your Own Country.
  • Grand Duchy of Flandrensis, a micronation that has claimed five islands of the West Antarctica, issued its own identity cards, currency and newspaper.

Exercises in fantasy or creative fiction

Micronations of the third type include stand-alone artistic projects, deliberate exercises in creative online fiction, social justification or gratification, and

Vehicles for agenda promotion

"Welcome to the Conch Republic" – a sign at Key West International Airport

These types of micronations are typically associated with a political or social reform agenda. Some are maintained as media and public relations exercises. Examples of this type include:

  • Akhzivland is a self-declared and officially tolerated "independent republic" established by Israeli hippie and former sailor Eli Avivi on the Mediterranean beach at Akhziv in Israel.[16]
  • The Conch Republic, which began in 1982 as a protest by residents and business owners ons. Examples include:
  • The Republic of Kugelmugel, founded by an Austrian artist and based in a ball-shaped house in Vienna, which quickly became a tourist attraction.
  • The Copeman Empire, run from a caravan park in Norfolk, England, by its founder Nick Copeman, who changed his name by deed poll to HM King Nicholas I. He and his empire are the subject of a book and a website where King Nicholas sells knighthoods.
  • San Serriffe, an April Fool's Day hoax created by the British newspaper The Guardian, in its April 1, 1977 edition. The fictional island nation was described in an elaborate seven-page supplement and has been revisited by the newspaper several times.
  • Republic of Saugeais (République du Saugeais), a fifty-year-old "republic" in the French département of Doubs, bordering Switzerland. The republic is made of the 11 municipalities of Les Allies, Arcon, Bugny, La Chaux-de-Gilley, Gilley, Hauterive-la-Fresne, La Longeville, Montflovin, Maisons-du-Bois-Lievremontin the Florida Keys against a United States Border Patrol roadblock. It has since been maintained as a tourism booster, and the group has engaged in other protests.
  • The Republic of New Afrika, a controversial separatist group seeking the creation of an independent black nationalist state across much of the Southeastern U.S.
  • Republic of Lakotah, a proposed republic for the American Indian Lakota people of North and South Dakota, eastern Montana and eastern Wyoming, and northern Nebraska.
  • Valašské královstí (Kingdom of Wallachia) is a tongue-in-cheek micronation established by Tomáš Harabiš, with the Czech actor Bolek Polívka as its king in 1997 in the territory of Moravian Wallachia, for the purpose of promoting the region and tourist activities. The micronation has been registered as a tourist agency in 2000. The micronation suffered a coup d'état during which Polívka was stripped of his throne and ousted from the kingdom.

Entities created for allegedly fraudulent purposes

A number of micronations have been established for fraudulent purposes, by seeking to link questionable or illegal financial actions with seemingly legitimate nations.

  • The Ta City longevity promoter Howard Turney as a libertarian new country project was stopped by a United States federal court temporary restraining order from selling bonds and bank licenses. New Utopia has claimed for a number of years to be on the verge of commencing construction of an artificial island territory located approximately midway between Honduras and Cuba, on the Misteriosa Bank but no such project has yet been undertaken.
  • The Kingdom of EnenKio, which claims Wake Atoll in the Marshall Islands belonging to the US minor outlying islands, has been condemned by the governments of the Marshall Islands and of the United States for selling passports and diplomatic papers.[17] On April 23, 1998, the Ministry of Foreign Affairs of the Republic of the Marshall Islands issued an official Circular Note, denouncing representatives of both "EnenKio" and "Melchizedek" for making fraudulent representations.[19]

The term "micronation" to describe those entities dates at least to the 1970s.[20] The term micropatrology is sometimes used to describe the study of both micronations and microstates by micronationalists, some of whom refer to sovereign nation-states as "macronations".

Etymology

The term 'micronation' literally means "small nation". It is a neologism originating in the mid-1970s to describe the many thousands of small unrecognised state-like entities that have mostly arisen since that time. It is generally accepted that the term was invented by Robert Ben Madison.

The term has since also come to be used retrospectively to refer to earlier unrecognised entities, some of which date to as far back as the 19th century. Supporters of micronations ("micronationalists") use the term "macronation" for any UN-recognized sovereign nation-state.

Not all micronations are small; some can be rather large, like the Dominion of British West Florida or those with claims on Antarctica or other planets.

