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Near-close near-back vowel

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Title: Near-close near-back vowel  
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Subject: Tie (typography), Shughni language, Welsh English, Coast Tsimshian dialect, Arbëresh language
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Near-close near-back vowel

Near-close near-back vowel
ʊ
IPA number 321
Encoding
Entity (decimal) ʊ
Unicode (hex) U+028A
X-SAMPA U
Kirshenbaum U
Braille ⠷ (braille pattern dots-12356)
Near-close near-back unrounded vowel
ɯ̽
ʊ̜

The near-close near-back vowel, or near-high near-back vowel, is a type of vowel sound, used in some vocal languages. The IPA symbol for the near-close near-back rounded vowel is ʊ. It is informally called "horseshoe u". Prior to 1989, there was an alternate IPA symbol for this sound, ɷ, called "closed omega"; use of this symbol is no longer sanctioned by the IPA. In Americanist phonetic notation, the symbol (a small capital U) is used.

The IPA prefers the terms "close" and "open" for vowels, and the name of the article follows this. However, a large number of linguists, perhaps a majority, prefer the terms "high" and "low".

Some languages may have a near-close near-back unrounded vowel, which can be represented with ɯ̽ or ʊ̜ in the IPA, or sometimes with the old convention of ω.[1] A near-close near-back compressed vowel can be transcribed ʊᵝ.

Contents

  • Features 1
  • Occurrence 2
  • References 3
  • Bibliography 4

Features

IPA vowel chart
Front Near-​front Central Near-​back Back
Close
iy
ɨʉ
ɯu
ɪʏ
ʊ
eø
ɘɵ
ɤo
ø̞
əɵ̞
ɤ̞
ɛœ
ɜɞ
ʌɔ
æ
ɐ
aɶ
äɒ̈
ɑɒ
Near-close
Close-mid
Mid
Open-mid
Near-open
Open
Paired vowels are: unrounded • rounded
This table contains phonetic symbols, which may not display correctly in some browsers. [Help]

 •  • chart •  chart with audio •


  • Its vowel roundedness is sometimes rather ambiguous, but it is generally a rounded vowel, which means that the lips are rounded to a greater or lesser degree.

Occurrence

In the following transcriptions, an unrounded vowel is represented by the "mid-centralized" diacritic on the symbol for the close back unrounded vowel [ɯ̽], and a back rounded vowel is represented by the "retracted" diacritic [ʊ̠]:
Language Word IPA Meaning Notes
Chinese Cantonese /hung4 [hʊŋ˨˩] 'red' Can be realized as [] instead. See Cantonese phonology
Mandarin /hóng [xʊŋ˧˥] See Mandarin phonology
Danish Standard[2] [ˈhɛːʊ] 'garden' Assimilatory variant of [ʊ̯ə] (phonemically /ʋə/.)[2] May be realized the same as short [o].[2] See Danish phonology
Dutch Orsmaal-Gussenhoven dialect[3] [ʊx] 'you' See Orsmaal-Gussenhoven dialect phonology
English Australian[4] [hʊk] 'hook' Also described as close back [u].[5] See Australian English phonology
California[6] [hɯ̽k] Unrounded, often pronounced with spread lips.[6]
Cockney[7] [ʊʔk] Sometimes fronted to [ʊ̈].[7]
Conservative RP [hʊʔk] Often lowered and centralized to [ɵ], or unrounded to [ɘ]. See English phonology
Multicultural London[8] May be front [ʏ] instead.[8]
Hindustani / [gʊˈläːb] 'rose' See Hindustani phonology
Faroese [kvɛalʊɹ] 'whale'
French Quebec [fʊl] 'crowd' Allophone of /u/ in closed syllables. See Quebec French phonology
German Chemnitz dialect[9] [ʃʊˤːf] 'blight' Pharyngealized; may be realized as [ʊːɒ̯] instead.[9] See Chemnitz dialect phonology
Southern Bernese Corresponds to [ɔu̯] in the city of Bern. See Bernese German phonology
Standard[10][11]     'hour' See German phonology
Irish Munster[12] dubh [d̪ˠɰʊvˠ] 'black' Allophone of /ʊ/ between broad consonants.[12] See Irish phonology
Ulster[13] Unrounded;[13] allophone of /ɪ/.[13]
Kaingang[14] [kʊˈtu] 'deaf' Atonic allophone of /u/ and /o/.[15]
Korean[16] /eoreun [ɘːɾɯ̽n] 'seniors' Unrounded;[16] typically transcribed as ɯ. See Korean phonology
Limburgish Weert dialect[17] Used only by older speakers.[17]
Luxembourgish[18] [ʃpʀʊ̠ːχ] 'language' Fully back. May be transcribed /oː/.
Mongolian[19] [ʊs] 'water'
Norwegian Standard Eastern[20] [ʊn̪] 'bad' May be transcribed /u/. See Norwegian phonology
Piedmontese [tʊrˈtʊŋa] 'Tortona'
Portuguese European[21] [pɯ̽ˈɣäɾ] 'to hold' Unrounded, unstressed vowel.[21] Most often transcribed as /ɨ/ or /ə/. See Portuguese phonology
Brazilian[22] bonito [bʊˈn̠ʲit̪ʊ̥] 'handsome' Corresponds to unstressed [u ~ o̞] in Brazil and /u/ in other national variants.
Punjabi ਪੁਦੀਨਾ [pʊˈd̪iːnäː] 'mint'
Russian[23]     'dry' Unstressed allophone of /u/. See Russian phonology
Shiwiar[24] Allophone of /u/.[24]
Spanish Eastern Andalusian[25] [t̪ʊ̠ː] 'your' (pl.) Fully back. Corresponds to [u] in other dialects, but in these dialects they're distinct. See Spanish phonology
Murcian[25]
Swedish Central Standard[26]     'locality' Retracted and exolabial (compressed). See Swedish phonology

