World Library  
Flag as Inappropriate
Email this Article

Murri (condiment)

Article Id: WHEBN0022062978
Reproduction Date:

Title: Murri (condiment)  
Author: World Heritage Encyclopedia
Language: English
Subject: Umami, Salmoriglio, Condiments, Milkette, Cruet-stand
Collection:
Publisher: World Heritage Encyclopedia
Publication
Date:
 

Murri (condiment)

Murrī or Almorí (in Andalusia) was a condiment made of fermented barley or fish used in medieval Byzantine cuisine and Arab cuisine.

There are two kinds of murrī, the more usual kind made using fermented barley, with a less common version made from fish.[1] Almost every substantial dish in medieval Arab cuisine used murrī in small quantities. It could be used as a substitute for salt or sumac, and has been compared to soy sauce by Rudolf Grewe, Charles Perry, and others due to its high monosodium glutamate content and resultant umami flavor.[1][2]

History

Originally a Byzantine condiment, murrī made its way into medieval Arab cookbooks, likely due to exposure to Byzantine culture during the empire's rule over much of the Arab world.[3] Charles Perry, an expert in medieval Arab cuisine, suggests that murrī arose from garum, a fish brine that was commonly used by the Greeks and Romans. As Arab lexicographers have noted that murrī is pronounced al-muri, with one "r", and suspect it is a word of non-Arab origin, Perry suggests that its etymology may be connected to the Greek halmuris, medieval Greek almuris, the source of the Latin salmuria, meaning "brine".[4]

The recipe for murrī was mistranscribed with the fermenting stage omitted, in a 13th-century text Liber de Ferculis et Condimenti, where it was described as "salty water" elsewhere in the translation.[5]

Preparation

Traditionally, murrī production was undertaken annually in households at the end of March and continued over a period of 90 days.[1] Barley-based murrī entails the wrapping of raw barley dough in fig leaves which are left to sit for 40 days. The dough is then ground and mixed with water, salt, and usually additional flour. It is then left to ferment for another 40 days in a warm place. The resulting dark mahoghany brown paste, mixed with water to form a liquid, is murrī.[4]

A fast method for preparing murrī is to mix 2 parts barley flour to one part salt and make a loaf that is baked in the oven until hard and then pounded into crumbs to soak in water for a day and a night. This mixture, known as the first murri, is then strained and set aside. Then, raisins, carob, dill fennel, nigella, sesame, anis, mace, citron leaf, and pine seed milk are boiled with water and strained. The second murri is then added to the first, and boiled until thickened.[1]

Murrī mixed with milk was known as kamakh.[6]

References

  1. ^ a b c d Jayyusi, 1992, p. 729.
  2. ^ Perry, Charles (April 1, 1998), "Rot of Ages", Los Angeles Times, retrieved 2014-09-29 
  3. ^ Davis et al., 1985, p. 3.
  4. ^ a b Davidson et al., 2002, pp. 358-360.
  5. ^ Perry, Charles (October 31, 2001), "The Soy Sauce That Wasn't", Los Angeles Times, retrieved 2009-03-21 
  6. ^ Newman CW, Newman RK (2006), "A Brief History of Barley Foods", Cereal Foods World 51 (1): 1–5, retrieved 2009-03-21 

Bibliography

  • David Martin Gitlitz, Linda Kay Davidson, A drizzle of honey: the lives and recipes of Spain's secret Jews, 1999. ISBN 0-312-19860-4. p. 20.
This article was sourced from Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License; additional terms may apply. World Heritage Encyclopedia content is assembled from numerous content providers, Open Access Publishing, and in compliance with The Fair Access to Science and Technology Research Act (FASTR), Wikimedia Foundation, Inc., Public Library of Science, The Encyclopedia of Life, Open Book Publishers (OBP), PubMed, U.S. National Library of Medicine, National Center for Biotechnology Information, U.S. National Library of Medicine, National Institutes of Health (NIH), U.S. Department of Health & Human Services, and USA.gov, which sources content from all federal, state, local, tribal, and territorial government publication portals (.gov, .mil, .edu). Funding for USA.gov and content contributors is made possible from the U.S. Congress, E-Government Act of 2002.
 
Crowd sourced content that is contributed to World Heritage Encyclopedia is peer reviewed and edited by our editorial staff to ensure quality scholarly research articles.
 
By using this site, you agree to the Terms of Use and Privacy Policy. World Heritage Encyclopedia™ is a registered trademark of the World Public Library Association, a non-profit organization.
 



Copyright © World Library Foundation. All rights reserved. eBooks from World eBook Library are sponsored by the World Library Foundation,
a 501c(4) Member's Support Non-Profit Organization, and is NOT affiliated with any governmental agency or department.