World Library  
Flag as Inappropriate
Email this Article

Occupational science

Article Id: WHEBN0006937626
Reproduction Date:

Title: Occupational science  
Author: World Heritage Encyclopedia
Language: English
Subject: Occupational therapist, Sensory integration therapy, Occupational rehabilitation, Occupational sexism, Occupational segregation
Collection:
Publisher: World Heritage Encyclopedia
Publication
Date:
 

Occupational science

Occupational science is an interdisciplinary field in the social and behavioral sciences dedicated to the study of humans as "occupational beings". As used here, the term "occupation" refers to the goal-directed activities that characterize daily human life as well as the characteristics and patterns of purposeful activity that occur over lifetimes as these affect health and well-being.[1][2]

History

Occupational science evolved as a loosely organized effort by many scholars in different disciplines to understand human time use. It was named and given additional impetus in 1989 by a team of faculty at the University of Southern California led by Elizabeth Yerxa,[3] who had been influenced by the work of graduate students under the supervision of Mary Reilly.[4] Occupational science emerged as a way to expand and support the profession of occupational therapy.[5]

Link between occupational science and occupational therapy

Occupational science was developed by occupational therapists using the principles of occupational therapy and is still a developing discipline.[6][7] The substrates of occupation (form, function, and meaning) are difficult to observe,[8] and require a multidisciplinary approach. While both occupational therapy and occupational science are rooted in a holistic approach, the interdisciplinary methods for observing form, function, and meaning of occupations are not always holistic. For instance, disciplines such as biomechanics and psychology inform occupational science but, themselves, are not necessarily holistic in nature. Clinical practice can prompt new ideas and spark potential research within the discipline of occupational science.[6]

Occupational science has the capacity to provide insight into the primary modality of occupational therapy (occupation) through researching the restorative dimension of participation in occupation and its therapeutic value.[9] Participation in few occupations or choosing to participate in harmful occupations, such as substance use, can lead to “illness, isolation and despair,” or even death.[7] However, participation in restorative occupations can enhance health.[9] Through participation in restorative occupations, the mental state of individuals can be improved and result in feelings of regeneration.[9] Sleep, an area of occupation, not only regenerates physical and cognitive processes, but also is required for occupational functioning.[9] Participating in other restful occupations, such as reading a book, going for a walk, and exercising, can provide physical, cognitive, and mental restoration.[9]

Academic application

Occupational science now includes university-based academic programs leading to undergraduate and graduate degrees in the field. Disciplines within which occupational scientists can be found include architecture, engineering, education, marketing, psychology, sociology, anthropology, economics, occupational therapy, leisure science, public health, and geography. There are several national, regional and international societies dedicated to promoting the evolution of this specialized area of human science. Academic journals containing content directly relevant to occupational science include the Journal of Occupational Science, OTJR: Occupation, Participation and Health, The Journal of Leisure Research, Journal of Happiness Studies, Quality of Life Research, Applied Research in Quality of Life, and various occupational therapy journals.

See also

References

  1. ^ Zemke, R. & Clark, F.(1996). Occupational Science: The evolving discipline. Philadelphia, F.A. Davis.
  2. ^ Christiansen, C.H. & Townsend, E.A. (Eds) An introduction to occupation: The art and science of living.(2nd Ed).Upper Saddle River, NJ, Pearson
  3. ^ Yerxa, E., Clark, F., Jackson, J., Parham, D., Pierce, D., Stein, C., et al. (1989). An introduction to occupational science, A foundation for occupational therapy in the 21st century. Occupational Therapy in Health Care, 6(4), 1-17.
  4. ^ Reilly, M. (1962)Occupational therapy can be one of the great ideas of 20th Century medicine. American Journal of Occupational Therapy, 16, 1-9)
  5. ^ Hocking, C. & Wright-St Clair, V. (2011). Occupational science: Adding value to occupational therapy. New Zealand Journal of Occupational Therapy, 58(1), 29-35.
  6. ^ a b Glover, J (2009). "The literature of occupational science: A systematic, quantitative examination of peer-reviewed publications from 1996-2006". Journal of Occupational Science 16 (2): 92–103. 
  7. ^ a b Wilcock, A. "Occupational science: Bridging occupation and health". Canadian Journal of Occupational Therapy 72 (1): 5–12. 
  8. ^ Schell, B; Gillen, G; Scaffa, M (2013). Willard & Spackman's Occupational Therapy (12 ed.). Philadelphia, PA: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins. pp. 82–92. 
  9. ^ a b c d e Howell, D; Pierce, D (2000). "Exploring the forgotten restorative dimension of occupation: Quilting and quilt use". Journal of Occupational Science 7 (2): 68–72. 

External links

  • Journal of Occupational Science
  • Society for the Study of Occupation: USA
  • Occupation UK
  • Canadian Society of Occupational Science
  • About Occupational Science
This article was sourced from Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License; additional terms may apply. World Heritage Encyclopedia content is assembled from numerous content providers, Open Access Publishing, and in compliance with The Fair Access to Science and Technology Research Act (FASTR), Wikimedia Foundation, Inc., Public Library of Science, The Encyclopedia of Life, Open Book Publishers (OBP), PubMed, U.S. National Library of Medicine, National Center for Biotechnology Information, U.S. National Library of Medicine, National Institutes of Health (NIH), U.S. Department of Health & Human Services, and USA.gov, which sources content from all federal, state, local, tribal, and territorial government publication portals (.gov, .mil, .edu). Funding for USA.gov and content contributors is made possible from the U.S. Congress, E-Government Act of 2002.
 
Crowd sourced content that is contributed to World Heritage Encyclopedia is peer reviewed and edited by our editorial staff to ensure quality scholarly research articles.
 
By using this site, you agree to the Terms of Use and Privacy Policy. World Heritage Encyclopedia™ is a registered trademark of the World Public Library Association, a non-profit organization.
 



Copyright © World Library Foundation. All rights reserved. eBooks from World eBook Library are sponsored by the World Library Foundation,
a 501c(4) Member's Support Non-Profit Organization, and is NOT affiliated with any governmental agency or department.