References


-- Module:Hatnote -- -- -- -- This module produces hatnote links and links to related articles. It -- -- implements the and meta-templates and includes -- -- helper functions for other Lua hatnote modules. --


local libraryUtil = require('libraryUtil') local checkType = libraryUtil.checkType local mArguments -- lazily initialise Module:Arguments local yesno -- lazily initialise Module:Yesno

local p = {}


-- Helper functions


local function getArgs(frame) -- Fetches the arguments from the parent frame. Whitespace is trimmed and -- blanks are removed. mArguments = require('Module:Arguments') return mArguments.getArgs(frame, {parentOnly = true}) end

local function removeInitialColon(s) -- Removes the initial colon from a string, if present. return s:match('^:?(.*)') end

function p.findNamespaceId(link, removeColon) -- Finds the namespace id (namespace number) of a link or a pagename. This -- function will not work if the link is enclosed in double brackets. Colons -- are trimmed from the start of the link by default. To skip colon -- trimming, set the removeColon parameter to true. checkType('findNamespaceId', 1, link, 'string') checkType('findNamespaceId', 2, removeColon, 'boolean', true) if removeColon ~= false then link = removeInitialColon(link) end local namespace = link:match('^(.-):') if namespace then local nsTable = mw.site.namespaces[namespace] if nsTable then return nsTable.id end end return 0 end

function p.formatPages(...) -- Formats a list of pages using formatLink and returns it as an array. Nil -- values are not allowed. local pages = {...} local ret = {} for i, page in ipairs(pages) do ret[i] = p._formatLink(page) end return ret end

function p.formatPageTables(...) -- Takes a list of page/display tables and returns it as a list of -- formatted links. Nil values are not allowed. local pages = {...} local links = {} for i, t in ipairs(pages) do checkType('formatPageTables', i, t, 'table') local link = t[1] local display = t[2] links[i] = p._formatLink(link, display) end return links end

function p.makeWikitextError(msg, helpLink, addTrackingCategory) -- Formats an error message to be returned to wikitext. If -- addTrackingCategory is not false after being returned from -- Module:Yesno, and if we are not on a talk page, a tracking category -- is added. checkType('makeWikitextError', 1, msg, 'string') checkType('makeWikitextError', 2, helpLink, 'string', true) yesno = require('Module:Yesno') local title = mw.title.getCurrentTitle() -- Make the help link text. local helpText if helpLink then helpText = ' (help)' else helpText = end -- Make the category text. local category if not title.isTalkPage and yesno(addTrackingCategory) ~= false then category = 'Hatnote templates with errors' category = string.format( '%s:%s', mw.site.namespaces[14].name, category ) else category = end return string.format( '%s', msg, helpText, category ) end


