World Library  
Flag as Inappropriate
Email this Article

Mood (psychology)

Article Id: WHEBN0000170803
Reproduction Date:

Title: Mood (psychology)  
Author: World Heritage Encyclopedia
Language: English
Subject: Emotion, Monitoring (medicine), Neurotransmitter, Affect infusion model, Ernst Jentsch
Publisher: World Heritage Encyclopedia

Mood (psychology)

A mood is an emotional state. Moods differ from emotions in that they are less specific, less intense, and less likely to be triggered by a particular stimulus or event. Moods generally have either a positive or negative valence. In other words, people typically speak of being in a good mood or a bad mood.

Mood also differs from temperament or personality traits which are even longer lasting. Nevertheless, personality traits such as optimism and neuroticism predispose certain types of moods. Long term disturbances of mood such as clinical depression and bipolar disorder are considered mood disorders. Mood is an internal, subjective state but it often can be inferred from posture and other behaviors. "We can be sent into a mood by an unexpected event, from the happiness of seeing an old friend to the anger of discovering betrayal by a partner. We may also just fall into a mood." [1]

Research also shows that a person's mood can influence how they process advertising.[2][3] Further mood has been found to interact with gender to affect consumer processing of information.[2]


In sociology, philosophy and psychology crowd behaviour is the formation of a common mood directed toward an object of attention.[4]


Etymologically, mood derives from the Old English mōd which denoted military courage, but could also refer to a person's humour, temper, or disposition at a particular time. The cognate Gothic mōds translates both θυμός "mood, spiritedness" and ὀργή "anger".

Lack of sleep

Sleep is a major factor in one's mood. If a person is sleep deprived they could become more irritable, angry, more prone to stress, and less energized throughout the day. "Studies have shown that even partial sleep deprivation has a significant effect on mood. University of Pennsylvania researchers found that subjects who were limited to only 4.5 hours of sleep a night for one week reported feeling more stressed, angry, sad, and mentally exhausted. When the subjects resumed normal sleep, they reported a dramatic improvement in mood."[5] Generally, evening oriented people, as compared to morning ones, show decreased energy and pleasantness and heightened tension [6]

Medical conditions

Depression, chronic stress, bipolar disorder, etc. are considered mood disorders. It has been suggested that such disorders result from chemical imbalances in the brain's neurotransmitters, however some research challenges this hypothesis.[7]

Negative mood

Like positive moods, negative moods have important implications for human mental and physical wellbeing. Moods are basic psychological states that can occur as a reaction to an event or can surface for no apparent external cause. Since there is no intentional object that causes the negative mood, it has no specific start and stop date. It can last for hours, days, weeks, or longer. Negative moods can manipulate how individuals interpret and translate the world around them, and can also direct their behavior.

Negative moods can affect an individual’s judgment and perception of objects and events. In a study done by Niedenthal and Setterlund (1994), research showed that individuals are tuned to perceive things that are congruent with their current mood. Negative moods, mostly low-intense, can control how humans perceive emotion-congruent objects and events. For example, Niedenthal and Setterland used music to induce positive and negative moods. Sad music was used as a stimulus to induce negative moods, and participants labeled other things as negative. This proves that people's current moods tend to affect their judgments and perceptions. These negative moods may lead to problems in social relationships. For example, one maladaptive negative mood regulation is an overactive strategy in which individuals over dramatize their negative feelings in order to provoke support and feedback from others and to guarantee their availability. A second type of maladaptive negative mood regulation is a disabling strategy in which individuals suppress their negative feelings and distance themselves from others in order to avoid frustrations and anxiety caused by others' unavailability.

Negative moods have been connected with depression, anxiety, aggression, poor self-esteem, physiological stress and decrease in sexual arousal. In some individuals, there is evidence that depressed or anxious mood may increase sexual interest or arousal. In general, men were more likely than women to report increased sexual drive during negative mood states. Negative moods are labeled as nonconstructive because it can affect a person’s ability to process information; making them focus solely on the sender of a message, while people in positive moods will pay more attention to both the sender and the context of a message. This can lead to problems in social relationships with others.

