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Palatal lateral approximant

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Title: Palatal lateral approximant  
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Subject: Digraph (orthography), List of consonants, Ll, Spanish language, History of the Spanish language
Collection: Alveolo-Palatal Consonants, Lateral Consonants, Palatal Consonants
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Palatal lateral approximant

Palatal lateral approximant
ʎ
IPA number 157
Encoding
Entity (decimal) ʎ
Unicode (hex) U+028E
X-SAMPA L
Kirshenbaum l^
Braille ⠦ (braille pattern dots-236) ⠽ (braille pattern dots-13456)
Sound
 ·
Alveolo-palatal lateral approximant
l̠ʲ
ʎ̟
ȴ

The palatal lateral approximant is a type of consonantal sound used in some spoken languages. The symbol in the International Phonetic Alphabet that represents this sound is ʎ, a rotated lowercase letter y (not to be confused with lowercase lambda, λ), and the equivalent X-SAMPA symbol is L.

Many languages that were previously thought to have a palatal lateral approximant actually have a lateral approximant that is, broadly, alveolo-palatal; that is to say, it is articulated at a place in-between the alveolar ridge and the hard palate (excluded), and it may be variously described as alveolo-palatal, lamino-postalveolar,[1] or postalveolo-prepalatal.[2] Of 13 languages investigated by Recasens (2013), many of them Romance, none have a 'true' palatal.[3] This is likely the case for several other languages listed here. Some languages, like Portuguese and Catalan, have a lateral approximant that varies between alveolar and alveolo-palatal.[4]

There is no dedicated symbol in the International Phonetic Alphabet that represents the alveolo-palatal lateral approximant. If precision is desired, it may be transcribed l̠ʲ or ʎ̟; these are essentially equivalent, because the contact includes both the blade and body (but not the tip) of the tongue. There is also a non-IPA letter ȴ, used especially in Sinological circles.

According to some scholars,[5][6] the palatal lateral approximant contrasts phonemically with its voiceless counterpart /ʎ̥/ in some subdialects of Trøndersk, which is a dialect of Norwegian.[7]

Contents

  • Features 1
  • Occurrence 2
  • See also 3
  • References 4
  • Bibliography 5

Features

Features of the palatal lateral approximant:

