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Non-Hispanic white

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Non-Hispanic white

Non-Hispanic Whites
White, not Hispanic or Latino
Total population
196,817,552 (2010 U.S. Census)
63.7% of the United States population
Regions with significant populations
Throughout the United States
Languages
Predominantly American English with local minorities who speak American French (Louisiana, Vermont, Maine, New Hampshire) and Pennsylvania German language (Pennsylvania, Ohio, Indiana)
Religion
Mostly Christianity; minorities practice Judaism, Islam, and other faiths or are nonreligious

Non-Hispanic Whites or White, Not Hispanic or Latino are people in the United States, as defined by the Census Bureau, who are of the White race and are not of Hispanic or Latino origin/ethnicity.[1][2] Hence the designation is exclusive in the sense that it defines who is not included as opposed to who is. Non-Hispanic Whites are a subset of White Americans, the other being White Hispanic and Latino Americans.

Although generally all nations in Europe have contributed to the Non-Hispanic White population through emigration to Northern America in the last few centuries, the vast majority of Non-Hispanic Whites trace their origins to Northwestern Europe while the other major source originates in Southern Italy; not to mention, outside of Europe a small number have origin in North Africa and the Middle East/Western Asia but primarily from the Levant.

In the U.S., this population was first derived from British and French colonization, as well as settlement by other Europeans, such as the Germans and Dutch that began in the 17th century (see History of the United States). Continued growth since the early 1800s is attributed to sustained very high birth rates alongside relatively low death rates among settlers and natives alike as well as periodically massive immigration from European countries, especially Germany, Ireland, England, Italy, Sweden, and Norway, as well as Poland, Albania, Russia, and many more countries. In 2011, for the first time in U.S. history, Non-Hispanic Whites accounted for under half of the births in U.S. - with 49.6 percent of total births.[3] At 196.8 million in 2010, Non-Hispanic Whites compose 63.7% of the total population of United States.[3][4]

Trends

The Non-Hispanic White population in the United States has been declining as a percentage of the total US population due to a number of factors:

1. Lower Birth Rates. Non-Hispanic Whites are having fewer children relative to other groups. In 2007 the average White woman had 2.11 children (as compared to Black women at 2.17, Asian women at 2.04, Hispanic women at 3.0, and Native American women at 1.87).[5]

2. Immigration. The USA takes more immigrants than the rest of the world combined with the vast majority coming from countries where the population is of non-White and/or Hispanic origin. Immigration to the USA from European countries has been in a steady decline since WWII averaging 56% of all immigrants in the 50s and declining to 35% of all immigrants in the 60s, 20% in the 70s, 11% in the 80s, 14% in the 90s, and 13% in the 00s. In 2009, approximately 90% of all immigrants came from non-European countries.[6]

3. Intermarriage. The USA is seeing an unprecedented increase in intermarriage between the various racial and ethnic (Hispanic) groups. In 2008, a record 14.6% of all new marriages in the United States were between spouses of a different race or ethnicity from one another. 9% of non-Hispanic Whites who married in 2008 married either a non-White or Hispanic. Among all newlyweds in 2008, intermarried pairings were primarily White-Hispanic of any race (41%) as compared to White-Asian (15%), White-Black (11%), and Other Combinations (33%). Other combinations consists of pairings between different minority groups, multi-racial people, and American Indians.[7] The children of such unions would not generally be classified as White Non-Hispanic (although note that one self-identifies their racial and/or ethnic category).

4. Methodology. In the 2000 Census, people were allowed to check more than one race in addition to choosing "Hispanic." There was strong opposition to this from some civil rights activists who feared that this would reduce the size of various racial minorities. The government responded by counting those who are white and of one minority race or ethnicity as minorities for the purposes of civil-rights monitoring and enforcement. Hence one could be 1/8th Hispanic or 1/8th Black and still be counted as a minority.[8]

5. Attrition. Minority populations are younger than non-Hispanic whites. The national median age in 2011 was 37.3 with non-Hispanic whites having the oldest median age (42.3) while Hispanics have the youngest (27.6). Non-Hispanic blacks (32.9) and non-Hispanic Asians (35.9) also are younger than whites.[9] In 2013, the Census Bureau reported that for the first time, due to the more advanced age profile of the non-Hispanic White population, non-Hispanic whites died at a faster rate than non-Hispanic White births.[10]

