World Library  
Flag as Inappropriate
Email this Article

Operation Forty Stars

Article Id: WHEBN0037359358
Reproduction Date:

Title: Operation Forty Stars  
Author: World Heritage Encyclopedia
Language: English
Subject: Iran–Iraq War, Operation Dawn (1983), Operation Dawn 3, Operation Dawn 5, Operation Dawn 6
Collection: 1988 in Iraq, Battles Involving Iran, Battles Involving Iraq, Military Operations of the Iran–iraq War
Publisher: World Heritage Encyclopedia
Publication
Date:
 

Operation Forty Stars

Operation Forty Stars
Part of Iran–Iraq War
Date 18 June 1988
Location Mehran County, Iran
Result Decisive MEK/Iraqi victory, seizure of Mehran
  • Successful MEK/Iraqi offensive
  • Iranian defensive failure
Belligerents
People's Mujahedin of Iran (PMOI)
Supported by:
 Iraq
 Iran
Commanders and leaders
Massoud Rajavi Hashemi Rafsanjani Colonel Ali Shahbazi
Strength
22 PMOI brigades 16,000 (PMOI claim)
Casualties and losses
PMOI
71 dead (PMOI claim)
240 wounded (PMOI claim)[1]
Thousands dead (Iranian claim)[1]
8,000 dead and wounded (PMOI claim)[1]
1,500+ captured[2]

Operation Forty Stars, (Persian: عملیات چلچراغ‎) also known as Operation Forty Lights, or Chelcheraq, was a military operation conducted by the PMOI and Iraqi military at the hast of Iran–Iraq War.

Contents

  • Prelude 1
  • The Battle 2
  • Aftermath 3
  • Bibliography 4
  • References 5

Prelude

The bloody Iran-Iraq War had been ongoing for nearly 8 years. By April 1988, the Iraqis, rearmed by foreign allies, were retaking the initiative for the first time since the beginning of the war. They launched several offensives to recapture their territory in Iraq and pressure Iran to accept a ceasefire. Operation Forty Stars (Persian: Chehel Cheragh) was one of those battles, planned in conjunction with the Iranian opposition group the Mujahedeen-e-Khalq (MEK), which was actively collaborating with Iraq.

Prior to the battle, the Iraqi military deployed large amounts of armor and its chemical weapons corps opposite to the Iranian border town of Mehran (in which several battles had been fought earlier, and now was in ruins). While Iraq would support the attack with armor, poison gas, and air power, the bulk of operation would be carried out by the MEK forces.

The Battle

On the night of Saturday 18 June, Iraq launched the operation with the help of the MEK. With 530 aircraft sorties and heavy use of nerve gas, they crushed the Iranian forces in the area around Mehran, killing or wounding 3,500 and nearly destroying a Revolutionary Guard division.[3] The Iranian town Mehran was captured and occupied by the combined MEK and Iraqi forces.[3] [3] The Iraqi/MEK forces captured several heights around the city, and took several supply dumps intact, along with 2 divisions worth of supplies (including many Toyota Land Cruisers).

Aftermath

The Iraqis later withdrew back across the border on the night of 21 June, leaving the MEK forces in occupation of the area.[1] It was a severe defeat for the Iranian forces, who lost a large amount of intact equipment, along with many troops killed or captured. Iraq also launched a new set of strategic bombings on Iranian population centres and economic targets, setting 10 oil installations and six crude oil production plants in Ahwaz on fire and two pumping stations at Bibi Hakemeh as well as the destruction of other facilities at Gach Saran. Moreover, the bombing campaign included strikes on power stations, natural gas plants and offshore oil facilities.

Bibliography

http://csis.org/files/media/csis/pubs/9005lessonsiraniraqii-chap10.pdf

References

  1. ^ a b c d http://www.apnewsarchive.com/1988/Iranian-Rebels-Withdraw-Iran-Claims-to-Repel-Iraqi-Assault/id-17ce010a891c920160d8172cd711d704
  2. ^ http://www.time.com/time/magazine/article/0,9171,967851,00.html
  3. ^ a b c "The Combination of Iraqi offensives and Western intervention force Iran to accept a cease-fire: September 1987 to March 1989". The Lessons of Modern War – Volume II: Iran-Iraq War. Center for Strategic and International Studies. 
This article was sourced from Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License; additional terms may apply. World Heritage Encyclopedia content is assembled from numerous content providers, Open Access Publishing, and in compliance with The Fair Access to Science and Technology Research Act (FASTR), Wikimedia Foundation, Inc., Public Library of Science, The Encyclopedia of Life, Open Book Publishers (OBP), PubMed, U.S. National Library of Medicine, National Center for Biotechnology Information, U.S. National Library of Medicine, National Institutes of Health (NIH), U.S. Department of Health & Human Services, and USA.gov, which sources content from all federal, state, local, tribal, and territorial government publication portals (.gov, .mil, .edu). Funding for USA.gov and content contributors is made possible from the U.S. Congress, E-Government Act of 2002.
 
Crowd sourced content that is contributed to World Heritage Encyclopedia is peer reviewed and edited by our editorial staff to ensure quality scholarly research articles.
 
By using this site, you agree to the Terms of Use and Privacy Policy. World Heritage Encyclopedia™ is a registered trademark of the World Public Library Association, a non-profit organization.
 



Copyright © World Library Foundation. All rights reserved. eBooks from World eBook Library are sponsored by the World Library Foundation,
a 501c(4) Member's Support Non-Profit Organization, and is NOT affiliated with any governmental agency or department.