-- Format link -- -- Makes a wikilink from the given link and display values. Links are escaped -- with colons if necessary, and links to sections are detected and displayed -- with " § " as a separator rather than the standard MediaWiki "#". Used in -- the template.


function p.formatLink(frame) local args = getArgs(frame) local link = args[1] local display = args[2] if not link then return p.makeWikitextError( 'no link specified', 'Template:Format hatnote link#Errors', args.category ) end return p._formatLink(link, display) end

function p._formatLink(link, display) -- Find whether we need to use the colon trick or not. We need to use the -- colon trick for categories and files, as otherwise category links -- categorise the page and file links display the file. checkType('_formatLink', 1, link, 'string') checkType('_formatLink', 2, display, 'string', true) link = removeInitialColon(link) local namespace = p.findNamespaceId(link, false) local colon if namespace == 6 or namespace == 14 then colon = ':' else colon = end -- Find whether a faux display value has been added with the | magic -- word. if not display then local prePipe, postPipe = link:match('^(.-)|(.*)$') link = prePipe or link display = postPipe end -- Find the display value. if not display then local page, section = link:match('^(.-)#(.*)$') if page then display = page .. ' § ' .. section end end -- Assemble the link. if display then return string.format('%s', colon, link, display) else return string.format('%s%s', colon, link) end end


-- Hatnote -- -- Produces standard hatnote text. Implements the template.


function p.hatnote(frame) local args = getArgs(frame) local s = args[1] local options = {} if not s then return p.makeWikitextError( 'no text specified', 'Template:Hatnote#Errors', args.category ) end options.extraclasses = args.extraclasses options.selfref = args.selfref return p._hatnote(s, options) end

function p._hatnote(s, options) checkType('_hatnote', 1, s, 'string') checkType('_hatnote', 2, options, 'table', true) local classes = {'hatnote'} local extraclasses = options.extraclasses local selfref = options.selfref if type(extraclasses) == 'string' then classes[#classes + 1] = extraclasses end if selfref then classes[#classes + 1] = 'selfref' end return string.format( '
%s
', table.concat(classes, ' '), s )

end

return p-------------------------------------------------------------------------------- -- Module:Hatnote -- -- -- -- This module produces hatnote links and links to related articles. It -- -- implements the and meta-templates and includes -- -- helper functions for other Lua hatnote modules. --


local libraryUtil = require('libraryUtil') local checkType = libraryUtil.checkType local mArguments -- lazily initialise Module:Arguments local yesno -- lazily initialise Module:Yesno

local p = {}


-- Helper functions


local function getArgs(frame) -- Fetches the arguments from the parent frame. Whitespace is trimmed and -- blanks are removed. mArguments = require('Module:Arguments') return mArguments.getArgs(frame, {parentOnly = true}) end

local function removeInitialColon(s) -- Removes the initial colon from a string, if present. return s:match('^:?(.*)') end

function p.findNamespaceId(link, removeColon) -- Finds the namespace id (namespace number) of a link or a pagename. This -- function will not work if the link is enclosed in double brackets. Colons -- are trimmed from the start of the link by default. To skip colon -- trimming, set the removeColon parameter to true. checkType('findNamespaceId', 1, link, 'string') checkType('findNamespaceId', 2, removeColon, 'boolean', true) if removeColon ~= false then link = removeInitialColon(link) end local namespace = link:match('^(.-):') if namespace then local nsTable = mw.site.namespaces[namespace] if nsTable then return nsTable.id end end return 0 end

function p.formatPages(...) -- Formats a list of pages using formatLink and returns it as an array. Nil -- values are not allowed. local pages = {...} local ret = {} for i, page in ipairs(pages) do ret[i] = p._formatLink(page) end return ret end

function p.formatPageTables(...) -- Takes a list of page/display tables and returns it as a list of -- formatted links. Nil values are not allowed. local pages = {...} local links = {} for i, t in ipairs(pages) do checkType('formatPageTables', i, t, 'table') local link = t[1] local display = t[2] links[i] = p._formatLink(link, display) end return links end

