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Skyline of Nizwa
Nizwa is located in Oman
Location of Nizwa in Oman
Country  Oman
Region Ad Dakhiliyah Region
 • Type Absolute monarchy
 • Sultan Qaboos bin Said
 • Metro 3,500 km2 (1,400 sq mi)
Elevation 492 m (1,614 ft)
Population (2008)
 • Metro 731,730
Time zone Oman standard time (UTC+4)

Nizwa (Arabic: نزوى‎) is the largest city in the Ad Dakhiliyah Region in Oman and was the capital of Oman proper. Nizwa is about 140 km (1.5 hours) from Muscat. The population is estimated at around 700,000 people including the two areas of Burkat Al Mooz and Al Jabel Al Akhdar.

Nizwa is one of the oldest cities in Oman and it was once a center of trade, religion, education and art. Its Jama (grand mosque) was formerly a center for Islamic learning. Nizwa acquired its importance because it has been an important meeting point at the base of the Western Hajar Mountains. Set amid a verdant spread of date palms, it is strategically located at the crossroads of routes linking the interior with Muscat and the lower reaches of Dhofar thus serving as the link for a large part of the country. Today, Nizwa is a diverse prosperous place with numerous agricultural, historical and recreational aspects. Nizwa is a center for date growing and is the market place for the area.


  • Etymology 1
  • History 2
  • Geography and climate 3
  • Attractions 4
    • Nizwa Fort 4.1
    • Nizwa Souq 4.2
    • Falaj Daris 4.3
  • Economy 5
  • Education 6
  • Tanuf 7
  • References 8


Historians cannot agree on the origins of the name of the city. Some suggest the name was derived from the Arabic verb (Arabic: انزوا‎) which means being alone. Others say that the city was named after an old water spring.


Nizwa was the capital of Oman in the 6th and 7th centuries AD. With its deep connection to the root of Islam, Nizwa possesses a number of renowned mosques, such as Sultan Qaboos Jama (Friday mosque), So'al Mosque built in the 2nd century AH (9th century AD), Ash-Shawathinah Mosque in Uqr and Ash-Sharja Mosque. There are also Al-Ain Mosque, Ash-Sheikh Mosque and Shuraij Mosque in Tanuf built in 377 AH (around 1,000 AD).

In the early 1950s the large round tower of the ancient fort built around 400 years ago in the center of the town was bombed and rocketed by the British Royal Air Force who were called in to assist the then reigning Sultan, Said bin Taymour in suppressing a revolt by leaders of the interior Imamate of Oman. The conflict was driven by a struggle for shares in the newly discovered oil wealth.

Nizwa has become a more modern city since 1970 under the reign of Sultan Qaboos. Improvements include connections to Muscat via a two-lane highway which has increased tourism. Communications have been improved to include broadband access and there is a substantial hospital. It is also a hub for education including a Technical College, College of Applied Sciences, The University of Nizwa, and the training academy for the Royal Oman Police. There are now four hotels and tourism is promoted in the area.

Geography and climate

Mountains surround Nizwa from every side and there are some outstanding mountain scenery close by. Nizwa has an arid climate under Köppen's climate classification. In the winter from November until March the climate is pleasant with temperatures as low as 10 C in December. In the summer, the climate is hot and dry with temperatures reaching 50 C in July. Precipitation is very low and concentrates in the winter when an air mass of low pressure causes rain to fall.

Climate data for Nizwa
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Average high °C (°F) 21
Average low °C (°F) 10
Average precipitation mm (inches) 23
Source: "Weather Underground and Weather Reports"


The main tourist attractions in the city are Nizwa

  • Antonio Farach, Lucille Umali - Times of Oman / Shabiba (2011) "The Great Fort of Nizwa" [2]
  • Scheerpenzel, E: Oman Then and Now SPB Academic Publishing, 2000.
  1. ^ Prothero, G. W. (1920). Arabia. London: H.M. Stationery Office. p. 99. 
  2. ^ Nizwa College of Technology
  3. ^ Indian School Nizwa, CBSE


A short drive from Nizwa centre is the old village of Tanuf, known for its seasonal waterfalls. Waterfalls in Tanuf are unique to the area within the steep mountain sides and the water reservoir.



Historically, Nizwa was known for producing mats from straw. As of 1920, the city was described as having a "thriving" metalworking industry.[1]


Falaj Daris (a World Heritage Site) is the largest falaj in Oman and is the life maintainer of Nizwa. It provides the surrounding countryside with much needed water for the plantations. Al Ghantuq and Dhoot are two other important falajs in Nizwa. Farming is widely practiced and the town's immense palm farms stretches for eight kilometers along the course of two wadis (Kalbouh and Al Abiadh). Also in practice are red sugar processing and hide tanning.

Falaj Daris

The city, famous for its handicrafts and agricultural products, has an expansive souq with an array of products. It is one of the most important in the country besides Muttrah. The souq bustles with vendors selling everything from meat, fish, fruits and vegetables to spices, dates, gold and silverware. Nizwa is renowned for its silver jewelry which is considered to be the best in the country. Its people are masters in Khanjar making (curved dagger), recognised for its distinctive style and patterns. They also make copper ware, coffee pots, swords, leather goods and pottery.

Nizwa souk

Nizwa Souq

Nizwa fort was built in the 1668 AD by Imam Sultan Bin Saif Al Ya'rubi. It is Oman's most visited national monument. The fort was the administrative seat of authority for the presiding Imams and Walis in times of peace and conflict. The main bulk of the fort took about 12 years to complete and was built above an underground stream. The fort is a reminder of the town's significance through turbulent periods in Oman's long history. It was a formidable stronghold against raiding forces that desired Nizwa's abundant natural wealth and its strategic location at the crossroads of vital routes.

Nizwa's enormous fort
Nizwa Fort
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