However it should be noted that though non-Hispanic whites are declining as a percentage, in actual numbers they are still growing. From 2000 - 2010 the non-Hispanic white population grew from 194,552,774 to 196,817,552 - A growth of 1.2% over the 10-year period.[11]

Population by state or territory

White Non-Hispanic Population by state or territory (1990–2010)[12]
State/Territory Pop 1990 % pop
1990
Pop 2000 % pop
2000
Pop 2010 % pop
2010
% growth
2000-2010
% pop
1990-2010
Alabama Alabama 2,960,167 73.3% 3,125,819 70.3% 3,204,402 67.0% +2.5% –6.3%
Alaska Alaska 406,722 73.9% 423,788 67.6% 455,320 64.1% +7.4% –9.8%
Arizona Arizona 2,626,185 71.7% 3,274,258 63.8% 3,695,647 57.8% +12.9% –13.9%
Arkansas Arkansas 1,933,082 82.2% 2,100,135 78.6% 2,173,469 74.5% +3.5% –7.7%
California California 17,029,126 57.2% 15,816,790 46.7% 14,956,253 40.1% –5.4% –17.1%
Colorado Colorado 2,658,945 80.7% 3,202,880 74.5% 3,520,793 70.0% +9.9% –10.7%
Connecticut Connecticut 2,754,184 83.8% 2,638,845 77.5% 2,546,262 71.2% –3.5% –12.6%
Delaware Delaware 528,092 79.3% 567,973 72.5% 586,752 65.3% +3.3% –14.0%
Washington, D.C. District of Columbia 166,131 27.4% 159,178 27.8% 209,464 34.8% +31.6% 7.4%
Florida Florida 9,475,326 73.2% 10,458,509 65.4% 10,884,722 57.9% +4.1% –15.3%
Georgia (U.S. state) Georgia 4,543,425 70.1% 5,128,661 62.6% 5,413,920 55.9% +5.6% –14.2%
Hawaii Hawaii 347,644 31.4% 277,091 22.9% 309,343 22.7% +11.6% –8.7%
Idaho Idaho 928,661 92.2% 1,139,291 88.0% 1,316,243 84.0% +15.5% –8.2%
Illinois Illinois 8,550,208 74.8% 8,424,140 67.8% 8,167,753 63.7% –3.0% –11.1%
Indiana Indiana 4,965,242 89.6% 5,219,373 85.8% 5,286,453 81.5% +1.3% –8.1%
Iowa Iowa 2,663,840 95.9% 2,710,344 92.6% 2,701,123 88.7% –0.3% –7.2%
Kansas Kansas 2,190,524 88.4% 2,233,997 83.1% 2,230,539 78.2% –0.2% –10.2%
Kentucky Kentucky 3,378,022 91.7% 3,608,013 89.3% 3,745,655 86.3% +3.8% –5.4%
Louisiana Louisiana 2,776,022 65.8% 2,794,391 62.5% 2,734,884 60.3% –2.1% –5.5%
Maine Maine 1,203,357 98.0% 1,230,297 96.5% 1,254,297 94.4% +2.0% –3.6%
Maryland Maryland 3,326,109 69.6% 3,286,547 62.1% 3,157,958 54.7% –3.9% –14.9%
Massachusetts Massachusetts 5,280,292 87.8% 5,198,359 81.9% 4,984,800 76.1% –4.1% –11.8%
Michigan Michigan 7,649,951 82.3% 7,806,691 78.6% 7,569,939 76.6% –3.0% –5.7%
Minnesota Minnesota 4,101,266 93.7% 4,337,143 88.2% 4,405,142 83.1% +1.6% –10.6%
Mississippi Mississippi 1,624,198 63.1% 1,727,908 60.7% 1,722,287 58.0% –0.3% –5.1%
