World Library  
Flag as Inappropriate
Email this Article

Muhammad bin Tughluq

Article Id: WHEBN0001585726
Reproduction Date:

Title: Muhammad bin Tughluq  
Author: World Heritage Encyclopedia
Language: English
Subject: History of Beed, Mongol invasions of India, Tughlaq dynasty, Munger Fort, Thuglak
Collection: 1300 Births, 1351 Deaths, 14Th-Century Indian People, Tughluq Sultans
Publisher: World Heritage Encyclopedia
Publication
Date:
 

Muhammad bin Tughluq

Tughra of Muhammad bin Tughlaq.

Muhammad Bin Tughlaq was also named as Abdul Asif Shaik. After the death of his father, Ghiyasuddin Tughlaq (who was the founder of the Tughlaq Dynasty), he ascended the throne by the name of Muhammad Bin Tughlaq. Muhammad Salman Khan Tughluq (Arabic: محمد بن طغلق‎) (also Sultan Muhammad bin Tughluq, Prince Fakhr Malik, Jauna Khan, Ulugh Khan; died 20 March 1351) was the Turkic Sultan of Delhi through 1324 to 1351.[1] He was the eldest son of Ghiyas-ud-din Tughlaq. He was born in Kotla Tolay Khan in Multan. His wife was the daughter of the raja of Dipalpur.[2] Ghiyas-ud-din Tughlaq sent the young Muhammad to the Deccan to campaign against king Prataparudra of the Kakatiya dynasty whose capital was at Warangal in 1321 and 1323.[3] Muhammad succeeded to the Delhi throne upon his father's death in 1325. Muhammad Tughlaq was a scholar of logic, philosophy, mathematics, astronomy, physical sciences and calligraphy. He was also interested in medicine and was skilled in several languages — Persian, Arabic, Turkish and Sanskrit. Ibn Battuta, the famous traveller from Morocco, was a guest at his court.[4] From his accession to the throne in 1325 until his death in 1351, Muhammad contended with 22 rebellions, pursuing his policies consistently and ruthlessly. It is said that he deliberately killed his father Ghiyasudden Tughlaq to ascend the throne of Delhi.

Contents

  • Reign 1
  • Collapse of the empire 2
  • Coins 3
  • Gallery 4
  • Religious tolerance 5
  • Taxation 6
  • In popular culture 7
  • Notes 8
  • Sources 9
  • External links 10

Reign

As his reign began, Muhammad attempted, without much success, to enlist the services of the ulemas, the Muslim divines, and the sūfīs, the ascetic mystics. Failing to win the ulemās over, he tried to curtail their powers, as some of his predecessors had, by placing them on an equal footing with other citizens. The Sultan wanted to use the sūfīs’ prestigious position to stabilize his authority as ruler. Yet they had always refused any association with government and would not accept any grants or offices except under duress. Muhammad tried every measure, conciliatory or coercive, to yoke them to his political wagon. Although he humiliated them, he could not break their opposition and succeeded only in dispersing them from the towns of northern India.

The transfer of the capital in 1327 to Devagiri (now Daulatabad) was intended to consolidate the conquests in southern India and protect against Mongol incursions. In 1328-9, he ordered a large-scale—in some cases forced—migration of the people of Delhi to Devagiri, a distance of 1,500 km. In effect, it became a "second capital".[3]

Contemporary historians like Barani, Ibn Battuta and Islamic left terrible accounts of the events surrounding the shifting of the capital from Delhi to Daulatabad. Through their writings they showed how the entire city was forced to move leaving a devastated city in its wake. However, the sultan was known to have arranged for all the comforts of the people during their journey to Daulatabad. Shady trees were planted all along the route, free food and water was supplied to the people after every two miles during the journey, and all were provided with means of transport and compensated for the losses which they incurred in leaving their assets at Delhi and all were provided free residence at Daulatabad.

The plan became a failure and the people were allowed to return to Delhi in 1335-7. However, Daulatabad became a center of Islamic learning.[3]

The consequences for Delhi were very grave because not only had she lost her people but also her former prosperity and grandeur. The sultan tried his best to make amends and invited many scholars and artistes to settle in the city. However the impact of this incident was far-reaching and when Ibn Battuta came to Delhi in 1334 he found certain parts of the city still deserted.