Occurrence

Language Word IPA Meaning Notes
Aragonese agulla [aˈɣuʎa] 'needle'
Asturian Northern dialects llana [ˈʎãna] 'wool' Where /ʎ/ is absent due to a yeísmo-like merger, it is replaced by different sounds (depending on dialect) and spelled ḷḷ
Aymara llaki [ʎaki] 'sad'
Basque bonbilla [bo̞mbiʎa] 'bulb'
Breton familh [famiʎ] 'family'
Bulgarian любов [l̠ʲubof] 'love' Alveolo-palatal.
Catalan ull [ˈul̠ʲ] 'eye' Alveolo-palatal.[2] See Catalan phonology
English County Donegal[8] million [ˈmɪʎən] 'million' Allophone of the sequence /lj/.[8]
General American[9] A frequent allophone of the sequence /lj/; sometimes realized as [jj].[9] See English phonology
Enindhilyagwa angalya [aŋal̠ʲa] 'place' Laminal post-alveolar
Faroese[10] telgja [ˈtʰɛʎt͡ʃa] 'to carve' Allophone of /l/ before palatal consonants.[10] Sometimes voiceless [ʎ̥].[10] See Faroese phonology
Franco-Provençal balyi [baʎi] 'give'
Galician illado [iˈʎaðo] 'insulated' (m.) Many Galician speakers are nowadays yeístas because of influence from Spanish
Greek ήλιος     'sun' Postalveolar.[11] See Modern Greek phonology
Hungarian Northern dialects[12] lyuk [ʎuk] 'hole' Alveolo-palatal.[13] Modern standard Hungarian has undergone a phenomenon akin to Spanish yeísmo, merging /ʎ/ into /j/. See Hungarian ly and Hungarian phonology
Italian[2] figlio [ˈfiʎːo] 'son' Alveolo-palatal.[2] Realized as fricative [ʎ̝] in a large number of accents.[14] See Italian phonology
Korean 실례/sillye [ɕil̠ʲl̠ʲe] 'discourtesy' Alveolo-palatal. See Korean phonology
Leonese llibru [ˈʎiβɾu] 'book'
Norwegian Northern and central dialects[15] alle [ɑʎːe] 'all' See Norwegian phonology
Occitan Northern miralhar [miɾaˈʎa] 'to reflect' See Occitan phonology
Southern
Gascon hilh [hiʎ] 'son'
Portuguese Many dialects[16] sandália [sɐ̃ˈdal̠ʲɐ] 'sandal' Historically diminished in caipira and hinterland nordestino areas due to more advanced yeísmo-like phenomenon, also affecting in various degrees all of Brazil.[17]
Most speakers ralho [ˈʁal̠ʲu] 'I scold' Alveolo-palatal in European Portuguese.[18] Contrasts with both /l/ and [j], both sounds that Brazilian /ʎ/ tends merge with (especially when not before rounded vowels).[19][20] See Portuguese phonology
Quechua[21] qallu [qaʎu] 'tongue'
Romanian Transylvanian dialects[22] lingură [ʎungurə] 'spoon' Corresponds to [l] in standard Romanian. See Romanian phonology
Scottish Gaelic[23] till [tʲʰiːʎ] 'return' Alveolo-palatal. See Scottish Gaelic phonology
Serbo-Croatian[24] љуљaшка / ljuljaška [ʎ̟ǔʎ̟a̠ːʃka̠] 'swing (seat)' Palato-alveolar.[24] See Serbo-Croatian phonology
Sissano piyl [piʎ] 'fish'
Slovak ľúbiť     'to love' Merges with /l/ in southern dialects. See Slovak phonology
Spanish Castilian[25] millón [miˈʎõ̞n] 'million' For most speakers, this sound has merged with /ʝ/, a phenomenon called yeísmo. See Spanish phonology
Ukrainian ліс [l̠ʲis] 'forest' Alveolo-palatal. See Ukrainian phonology

See also

References

  1. ^ Recasens (2013:2), citing Ladefoged (1997:602)
  2. ^ a b c d Recasens et al. (1993:222)
  3. ^ Recasens (2013:11)
  4. ^ Recasens (2013:10–13)
  5. ^ Such as Vanvik (1979)
  6. ^ An example of a scholar disagreeing with this position is Scholtz (2009). On page 15, she provides a phoneme chart for Trøndersk, in which /ʎ/ is included. Under the phoneme chart she writes "Vanvik also lists /ʎ̥/ as an underlying phoneme, but that’s ridiculous :)." She provides no further explanation as to why it is ridiculous.
  7. ^ Vanvik (1979:37)
  8. ^ a b Stenson (1991), cited in Hickey (2004:71)
  9. ^ a b Wells (1982:490)
  10. ^ a b c Árnason (2011:115)
  11. ^ Arvaniti (2007:20)
  12. ^ Benkő (1972:?)
  13. ^ Recasens (2013:10)
  14. ^ Ashby (2011:64): "(…) in a large number of Italian accents, there is considerable friction involved in the pronunciation of [ʎ], creating a voiced palatal lateral fricative (for which there is no established IPA symbol)."
  15. ^ Skjekkeland (1997:105–107)
  16. ^ Considerações sobre o status das palato-alveolares em português
  17. ^ Aragão (2009:170)
  18. ^ Teixeira et al. (2012:321)
  19. ^ Stein (2011:223)
  20. ^ Aragão (2009:168)
  21. ^ Ladefoged (2005:149)
  22. ^ Pop (1938), p. 30.
  23. ^ Oftedal (1956:?)
  24. ^ a b Jazić (1977:?), cited in Ladefoged & Maddieson (1996:188)
  25. ^ Martínez-Celdrán, Fernández-Planas & Carrera-Sabaté (2003:255)

