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Title: Norian  
Author: World Heritage Encyclopedia
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Subject: Triassic, Caturrita Formation, Proterochampsidae, Sinemurian, Precambrian
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Age (Ma)
Jurassic Lower/
Hettangian younger
Triassic Upper/
Rhaetian 201.3–208.5
Norian 208.5–~228
Carnian ~228–~235
Ladinian ~235–~242
Anisian ~242–247.2
Olenekian 247.2–251.2
Induan 251.2–252.2
Permian Lopingian Changhsingian older
Subdivision of the Triassic system
according to the IUGS, as of July 2012.

The Norian is a division of the Triassic geological period. It has the rank of an age (geochronology) or stage (chronostratigraphy). The Norian lasted from ~228 to million years ago.[1] It was preceded by the Carnian and succeeded by the Rhaetian.[2]

Stratigraphic definitions

The Norian was named after the Edmund Mojsisovics von Mojsvar in 1869.

The Norian stage begins at the base of the ammonite biozones of Klamathites macrolobatus and Stikinoceras kerri, and at the base of the conodont biozones of Metapolygnathus communisti and Metapolygnathus primitius. A global reference profile for the base (a GSSP) had in 2009 not yet been appointed.

The top of the Norian (the base of the Rhaetian) is at the first appearance of ammonite species Cochloceras amoenum. The base of the Rheatian is also close to the first appearance of conodont species Misikella spp. and Epigondolella mosheri and the radiolarid species Proparvicingula moniliformis.

In the Tethys domain, the Norian stage contains six ammonite biozones:



Dinosaurs of the Norian
Taxa Presence Location Description Images
Late Carnian to early Norian Ghost Ranch, New Mexico, USA


Pterosaurs of the Norian
Taxa Presence Location Description Images


Crocodylomorphs of the Norian
Taxa Presence Location Description Images


Ichthyosaurs of the Norian
Taxa Presence Location Description Images


  1. Shonisaurus popularis
Nevada, USA

†Dinosauromorphs (non-dinosaurian)

Non-dinosaurian dinosauromorphs of the Norian
Taxa Presence Location Description Images
New Mexico


Placodonts of the Norian
Taxa Presence Location Description Images

†Crurotarsans (non-crocodylomorph)

Non-crocodylomorph Crurotarsans of the Carnian
Taxa Presence Location Description Images


Mammalia[3] of the Carnian
Taxa Presence Location Description Images
From Norian to Sinemurian Greenland and Western Europe A Late Triassic-Early Jurassic symmetrodontan.




  1. ^ According to Gradstein et al. (2004). Brack et al. (2005) give 226 to 207 million years
  2. ^ See for a detailed geologic timescale Gradstein et al. (2004)
  3. ^ The genera listed are included in Mammalia by Kielan-Jaworowska et al. (2004) but not by those who restrict the taxon to the crown group.


  • Brack, P.; Rieber, H.; Nicora, A. & Mundil, R.; 2005: The Global boundary Stratotype Section and Point (GSSP) of the Ladinian Stage (Middle Triassic) at Bagolino (Southern Alps, Northern Italy) and its implications for the Triassic time scale, Episodes 28(4), pp. 233–244.
  • Gradstein, F.M.; Ogg, J.G. & Smith, A.G.; 2004: A Geologic Time Scale 2004, Cambridge University Press.
  • Kielan-Jaworowska, Z.; Cifelli, R. L.; Luo, Zhe-Xi; 2004: Mammals from the Age of Dinosaurs, Columbia University Press.
  • Martz, J.W.; 2008: Lithostratigraphy, chemostratigraphy, and vertebrate biostratigraphy of the Dockum Group (Upper Triassic), of southern Garza County, West Texas, Doctoral Dissertation, Texas Tech.

External links

  • GeoWhen Database - Norian
  • Upper Triassic timescale, at the website of the subcommission for stratigraphic information of the ICS
  • Norges Network of offshore records of geology and stratigraphy: Stratigraphic charts for the Triassic, [1] and [2]
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