There was widespread resentment against the sultan and the bitterness stayed on for years to come. He earned the epithet of ‘pagla Tughlaq’. When he finally died in 1351, one very contemporary observer, Badauni observed, ‘…and so the king was freed from his people, and they from him.’[4]

Between 1328 and 1329 the Sultan increased the land tax, which led the peasants in the Doab region revolted. The Sultan ordered his revenue and military officials to "lay waste and plunder the country" in retaliation. Famine started in 1334-5 and lasted 7 years.[3]

Another failed experiment was the Qarachi expedition of 1333 into Himachal, which resulted in the annihilation of the 10,000 strong army.[3]

Muhammad’s last expedition, against the rebel Ṭaghī, ended with his death near Thatta on 20 March 1351. "He had extended the Delhi empire to its farthest limits, but before his death he lost everything to the south of the Vindhyas."[3] Perhaps his thinking was far ahead of his time. The intricately designed defence of the Devgiri Fort, the drainage and water supply system thereof and use of alternative material for minting coins are few of the examples tastifying to the above claim.

Collapse of the empire

Tughluq died in 1351 on his way to Thatta, Sindh in order to intervene a war between members of the Gujjar tribe. He had lived to see his empire fall apart. During his reign new kingdoms broke away in south India and the Deccan. Several south Indian rulers like Prolaya Vema Reddy of the Reddy dynasty, Musunuri Kaapaaneedu and the Vijayanagara Empire liberated whole south India from the Delhi Sultanate and the Bahmani kingdom was founded by Hasan Gangu.[5] The unpopularity and failures of this person also led to the collapse of the empire.

Coins

Muhammad Tughlak orders his brass coins to pass for silver, A.D. 1330

Muhammad Bin Tughluq needed to replenish the royal treasury so he decided to issue bronze coins by passing a royal order (firman) that these coins were to be accorded the same value (i.e. same purchasing power) as silver coins. In other words, he wanted to markets to mentally consider bronze as silver itself, so that a 1g coin of bronze could buy the same goods as a 1g coin of silver. However, the bronze coins were very easy to forge, which led to their depreciation, and foreign merchants refusing to do business in India. Eventually, Tughlaq had to withdraw his order, and redeemed the bronze coins for gold and silver. Ziauddin Barani said that after the plan failed, there were heaps of bronze coins lying around the royal offices.[3]

The large influx of gold from his south Indian campaign led him to increase coinage weights (but decrease the percentage of gold in it. This is a form of dilution of the currency and leads to inflation). He enlarged the gold dinar from 172 grains to 202 grains. He introduced a silver coin, the adlis, which was discontinued after seven years due to lack of popularity and acceptance among his subjects.

All his coins reflect a staunch religiosity, with such inscriptions as "The warrior in the cause of God", "The trustier in support of the four Khalifs – Abu Bakr, Umar, Usman and Ali". The kalimah appeared in most of his coinage. Both at Delhi and at Daulatabad coins were minted in memory of his late father. There were also mints at Lakhnauti, Salgaun, Darul-I-Islam, Sultanpur (Warrangal), Tughlaqpur (Tirhut), and Mulk-I-Tilang. More than thirty varieties of bullion coins are known so far, and the types show his numismatic interests. Following the Chinese example, of using brass or copper tokens, backed by the silver and gold kept in the treasury, Tughluq had two scalable versions, issued in Delhi and Daulatabad. The currency was issued in the two different standards, undoubtedly to follow the local standards which preexisted in the North and in the South respectively. He engraved "He who obeys the Sultan obeys the compassionate" to fascinate people in accepting the new coinage. However, very few people exchanged their gold or silver coins for the new copper ones.

Forced token currency coin

Gallery

Religious tolerance

Muhammad bin Tughluq was relatively liberal and permitted Hindus and Jains to settle in Delhi.[6] The policy was continued by his cousin Firuz Shah Tughluq, who patronized the Jain monk Mahendra Sūri, who composed the Yantra-rāja, the first Sanskrit text on the astrolabe.[7]

Taxation

Muhammad Bin Tughlaq wanted a strong and well-equipped army to strengthen and secure the position of the ruler. The ganga-yamuna Doab was a fertile region. The land tax in the area was increased. Unfortunately, the rains failed and a severe famine broke out. People refused to pay the taxes. But the tax collectors showed no mercy and continued collecting money from the people. The peasants were ruined, so much that they fled to the jungles to escape the tyranny of the tax collectors. Realizing the gravity of the situation, Tughlaq ordered relief measures such as free kitchens, loans to farmers, improved irrigation facilities, etc. However, the damage had already been done and agriculture in the Tughlaq Dynasty suffered a severe setback.

