World Library  
Flag as Inappropriate
Email this Article

Paiza

Article Id: WHEBN0025542106
Reproduction Date:

Title: Paiza  
Author: World Heritage Encyclopedia
Language: English
Subject: List of Jurchen inscriptions, List of Khitan inscriptions, Mongolian passport, Mongol elements in Western medieval art, Yassa
Collection:
Publisher: World Heritage Encyclopedia
Publication
Date:
 

Paiza

Paiza or Paizi or Gerege (Middle Mongolian: Гэрэгэ, Mongolian: Пайз, Persian: پایزهpāiza, Chinese: 牌子 páizi) is a tablet of authority for the Mongol officials and envoys. This enabled the Mongol nobles and officials to demand goods and services from civilian populations.

Although, only someone with paiza was allowed to supply with remounts and served specified rations, those carrying military rarities used the yam (route) even without a paiza. The officials and nobles of the Mongol Empire issued paizas unofficially and abused civils. Therefore, Ögedei Khan (r. 1229–1241) prohibited the nobility from issuing paizas and jarliqs.

To attract foreign or overseas merchants and talents, the Great Khans gave them paiza exempting taxes and allowed to use relay stations.[1] However, Möngke Khan (r. 1251–1259) limited notorious abuses and sent imperial investigators to supervise the business of the merchants who were sponsored by the Mongols. He prohibited them from using the imperial relay stations or yam (zam) and paizas.

Marco Polo who visited the Yuan Dynasty during the reign of Kublai Khan (r. 1260–1294) left a good description of paiza.[2]

The Ilkhan Ghazan (r. 1295–1304) reformed the issuance of jarliqs, creating set forms and graded seals, ordering that all jarliqs be kept on file at court and canceling jarliqs older than 30 years and old paizas.[3] He fashioned new paizas into two ranks, contained the names of the bearers on them to prevent them from being transferred and were to be turned in at the end of the official's term.

References

  1. ^ Ata Malik Juvaini, trans. and ed. John Andrew Boyle, David Morgan-Genghis Khan: the history of the world conqueror, p.29
  2. ^ Laurence Bergreen Marco Polo: from Venice to Xanadu, p.341
  3. ^ George Lane Genghis Khan and Mongol rule, p.34


This article was sourced from Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License; additional terms may apply. World Heritage Encyclopedia content is assembled from numerous content providers, Open Access Publishing, and in compliance with The Fair Access to Science and Technology Research Act (FASTR), Wikimedia Foundation, Inc., Public Library of Science, The Encyclopedia of Life, Open Book Publishers (OBP), PubMed, U.S. National Library of Medicine, National Center for Biotechnology Information, U.S. National Library of Medicine, National Institutes of Health (NIH), U.S. Department of Health & Human Services, and USA.gov, which sources content from all federal, state, local, tribal, and territorial government publication portals (.gov, .mil, .edu). Funding for USA.gov and content contributors is made possible from the U.S. Congress, E-Government Act of 2002.
 
Crowd sourced content that is contributed to World Heritage Encyclopedia is peer reviewed and edited by our editorial staff to ensure quality scholarly research articles.
 
By using this site, you agree to the Terms of Use and Privacy Policy. World Heritage Encyclopedia™ is a registered trademark of the World Public Library Association, a non-profit organization.
 



Copyright © World Library Foundation. All rights reserved. eBooks from World eBook Library are sponsored by the World Library Foundation,
a 501c(4) Member's Support Non-Profit Organization, and is NOT affiliated with any governmental agency or department.