Negative moods, such as anxiety, often lead individuals to misinterpret physical symptoms. According to Jerry Suls, a professor at the University of Iowa, people who are depressed and anxious tend to be in rumination. However, although an individual's affective states can influence the somatic changes, these individuals are not hypochondriacs.[8]

Although negative moods are generally characterized as bad, not all negative moods are necessarily damaging. The Negative State Relief Model states that human beings have an innate drive to reduce negative moods. People can reduce their negative moods by engaging in any mood-elevating behavior (called Mood repair strategies), such as helping behavior, as it is paired with positive value such as smiles and thank you. Thus negative mood increases helpfulness because helping others can reduce one's own bad feelings.[9]

Negative moods also effect other's moods. Like if someone were to be negative to someone else, that person is negative to another person, and they are negative to another person. And so forth.

Positive mood

Positive mood can be caused by many different aspects of life as well as have certain effects on people as a whole. Good mood is usually considered a state without an identified cause; people cannot pinpoint exactly why they are in a good mood. People seem to experience a positive mood when they have a clean slate, have had a good night sleep, and feel no sense of stress in their life.

There have been many studies done on the effect of positive emotion on the cognitive mind and there is speculation that positive mood can affect our minds in good or bad ways. Generally, positive mood has been found to enhance creative problem solving and flexible yet careful thinking.[10] Some studies have stated that positive moods let people think creatively, freely, and be more imaginative. Positive mood can also help individuals in situations in which heavy thinking and brainstorming is involved. In one experiment, individuals who were induced with a positive mood enhanced performance on the Remote Associates Task (RAT), a cognitive task that requires creative problem solving.[11] Moreover, the study also suggests that being in a positive mood broadens or expands the breadth of attentional selection such that information that may be useful to the task at hand becomes more accessible for use. Consequently, greater accessibility of relevant information facilitates successful problem solving.

Positive mood has also been proven to show negative effects on cognition as well. According to the article "Positive mood is associated with implicit use of distraction", "There is also evidence that individuals in positive moods show disrupted performance, at least when distracting information is present".[12] The article states that other things in their peripheral views can easily distract people who are in good moods; an example of this would be if you were trying to study in the library (considering you are in a positive mood) you see people constantly walking around or making small noises. The study is basically stating that it would be harder for positive moods to focus on the task at hand. In particular, happy people may be more sensitive to the hedonic consequences of message processing than sad people. Thus, positive moods are predicted to lead to decreased processing only when thinking about the message is mood threatening. In comparison, if message processing allows a person to maintain or enhance a pleasant state then positive moods need not lead to lower levels of message scrutiny than negative moods.[13] It is assumed that initial information regarding the source either confirms or disconfirms mood-congruent expectations. Specifically, a positive mood may lead to more positive expectations concerning source trustworthiness or likability than a negative mood. As a consequence, people in a positive mood should be more surprised when they encounter an untrustworthy or dislikable source rather than a trustworthy or likable source.[13]


Research studies[14] have indicated that voluntary facial expressions, such as smiling, can produce effects on the body that are similar to those that result from the actual emotion, such as happiness. Paul Ekman and his colleagues have studied facial expressions of emotions and have linked specific emotions to the movement of specific facial muscles. Each basic emotion is associated with a distinctive facial expression. Sensory feedback from the expression contributes to the emotional feeling. Example: Smiling if you want to feel happy. Facial expressions have a large effect on self-reported anger and happiness which then affects your mood. Ekman has found that these expressions of emotion are universal and recognizable across widely divergent cultures.

Social mood

The idea of social mood as a "collectively shared state of mind" (Nofsinger 2005; Olson 2006) is attributed to Robert Prechter and his socionomics. The notion is used primarily in the field of economics (investments).

See also


  1. ^ Schinnerer, J.L.
  2. ^ a b Martin, Brett A. S. (2003), "The Influence of Gender on Mood Effects in Advertising", Psychology and Marketing,20 (3), 249-273.
  3. ^ Martin, Brett A. S. and Robert Lawson (1998), "Mood and Framing Effects in Advertising", Australasian Marketing Journal, 2 (1), 35-50
  4. ^ Mood in collective behaviour (psychology): Crowds, Britannica Online
  5. ^ Dr. Lawrence J. Epstein
  6. ^ ,114-122.Chronobiology International, 31Jankowski, K.S. (2014). The role of temperament in the relationship between morningness-eveningness and mood.
  7. ^ Delgado, P (2000). "Depression: the case for a monoamine deficiency". Journal of Clinical Psychiatry 61: 7–11. 
  8. ^ Grudnikov, K. (2011, July). "Circumstantial Evidence. How your mood influences your corporeal sensations". Psychology Today, 44, 42.
  9. ^ Baumann, Cialdini, & Kenrick, 1981
  10. ^ A positive mood, 2010
  11. ^ Rowe, G., Hirsh, J. B., & Anderson, A. K. (2007). Positive affect increases the "breadth" of cognitive selection. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 104, 383-388.
  12. ^ Biss, R. 2010
  13. ^ a b Ziegler, R. 2010
  14. ^ Ekman, Paul; Davidson, Richard J. (1993). "VOLUNTARY SMILING CHANGES REGIONAL BRAIN ACTIVITY". Psychological Science 4 (5): 342–345.  


