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Parthian language

Parthian
Arsacid Pahlavi
Pahlawānīg
Native to Parthian Empire
Region Parthia, ancient Iran
Era State language 248 BC – 224 AD. Marginalized by Middle Persian from the 3rd century
Inscriptional Parthian, Manichaean alphabet
Language codes
ISO 639-3 xpr
Linguist list
xpr
Glottolog part1239[1]

The Parthian language, also known as Arsacid Pahlavi and Pahlawānīg, is a now-extinct ancient Northwestern Iranian language spoken in Parthia, a region of northeastern ancient Iran. Parthian was the language of state of the Parthian Empire (248 BC – 224 AD).

Contents

  • Classification 1
  • Written Parthian 2
  • Attestations 3
  • Extinction 4
  • See also 5
  • References 6
    • Notes 6.1
    • General references 6.2
  • External links 7

Classification

Parthian was a Western Middle Iranian language that, through language contact, also had some features of the Eastern Iranian language group, the influence of which is attested primarily in loan words. Some traces of Eastern influence survives in Parthian loan words in the Armenian language.[2]

Taxonomically, Parthian belongs to the Northwestern Iranian language group while Middle Persian belongs to the Southwestern Iranian language group.

Written Parthian

The Parthian language was rendered using the Pahlavi writing system, which had two essential characteristics: First, its script derived from Aramaic,[3] the script (and language) of the Achaemenid chancellery (i.e. Imperial Aramaic). Second, it had a high incidence of Aramaic words, rendered as ideograms or logograms, that is, they were written Aramaic words but understood as Parthian ones (See Arsacid Pahlavi for details).

The Parthian language was the language of the old Satrapy of Parthia and was used in the Arsacids courts. The main sources for Parthian are the few remaining inscriptions from Nisa and Hecatompolis, Manichaean texts, Sasanian multi-lingual inscriptions, and remains of Parthian literature in the succeeding Middle Persian. Among these, the Manichaean texts, composed shortly after the demise of the Parthian power, play an important role for reconstructing the Parthian language.[4] These Manichaean manuscripts contain no ideograms.

Attestations

Attestations of the Parthian language include:[5]

Extinction

In 224 AD, Ardashir I, the local ruler of Pars, deposed and replaced Artabanus IV, the last Parthian Emperor, and founded the fourth Iranian dynasty, and the second Persian dynasty, the Sassanian Empire. Parthian was then succeeded by Middle Persian, which when written is known as Sasanian Pahlavi. Parthian did not die out immediately, but remains attested in a few bi-lingual inscriptions from the Sasanian era.

See also

References

Notes

  1. ^ Nordhoff, Sebastian; Hammarström, Harald; Forkel, Robert; Haspelmath, Martin, eds. (2013). "Parthian". Glottolog 2.2. Leipzig: Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Anthropology. 
  2. ^ Lecoq, Pierre (1983). "Aparna". Encyclopedia Iranica. 1. Costa Mesa: Mazda Pub. http://www.iranicaonline.org/articles/aparna-c3k
  3. ^ Iran Chamber Society
  4. ^ Josef Wiesehfer, "Ancient Persia: From 550 Bc to 650 A.D.", translated by Azizeh Azado, I.B. Tauris, 2001. p. 118.
  5. ^ Tafazzoli, A.; Khromov, A.L. "Sasanian Iran: Intellectual Life" in History of civilizations of Central Asia, UNESCO, 1996. Volume 3

General references

  • Lecoq, Pierre (1983). "Aparna". Encyclopedia Iranica 1. Costa Mesa: Mazda Pub. 
  • Hugh Chisholm, ed. (1911). "Parthia".  
  • Boyce, Mary; Ghirshman, R. (1979). "Review: R. Ghirshman's L'Iran et la Migration des Indo-Aryens et des Iraniens". Of the American Oriental Society (Journal of the American Oriental Society, Vol. 99, No. 1) 99 (1): 119–120.  

External links

  • Some valuable texts in Parthian including Boyce, Mary The Manichaean hymn-cycles in Parthian (London Oriental Series, Vol. 3). London: Oxford University Press, 1954.
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