Bibliography

  • Aragão, Maria do Socorro Silva de (2009), ]The phonetic-phonological studies in Paraíba and Ceará states [Os estudos fonético-fonológicos nos estados da Paraíba e do Ceará (PDF) (in Portuguese) 
  • Árnason, Kristján (2011), The Phonology of Icelandic and Faroese, Oxford University Press,  
  • Ashby, Patricia (2011), Understanding Phonetics, Understanding Language series, Routledge,  
  • Arvaniti, Amalia (2007), "Greek Phonetics: The State of the Art" (PDF), Journal of Greek Linguistics 8: 97–208,  
  • Benkő, Loránd (1972), "The Hungarian Language", in Imre, Samu, Janua Linguarum, Series Practica 134, The Hague: Mouton de Gruyter 
  • Carbonell, Joan F.; Llisterri, Joaquim (1992), "Catalan", Journal of the International Phonetic Association 22 (1–2): 53–56,  
  • Cruz-Ferreira, Madalena (1995), "European Portuguese", Journal of the International Phonetic Association 25 (2): 90–94,  
  • Hickey, Raymon (2004), "Irish English: phonology", in Schneider, Edgar W.; Burridge, Kate; Kortmann, Bernd; Mesthrie, Rajend; Upton, Clive, A handbook of varieties of English, 1: Phonology, Mouton de Gruyter, pp. 68–97,  
  • Jazić, Đorđe (1977), Osnovi fonetike ruskog jezika: ruski glasovni sistem u poredjenju sa srpskohrvatskim, Beograd: Naučna knjiga 
  • Oftedal, M. (1956), The Gaelic of Leurbost, Oslo: Norsk Tidskrift for Sprogvidenskap 
  •  
  •  
  • Ladefoged, Peter (2005), Vowels and Consonants (2nd ed.), Oxford: Blackwell 
  • Martínez-Celdrán, Eugenio; Fernández-Planas, Ana Ma.; Carrera-Sabaté, Josefina (2003), "Castilian Spanish", Journal of the International Phonetic Association 33 (2): 255–259,  
  • Pop, Sever (1938), Micul Atlas Linguistic Român, Muzeul Limbii Române Cluj 
  • Recasens, Daniel (2013), "On the articulatory classification of (alveolo)palatal consonants", Journal of the International Phonetic Association 43 (1): 1–22,  
  • Recasens, Daniel; Farnetani, Edda; Fontdevila, Jordi; Pallarès, Maria Dolors (1993), "An electropalatographic study of alveolar and palatal consonants in Catalan and Italian" (PDF), Language and Speech 36: 213–234 
  • Rogers, Derek; d'Arcangeli, Luciana (2004), "Italian", Journal of the International Phonetic Association 34 (1): 117–121,  
  • Scholtz, Anna (2009), A phonetic study of the status of three mergers in the Trøndersk dialect of Norwegian (PDF), Williamstown, Massachusetts: Williams College 
  • Skjekkeland, Martin (1997), Dei norske dialektane: Tradisjonelle særdrag i jamføring med skriftmåla, Høyskoleforlaget (Norwegian Academic Press) 
  • Stein, Cirineu Cecote (2011), ]The acoustic-articulatory path of the lateral palatal consonant's allophony [O percurso acústico-articulatório da alofonia da consoante lateral palatal (in Portuguese) 
  • Stenson, Nancy (1991), "Code-switching vs. borrowing in modern Irish", in Sture Ureland, P.; Broderick, George, Language Contact in the British Isles. Proceedings of the Eighth International Symposium on Language Contact in Europe, Tübingen: Niemeyer, pp. 559–579 
  • Teixeira, António; Martins, Paula; Oliveira, Catarina; Silva, Augusto (2012), "Production and Modeling of the European Portuguese Palatal Lateral", Computational Processing of the Portuguese Language, pp. 318–328,  
  • Vanvik, Arne (1979), Norsk fonetikk, Oslo: Universitetet i Oslo,  
  •  
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