  • A positive mood allows your brain to think more creatively. (2010, December 13). Retrieved from [1]
  • Ekman, P., Levenson, R. W., & Friesen, W. V. (1993). American Psychologist. Facial Expression and Emotion.(384-391)
  • Epstein, Dr. Lawrence J. December 15, 2008. Sleep and Mood. Get Sleep. April 30, 2012.
  • Falconer, Erin. November 22, 2006. 15 Fascinating Facts About Smiling. Pick The Brain. April 30, 2012.
  • Koester, Sierra. January 12, 2007. Weather Effects Mood. Yahoo Voices. April 30, 2012.
  • Lykins, A. D., Janssen, E., & Graham, C. A. (2006). "The Relationship Between Negative Mood and Sexuality In Heterosexual College Women and Men". Journal of Sex Research, 43(2), 136.
  • Martin, E. A., & Kerns, J. G. (2011). "The influence of positive mood on different aspects of cognitive control". Cognition & Emotion, 25(2), 265-279. doi:10.1080/02699931.2010.491652
  • Mood. (n.d.). Unabridged. April 30, 2012, from website:
  • Niedenthal, P.M.; Setterlund, M.B. (August 1994). "Emotional congruence in perception". Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin 20 (4): 401-411.
  • Nofsinger, J.R. (2005). "Social Mood and Financial Economics", Journal of Behavioural Finance, 6
  • Olson, K.R. (2006). "A literature Review of Social Mood", Journal of Behavioral Finance, 7
  • P. A. Andersen & L. K. Guerrero (Eds.) Handbook of communication and emotion. pp. 5–24. San Diago: Academic Press.
  • Phelps, Jim. n.d .Mood . Brain Tours:Mood . April 30, 2012.
  • Sam-E, Nature’s Made. n.d. Seven Tips to Immediately Improve Your Mood. Sam-e Complete. April 30, 2012.
  • Schinnerer, J.L. 2007. Temperament, Mood, and Emotion. Changing Minds. April 30, 2012.
  • Sucală, M. L., & Tătar, A. (2010). Optimism, pessimism and negative mood regulation expectancies in cancer patients. Journal of Cognitive and Behavioral Psychotherapies, 10(1), 13-24.
  • Wei, M., Vogel, D. L., Ku, T., & Zakalik, R. A. (2005). Adult Attachment, Affect Regulation, Negative Mood, and Interpersonal Problems: The Mediating Roles of Emotional Reactivity and Emotional Cutoff. Journal of Counseling Psychology, 52(1), 14-24.
  • Ziegler, R. (2010). "Mood, source characteristics, and message processing: A mood-congruent expectancies approach". Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 46(5), 743-752.
This article was sourced from Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License; additional terms may apply. World Heritage Encyclopedia content is assembled from numerous content providers, Open Access Publishing, and in compliance with The Fair Access to Science and Technology Research Act (FASTR), Wikimedia Foundation, Inc., Public Library of Science, The Encyclopedia of Life, Open Book Publishers (OBP), PubMed, U.S. National Library of Medicine, National Center for Biotechnology Information, U.S. National Library of Medicine, National Institutes of Health (NIH), U.S. Department of Health & Human Services, and, which sources content from all federal, state, local, tribal, and territorial government publication portals (.gov, .mil, .edu). Funding for and content contributors is made possible from the U.S. Congress, E-Government Act of 2002.
Crowd sourced content that is contributed to World Heritage Encyclopedia is peer reviewed and edited by our editorial staff to ensure quality scholarly research articles.
By using this site, you agree to the Terms of Use and Privacy Policy. World Heritage Encyclopedia™ is a registered trademark of the World Public Library Association, a non-profit organization.

Copyright © World Library Foundation. All rights reserved. eBooks from World eBook Library are sponsored by the World Library Foundation,
a 501c(4) Member's Support Non-Profit Organization, and is NOT affiliated with any governmental agency or department.