Missouri Missouri 4,448,465 86.9% 4,686,474 83.8% 4,850,748 81.0% +3.5% –5.9%
Montana Montana 733,878 91.8% 807,823 89.5% 868,628 87.8% +7.5% –4.0%
Nebraska Nebraska 1,460,095 92.5% 1,494,494 87.3% 1,499,753 82.1% +0.4% –10.4%
Nevada Nevada 946,357 78.7% 1,303,001 65.2% 1,462,081 54.1% +12.2% –24.6%
New Hampshire New Hampshire 1,079,484 97.3% 1,175,252 95.1% 1,215,050 92.3% +3.4% –5.0%
New Jersey New Jersey 5,718,966 74.0% 5,557,209 66.0% 5,214,878 59.3% –6.2% –14.7%
New Mexico New Mexico 764,164 50.4% 813,495 44.7% 833,810 40.5% +2.5% –9.9%
New York New York 12,460,189 69.3% 11,760,981 62.0% 11,304,247 58.3% –3.9% –11.0%
North Carolina North Carolina 4,971,127 75.0% 5,647,155 70.2% 6,223,995 65.3% +10.2% –9.7%
North Dakota North Dakota 601,592 94.2% 589,149 91.7% 598,007 88.9% +1.5% –5.3%
Ohio Ohio 9,444,622 87.1% 9,538,111 84.0% 9,359,263 81.1% –1.9% –6.0%
Oklahoma Oklahoma 2,547,588 81.0% 2,556,368 74.1% 2,575,381 68.7% +0.7% –12.3%
Oregon Oregon 2,579,732 90.8% 2,857,616 83.5% 3,005,848 78.5% +5.2% –12.3%
Pennsylvania Pennsylvania 10,422,058 87.7% 10,322,455 84.1% 10,094,652 79.5% –2.2% –8.2%
Rhode Island Rhode Island 896,109 89.3% 858,433 81.9% 803,685 76.4% –6.4% –12.9%
South Carolina South Carolina 2,390,056 68.5% 2,652,291 66.1% 2,962,740 64.1% +11.7% –4.4%
South Dakota South Dakota 634,788 91.2% 664,585 88.0% 689,502 84.7% +3.7% –6.5%
Tennessee Tennessee 4,027,631 82.6% 4,505,930 79.2% 4,800,782 75.6% +6.5% –7.0%
Texas Texas 10,291,680 60.6% 10,933,313 52.4% 11,397,345 45.3% +4.2% –15.3%
Utah Utah 1,571,254 91.2% 1,904,265 85.3% 2,221,719 80.4% +16.7% –10.8%
Vermont Vermont 552,184 98.1% 585,431 96.2% 590,223 94.3% +0.8% –3.8%
Virginia Virginia 4,701,650 76.0% 4,965,637 70.2% 5,186,450 64.8% +4.4% –11.2%
Washington (state) Washington 4,221,622 86.7% 4,652,490 78.9% 4,876,804 72.5% +4.8% –14.2%
West Virginia West Virginia 1,718,896 95.8% 1,709,966 94.6% 1,726,256 93.2% +1.0% –2.6%
Wisconsin Wisconsin 4,464,677 91.3% 4,681,630 87.3% 4,738,411 83.3% +1.2% –8.0%
Wyoming Wyoming 412,711 91.0% 438,799 88.9% 483,874 85.9% +10.3% –5.1%
American Samoa American Samoa 682 1.2% 611 1.1% –10.4%
Guam Guam 10,666 6.9% 11,001 6.9% +3.1%
Northern Mariana Islands Northern Mariana Islands 1,274 1.8% 916 1.7% –28.1%
Puerto Rico Puerto Rico 33,966 0.9% 26,946 0.7% –20.7%
United States Virgin Islands U.S. Virgin Islands 8,580 7.9% 3,830 3.6% –55.3%
United States United States of America 188,128,296 75.6% 194,552,774 69.1% 196,817,552 63.7% +1.2% –11.9%