Definition

Micronations generally have a number of common features, although these may vary widely. They may have a structure similar to established sovereign states, including territorial claims, government institutions, official symbols and citizens, albeit on a much smaller scale. Micronations are often quite small, in both their claimed territory and claimed populations — although there are some exceptions to this rule, with different micronations having different methods of citizenship. Micronations may also issue formal instruments such as postage stamps, coins, banknotes and passports, and bestow honours and titles of nobility.

The Montevideo Convention was one attempt to create a legal definition distinguishing between states and non-states. Some micronations meet this definition, while some do not, and others reject the Convention altogether.

The academic study of micronations, microstates, and alternative governments is known as micropatrology, and the hobby of establishing and operating micronations is known as micronationalism.

Categories

In the present day, ninycobank.org/MycoTaxo.aspx?Link=T&Rec=388334 Lecanora gisleriana] in MycoBank.

==Vernacular names==

A micronation, sometimes referred to as a model country or new country project, is an entity that claims to be an independent nation or state but is not officially recognized by world governments or major international organizations.

Micronations are distinguished from imaginary countries and from other kinds of social groups (such as eco-villages, campuses, tribes, clans, sects, and residential community associations) by expressing a formal and persistent, even if unrecognized, claim of sovereignty over some physical territory.

Several micronations have issued coins, flags, postage stamps, passports, medals, and other items, which are rarely accepted outside of their own community.

The earliest known micronations date from the beginning of the 19th century. The advent of the Internet provided the means for people to create many new micronations, whose members are scattered all over the world and interact mostly by electronic means, often calling their nations Nomadic Countries. The differences between such Internet micronations, other kinds of social networking groups, and role playing games are often hard to define.[21]

The term "micronation" to describe those entities dates at least to the 1970s.[22] The term micropatrology is sometimes used to describe the study of both micronations and microstates by micronationalists, some of whom refer to sovereign nation-states as "macronations".

Etymology

The term 'micronation' literally means "small nation". It is a neologism originating in the mid-1970s to describe the many thousands of small unrecognised state-like entities that have mostly arisen since that time. It is generally accepted that the term was invented by Robert Ben Madison.

The term has since also come to be used retrospectively to refer to earlier unrecognised entities, some of which date to as far back as the 19th century. Supporters of micronations ("micronationalists") use the term "macronation" for any UN-recognized sovereign nation-state.

Not all micronations are small; some can be rather large, like the Dominion of British West Florida or those with claims on Antarctica or other planets.

Definition

Micronations generally have a number of common features, although these may vary widely. They may have a structure similar to established sovereign states, including territorial claims, government institutions, official symbols and citizens, albeit on a much smaller scale. Micronations are often quite small, in both their claimed territory and claimed populations — although there are some exceptions to this rule, with different micronations having different methods of citizenship. Micronations may also issue formal instruments such as postage stamps, coins, banknotes and passports, and bestow honours and titles of nobility.

The Montevideo Convention was one attempt to create a legal definition distinguishing between states and non-states. Some micronations meet this definition, while some do not, and others reject the Convention altogether.

The academic study of micronations, microstates, and alternative governments is known as micropatrology, and the hobby of establishing and operating micronations is known as micronationalism.

Categories

In the present day, nine main types of micronations are prevalent:

  1. Social, economic, or political simulations.
  2. Exercises in personal entertainment or self-aggrandisement.
  3. Exercises in fantasy or creative fiction.
  4. Vehicles for the promotion of an agenda.
  5. Entities created for fraudulent purposes.
  6. Historical anomalies and aspirant states.
  7. New-country projects.
  8. Exercises in historical revisionism.
  9. Alternative governments.

Social, economic, or political simulations

These micronations tend to have a reasonably serious intent, and often involve significant numbers of people interested in recreating the past or simulating political or social processes. Examples include:

Vernacular names====Taxonavigation

Species: Lecanora gisleriana

Name

Lecanora gisleriana Müll. Arg., 1874

Synonyms

  • Involucrothele gisleri (Müll. Arg.) Servít, Českoslov. Lišejn. Čeledi Verrucariaceae: 170 (1954)
  • Lecanora gisleri Poelt & Ulrich, Lich. Alp. 11: no. 216 (1964)

References

  • Müll. Arg., Flora, Regensburg 57: 185 (1874)
  • Müller, J. 1874: Lichenologische Beiträge, 1. - Flora (Regensburg)\Flora 1874: 185-192.   **[Mattick Rec. # 28710] - (Recent Literature on Lichens - Mattick No.)**

Links

  • Lecanora gisleriana in Index Fungorum.
  • [[2]
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