World Library  
Flag as Inappropriate
Email this Article

Palestinian vocalization

Article Id: WHEBN0032467594
Reproduction Date:

Title: Palestinian vocalization  
Author: World Heritage Encyclopedia
Language: English
Subject: Hebrew language, Biblical Hebrew orthography, Samaritan vocalization, Ktiv menuqad, Hebrew numerals
Publisher: World Heritage Encyclopedia

Palestinian vocalization

A manuscript vocalized with the Palestinian niqqud
Example of Palestinian vocalization

The Eretz Israel "Palestinian" vocalization or Eretz Israel "Palestinian" pointing or Eretz Israel "Palestinian" niqqud (Hebrew: ניקוד ארץ ישראל Niqqud 'Eretz Israel) is a system of diacritics (niqqud) devised by the Masoretes of Jerusalem to add to the consonantal text of the Hebrew Bible to indicate vowel quality, reflecting the Hebrew of Jerusalem. The Palestinian system is no longer in use, having been supplanted by the Tiberian vocalization system.


The Palestinian vocalization reflects the Hebrew of Palestine of at least the 7th century CE.[1] A common view among scholars is that the Palestinian system preceded the Tiberian system, but later came under the latter's influence and became more similar to the Tiberian tradition of the ben Asher school.[2] All known examples of the Palestinian vocalization come from the Cairo Geniza, discovered at the end of the 19th century, although scholars had already known of the existence of a "Palestinian pointing" from the Mahzor Vitry.[3][4] In particular, the Palestinian piyyutim generally make up the most ancient of the texts found, the earliest of which date to the 8th or 9th centuries and predate most of the known Palestinian biblical fragments.[5]


As in the Babylonian vocalization, only the most important vowels are indicated.[6] The Palestinian vocalization along with the Babylonian vocalization are known as the superlinear vocalizations because they place the vowel graphemes above the consonant letters, rather than both above and below as in the Tiberian system.[7]

Different manuscripts show significant systematic variations in vocalization.[8] There is a general progression towards a more differentiated vowel system closer to that of Tiberian Hebrew over time.[5] The earliest manuscripts use just six graphemes, reflecting a pronunciation similar to contemporary Sephardi Hebrew:[9]
niqqud with ב ???
hiriq holam qubutz,
value /a/ /e/ /i/ /o/ /u/ /ə/
The most commonly occurring Palestinian system uses seven graphemes, reflecting later vowel differentiation in the direction of Tiberian Hebrew:[9]
niqqud with ב
patah qamatz segol tzere hiriq holam qubutz,
value /a/ /ɔ/ /ɛ/ /e/ /i/ /o/ /u/

Even so, most Palestinian manuscripts show interchanges between qamatz and patah, and between tzere and segol.[10] Shva is marked in multiple ways.[9]

Palestino-Tiberian vocalization

Some manuscripts are vocalized with the Tiberian graphemes used in a manner closer to the Palestinian system.[11] The most widely accepted term for this vocalization system is the Palestino-Tiberian vocalization.[11] This system originated in the east, most likely in Palestine.[11] It spread to central Europe by the middle of the 12th century in modified form, often used by Ashkenazi scribes due to its greater affinity with old Ashkenazi Hebrew than the Tiberian system.[12] For a period of time both were used in biblical and liturgical texts, but by the middle of the 14th century it had ceased being used in favor of the Tiberian vocalization.[12]

See also

Tiberian vocalization

Babylonian vocalization




This article was sourced from Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License; additional terms may apply. World Heritage Encyclopedia content is assembled from numerous content providers, Open Access Publishing, and in compliance with The Fair Access to Science and Technology Research Act (FASTR), Wikimedia Foundation, Inc., Public Library of Science, The Encyclopedia of Life, Open Book Publishers (OBP), PubMed, U.S. National Library of Medicine, National Center for Biotechnology Information, U.S. National Library of Medicine, National Institutes of Health (NIH), U.S. Department of Health & Human Services, and, which sources content from all federal, state, local, tribal, and territorial government publication portals (.gov, .mil, .edu). Funding for and content contributors is made possible from the U.S. Congress, E-Government Act of 2002.
Crowd sourced content that is contributed to World Heritage Encyclopedia is peer reviewed and edited by our editorial staff to ensure quality scholarly research articles.
By using this site, you agree to the Terms of Use and Privacy Policy. World Heritage Encyclopedia™ is a registered trademark of the World Public Library Association, a non-profit organization.

Copyright © World Library Foundation. All rights reserved. eBooks from World eBook Library are sponsored by the World Library Foundation,
a 501c(4) Member's Support Non-Profit Organization, and is NOT affiliated with any governmental agency or department.