In popular culture

  • Muhammad bin Tughluq (Tamil: முகமது பின் துக்ளக்) is a socio-political satire written and first staged by Cho Ramaswamy in 1968.[8]
  • Thuglak (Tamil: துக்ளக்) is a weekly Tamil newsmagazine started by Cho Ramaswamy in 1970.[9]
  • Muhammad bin Tughlaq is the central character in Tughlaq(Kannada - ತುಗಲಕ್): a play Kannada in thirteen scenes, by Girish Karnad published in 1964.[10]
  • Muhammad bin Tughlaq - a 1972 Telugu movie Directed by B.V. Prasad, lead role Nagabhushanam.[11][12]

Notes

  1. ^ Tughlaq Shahi Kings of Delhi: Chart The Imperial Gazetteer of India, 1909, v. 2, p. 369..
  2. ^ Douie, James M. (1916) The Panjab North-West Frontier Province and Kashmir Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, England, page 171, OCLC 222226951
  3. ^ a b c d e f g Sen, Sailendra (2013). A Textbook of Medieval Indian History. Primus Books. pp. 91–97.  
  4. ^ a b http://www.newindianexpress.com/education/student/article1377184.ece
  5. ^ Verma, D. C. History of Bijapur (New Delhi: Kumar Brothers, 1974) p. 1
  6. ^ The Vividhatirthakalpa as historical source and coherent text, http://www.southasiacenter.upenn.edu/pdf/Paper_Steven_Vose.pdf
  7. ^ Sarma, S.R. 2008. "Sultan, Suri, and the Astrolabe," in The Archaic and the Exotic: Studies in the History of Indian Astronomical Instruments. Delhi: Manohar
  8. ^ Ramnarayan, Gowri (7 June 2004). "Cho, what's up?". Interview. Kasturi and Sons Ltd for  
  9. ^ Warrier, Shobha (4 July 2005). "'This is the time for impohuyfeuiryeituo9t8rui9otsing Emergency'". Interview.  
  10. ^ Kannada edition: Karnad, Girish Raghunath (1964) Muhammada Tughalak eraḍu rājyagaḷa naḍuve; Muhammada Tughalakana caritreya hinneleyidda nāṭaka Manōhara Granthamālā, Dhāravāḍa, OCLC 13888466; first English edition: Karnad, Girish Raghunath (1972) Tughlaq: a play in thirteen scenes (translated from Kannada) Oxford University Press, Delhi, OCLC 1250554
  11. ^ http://telugucineblitz.blogspot.in/2013/05/mohammad-bin-tughlaq-1972.html#!/2013/05/mohammad-bin-tughlaq-1972.html
  12. ^ http://www.sakhiyaa.com/mohammad-bin-tughlaq-1972-%E0%B0%AE%E0%B0%B9%E0%B0%AE%E0%B1%8D%E0%B0%AE%E0%B0%A6%E0%B1%8D-%E0%B0%AC%E0%B1%80%E0%B0%A8%E0%B1%8D-%E0%B0%A4%E0%B1%81%E0%B0%97%E0%B1%8D%E0%B0%B2%E0%B0%95%E0%B1%8D/

Sources

  • Elliot, H. M. (Henry Miers), Sir; John Dowson. "15. Táríkh-i Fíroz Sháhí, of Ziauddin Barani".  

External links

  • Encyclopædia Britannica – Muhammad ibn Tughluq
  • Encyclopædia fastinformativesearch – Muhammad bibn Tughluq

Preceded by
Ghiyath al-Din Tughluq
Sultan of Delhi
1325–1351
Succeeded by
Firuz Shah Tughluq


This article was sourced from Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License; additional terms may apply. World Heritage Encyclopedia content is assembled from numerous content providers, Open Access Publishing, and in compliance with The Fair Access to Science and Technology Research Act (FASTR), Wikimedia Foundation, Inc., Public Library of Science, The Encyclopedia of Life, Open Book Publishers (OBP), PubMed, U.S. National Library of Medicine, National Center for Biotechnology Information, U.S. National Library of Medicine, National Institutes of Health (NIH), U.S. Department of Health & Human Services, and USA.gov, which sources content from all federal, state, local, tribal, and territorial government publication portals (.gov, .mil, .edu). Funding for USA.gov and content contributors is made possible from the U.S. Congress, E-Government Act of 2002.
 
Crowd sourced content that is contributed to World Heritage Encyclopedia is peer reviewed and edited by our editorial staff to ensure quality scholarly research articles.
 
By using this site, you agree to the Terms of Use and Privacy Policy. World Heritage Encyclopedia™ is a registered trademark of the World Public Library Association, a non-profit organization.
 



Copyright © World Library Foundation. All rights reserved. eBooks from World eBook Library are sponsored by the World Library Foundation,
a 501c(4) Member's Support Non-Profit Organization, and is NOT affiliated with any governmental agency or department.