World Library  
Flag as Inappropriate
Email this Article

Muhammad ibn Ismail ad-Darazi

Article Id: WHEBN0009142359
Reproduction Date:

Title: Muhammad ibn Ismail ad-Darazi  
Author: World Heritage Encyclopedia
Language: English
Subject: List of Iranians
Collection:
Publisher: World Heritage Encyclopedia
Publication
Date:
 

Muhammad ibn Ismail ad-Darazi

Muhammad bin Ismail Nashtakin ad-Darazi (Arabic: محمد بن اسماعيل نشتاكين الدرازي‎) was an 11th-century Ismaili preacher and early leader of the Druze faith who was labeled a heretic in 1016 and subsequently executed by the Fatimid Caliph Al-Hakim bi-Amr Allah. Nashtakin was born in Bukhara and publicly proclaimed the divinity of Caliph al-Hakim.

Life

Little information is known about the early life of Ad-Darazi; according to most sources, he was the leader of the army that was sent from Cairo to put down the up-rising of the Unity movement that started in the mountains of Lebanon to unite Christian and Muslim Suna and Shiah under one God. Ad-Darazi's army was around 200,000 men, the Unity movement that started in the Choufe Mountain of Lebanon and the Houran Mountain of Syria had only less than 10,000 men, they fought north of Jerusalem. Ad-Darazi army was destroyed and he was captured, the unity movement was called at that time the movement that destroyed the army of the Darazi, Ad-Darazi was converted to be one of the early preachers of the Unity faith Or the Druze Faith, The movement enlisted a large number of adherents.[1] However, he was later considered a renegade [2] and is usually described by the Druze as following the traits of satan,[3] which is arrogance.

Since when the number of his followers grew, he became obsessed with the leadership and gave himself the title “The Sword of the Faith”. In the Epistles of Wisdom, Hamza ibn-'Ali ibn-Ahmad warns Ad-Darazi, saying, “Faith does not need a sword to aid it.” However, Ad-Darazi refused Hamza’s threats and continued to challenge the Imam. Such attitude led to disputes between him and Hamza ibn-'Ali ibn-Ahmad, who disliked his behavior.[2] Ad-Darazi argued that he should be the leader of the Da’wa rather than Hamza ibn Ali and gave himself the title “Lord of the Guides”, because Caliph al-Hakim referred to Hamza as “Guide of the Consented”

By 1018, ad-Darazi had around him partisans - "Darazites" - who believed that universal reason became incarnated in Adam at the beginning of the world, passed from him into prophets, then into Ali and hence into his descendants, the Fatimid Caliphs.[3] Ad-Darazi wrote a book to develop this doctrine. He read his book in the principle mosque in Cairo, which caused riots and protests against his claims and many of his followers were killed. Hamza ibn Ali refuted his ideology calling him "the insolent one and Satan".[3] The controversy created by ad-Darazi led Caliph al-Hakim to suspend the Druze da'wa in 1018 AD.[2]

In an attempt to gain the support of al-Hakim, ad-Darazi started preaching that al-Hakim and his ancestors were the incarnation of God.[1]

It is believed that ad-Darazi allowed wine, forbidden marriages and taught metempsychosis[3] although it has argued that his actions might have been exaggerated by the early historians and polemicists.

Death

An inherently modest man, al-Hakim did not believe that he was God, and felt ad-Darazi was trying to depict himself as a new prophet.[1] Al-Hakim preferred Hamza ibn 'Ali ibn Ahmad over him and Ad-Darazi was executed in 1018, leaving Hamza the sole leader of the new faith[1]

Aftermath

Even though the Druze do not consider ad-Darazi founder of their faith - in fact, they refer to him as their "first heretic"[4] - rival Muslim groups purposely attached the name of the controversial preacher to the new sect and it has stuck with them ever since.[1] Druze refer to themselves as “unitarians” al-Muwahhidūn.

References

This article was sourced from Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License; additional terms may apply. World Heritage Encyclopedia content is assembled from numerous content providers, Open Access Publishing, and in compliance with The Fair Access to Science and Technology Research Act (FASTR), Wikimedia Foundation, Inc., Public Library of Science, The Encyclopedia of Life, Open Book Publishers (OBP), PubMed, U.S. National Library of Medicine, National Center for Biotechnology Information, U.S. National Library of Medicine, National Institutes of Health (NIH), U.S. Department of Health & Human Services, and USA.gov, which sources content from all federal, state, local, tribal, and territorial government publication portals (.gov, .mil, .edu). Funding for USA.gov and content contributors is made possible from the U.S. Congress, E-Government Act of 2002.
 
Crowd sourced content that is contributed to World Heritage Encyclopedia is peer reviewed and edited by our editorial staff to ensure quality scholarly research articles.
 
By using this site, you agree to the Terms of Use and Privacy Policy. World Heritage Encyclopedia™ is a registered trademark of the World Public Library Association, a non-profit organization.
 



Copyright © World Library Foundation. All rights reserved. eBooks from World eBook Library are sponsored by the World Library Foundation,
a 501c(4) Member's Support Non-Profit Organization, and is NOT affiliated with any governmental agency or department.