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National Movement of Switzerland

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Title: National Movement of Switzerland  
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Subject: Blood and Soil, Denazification, Esoteric Nazism, Gleichschaltung, List of Nazi ideologues
Collection: Defunct Political Parties in Switzerland, Nazi Parties, Political Parties Established in 1940, Swiss Nazis
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National Movement of Switzerland

The National Movement of Switzerland (German: Nationale Bewegung der Schweiz or NBS) was a Nazi umbrella group formed in Switzerland in 1940.

The NBS had its roots in the 1938 foundation of the Bund Treuer Eidgenossen Nationalsozialistischer Weltanschauung by Francophone Swiss.[2] Keller had worked with Heinrich Himmler and brought with him Andreas von Sprecher, who was SS-trained, to run the new group's propaganda department.[1]

Keller, Jakob Schaffner and Ernst Hofmann, as representatives of the NBS, received an audience with President Marcel Pilet-Golaz where they demanded much closer relations with Nazi Germany, leading to eventual incorporation.[1] This was followed by a Munich conference in October 1940 in which Reinhard Heydrich and Franz Riedweg invited the leaders of the NBS and other Swiss groups in order to increase cohesion.[1] Ultimately the meeting strengthened the hand of the NBS as the remnants of the Bund Treuer Eidgenossen Nationalsozialistischer Weltanschauung as well as the Eidgenössische Soziale Arbeiter-Partei and Ernst Leonhardt's Nationalsozialistische Schweizerische Arbeitspartei agreed to be absorbed into the movement.[1]

Despite this strengthening the group was soon gone as the Swiss Federal Council feared that annexation by Germany was just around the corner.[1] In a series of moves against the most extreme groups, the NBS was closed down on November 19, 1940, by which time it had 160 cells and around 4000 members.[1] The group continued to work underground for a time before a police crackdown which led to most of the leadership fleeing to Germany.[1] Whilst in Germany Keller set up the Bund der Schweizer Nationalsozialisten as an émigré movement, although its influence was limited and he eventually returned to Switzerland in 1941.[1] Meanwhile, various NBS units continued to be active secretly, mostly with help from the SS, until the end of the war.[1]

See also

External links

  1. ^ a b c d e f g h i j Alan Morris Schom, A Survey of Nazi and Pro-Nazi Groups in Switzerland: 1930-1945, Simon Wiesenthal Center
  2. ^ Georges André Chevallaz, The Challenge of Neutrality: Diplomacy and the Defense of Switzerland, Lexington Books, 2001, p. 95
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