function p.makeWikitextError(msg, helpLink, addTrackingCategory) -- Formats an error message to be returned to wikitext. If -- addTrackingCategory is not false after being returned from -- Module:Yesno, and if we are not on a talk page, a tracking category -- is added. checkType('makeWikitextError', 1, msg, 'string') checkType('makeWikitextError', 2, helpLink, 'string', true) yesno = require('Module:Yesno') local title = mw.title.getCurrentTitle() -- Make the help link text. local helpText if helpLink then helpText = ' (help)' else helpText = end -- Make the category text. local category if not title.isTalkPage and yesno(addTrackingCategory) ~= false then category = 'Hatnote templates with errors' category = string.format( '%s:%s', mw.site.namespaces[14].name, category ) else category = end return string.format( '%s', msg, helpText, category ) end


-- Format link -- -- Makes a wikilink from the given link and display values. Links are escaped -- with colons if necessary, and links to sections are detected and displayed -- with " § " as a separator rather than the standard MediaWiki "#". Used in -- the template.


function p.formatLink(frame) local args = getArgs(frame) local link = args[1] local display = args[2] if not link then return p.makeWikitextError( 'no link specified', 'Template:Format hatnote link#Errors', args.category ) end return p._formatLink(link, display) end

function p._formatLink(link, display) -- Find whether we need to use the colon trick or not. We need to use the -- colon trick for categories and files, as otherwise category links -- categorise the page and file links display the file. checkType('_formatLink', 1, link, 'string') checkType('_formatLink', 2, display, 'string', true) link = removeInitialColon(link) local namespace = p.findNamespaceId(link, false) local colon if namespace == 6 or namespace == 14 then colon = ':' else colon = end -- Find whether a faux display value has been added with the | magic -- word. if not display then local prePipe, postPipe = link:match('^(.-)|(.*)$') link = prePipe or link display = postPipe end -- Find the display value. if not display then local page, section = link:match('^(.-)#(.*)$') if page then display = page .. ' § ' .. section end end -- Assemble the link. if display then return string.format('%s', colon, link, display) else return string.format('%s%s', colon, link) end end


-- Hatnote -- -- Produces standard hatnote text. Implements the template.


function p.hatnote(frame) local args = getArgs(frame) local s = args[1] local options = {} if not s then return p.makeWikitextError( 'no text specified', 'Template:Hatnote#Errors', args.category ) end options.extraclasses = args.extraclasses options.selfref = args.selfref return p._hatnote(s, options) end

function p._hatnote(s, options) checkType('_hatnote', 1, s, 'string') checkType('_hatnote', 2, options, 'table', true) local classes = {'hatnote'} local extraclasses = options.extraclasses local selfref = options.selfref if type(extraclasses) == 'string' then classes[#classes + 1] = extraclasses end if selfref then classes[#classes + 1] = 'selfref' end return string.format( '
%s
', table.concat(classes, ' '), s )

end

return p
  1. ^ e.g. John C. Wells (1982) Accents of English
  2. ^ a b c Basbøll (2005:58)
  3. ^ Peters (2010:241)
  4. ^ Mannell, Cox & Harrington (2009)
  5. ^ Cox & Palethorpe (2007:344)
  6. ^ a b Ladefoged (1999:42–43)
  7. ^ a b Mott (2011:75)
  8. ^ a b Gimson (2014:91)
  9. ^ a b Khan & Weise (2013:237)
  10. ^ Kohler (1999:87)
  11. ^ Mangold (2005:37)
  12. ^ a b Ó Sé (2000)
  13. ^ a b c Ní Chasaide (1999:114)
  14. ^ Jolkesky (2009:676–677 and 682)
  15. ^ Jolkesky (2009:676 and 682)
  16. ^ a b Lee (1999:?)
  17. ^ a b Heijmans & Gussenhoven (1998), p. 110.
  18. ^ Gilles & Trouvain (2013:70)
  19. ^ Iivonen & Harnud (2005:62, 66–67)
  20. ^ Vanvik (1979:13)
  21. ^ a b Cruz-Ferreira (1995:91)
  22. ^ Barbosa & Albano (2004:229)
  23. ^ Jones & Ward (1969:69)
  24. ^ a b Fast Mowitz (1975:2)
  25. ^ a b Zamora Vicente (1967:?)
  26. ^ Engstrand (1999:140)

Bibliography

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