Historical Population by state or territory

Non-Mexican White (1910-1930) and Non-Hispanic White % of Population (1940-2010) by U.S. State[13][14][15]
State/Territory 1910 1920 1930 1940 1950 1960 1970 1980 1990 2000 2010
Alabama Alabama 65.3% 73.3% 73.3% 73.3% 70.3% 67.0%
Alaska Alaska 48.3% 77.2% 75.8% 73.9% 67.6% 64.1%
Arizona Arizona 65.1% 74.3% 74.5% 71.7% 63.8% 57.8%
Arkansas Arkansas 75.2% 81.0% 82.2% 82.2% 78.6% 74.5%
California California 89.5% 76.3% 66.6% 57.2% 46.7% 40.1%
Colorado Colorado 90.3% 84.6% 82.7% 80.7% 74.5% 70.0%
Connecticut Connecticut 97.9% 91.4% 88.0% 83.8% 77.5% 71.2%
Delaware Delaware 86.4% 84.1% 81.3% 79.3% 72.5% 65.3%
Washington, D.C. District of Columbia 71.4% 26.5% 25.7% 27.4% 27.8% 34.8%
Florida Florida 71.5% 77.9% 76.7% 73.2% 65.4% 57.9%
Georgia (U.S. state) Georgia 65.2% 73.4% 71.6% 70.1% 62.6% 55.9%
Hawaii Hawaii
Idaho Idaho 98.4% 95.9% 93.9% 92.2% 88.0% 84.0%
Illinois Illinois 94.7% 83.5% 78.0% 74.8% 67.8% 63.7%
Indiana Indiana 96.3% 91.7% 90.2% 89.6% 85.8% 81.5%
Iowa Iowa 99.2% 98.0% 96.9% 95.9% 92.6% 88.7%
Kansas Kansas 95.6% 92.7% 90.5% 88.4% 83.1% 78.2%
Kentucky Kentucky 92.5% 92.4% 91.7% 91.7% 89.3% 86.3%
Louisiana Louisiana 63.7% 68.2% 67.6% 65.8% 62.5% 60.3%
Maine Maine 99.7% 99.1% 98.3% 98.0% 96.5% 94.4%
Maryland Maryland 83.3% 80.4% 73.9% 69.6% 62.1% 54.7%
Massachusetts Massachusetts 98.6% 95.4% 92.3% 87.8% 81.9% 76.1%
Michigan Michigan 95.7% 87.1% 84.1% 82.3% 78.6% 76.6%
Minnesota Minnesota 99.0% 97.7% 96.1% 93.7% 88.2% 83.1%
Mississippi Mississippi 50.6% 62.6% 63.6% 63.1% 60.7% 58.0%
Missouri Missouri 93.4% 88.6% 87.7% 86.9% 83.8% 81.0%
Montana Montana 96.2% 94.7% 93.4% 91.8% 89.5% 87.8%
Nebraska Nebraska 98.2% 95.2% 94.0% 92.5% 87.3% 82.1%
Nevada Nevada 91.6% 86.7% 83.2% 78.7% 65.2% 54.1%
New Hampshire New Hampshire 99.9% 99.1% 98.4% 97.3% 95.1% 92.3%
New Jersey New Jersey 94.3% 84.7% 79.1% 74.0% 66.0% 59.3%
New Mexico New Mexico 50.9% 53.8% 52.6% 50.4% 44.7% 40.5%
New York New York 94.6% 80.1% 75.0% 69.3% 62.0% 58.3%
North Carolina North Carolina 71.9% 76.5% 75.3% 75.0% 70.2% 65.3%
North Dakota North Dakota 98.3% 96.9% 95.5% 94.2% 91.7% 88.9%
Ohio Ohio 95.0% 89.8% 88.2% 87.1% 84.0% 81.1%
Oklahoma Oklahoma 89.9% 88.1% 85.0% 81.0% 74.1% 68.7%
Oregon Oregon 98.6% 95.8% 93.3% 90.8% 83.5% 78.5%
Pennsylvania Pennsylvania 95.1% 90.3% 89.1% 87.7% 84.1% 79.5%
Rhode Island Rhode Island 98.3% 96.1% 93.4% 89.3% 81.9% 76.4%
South Carolina South Carolina 57.1% 69.0% 68.3% 68.5% 66.1% 64.1%
South Dakota South Dakota 96.2% 94.6% 92.3% 91.2% 88.0% 84.7%
Tennessee Tennessee 82.5% 83.7% 83.1% 82.6% 79.2% 75.6%
Texas Texas 74.1% 69.6% 65.7% 60.6% 52.4% 45.3%
Utah Utah 98.2% 93.6% 92.4% 91.2% 85.3% 80.4%
Vermont Vermont 99.7% 99.2% 98.5% 98.1% 96.2% 94.3%
Virginia Virginia 75.3% 80.1% 78.2% 76.0% 70.2% 64.8%
Washington (state) Washington 97.7% 93.6% 90.2% 86.7% 78.9% 72.5%
West Virginia West Virginia 93.7% 95.7% 95.6% 95.8% 94.6% 93.2%
Wisconsin Wisconsin 99.2% 95.6% 93.6% 91.3% 87.3% 83.3%
Wyoming Wyoming 95.9% 92.1% 92.0% 91.0% 88.9% 85.9%
Puerto Rico Puerto Rico 0.9% 0.7%

References

See also

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