World Library  
Flag as Inappropriate
Email this Article

Parthian shot

Article Id: WHEBN0000925573
Reproduction Date:

Title: Parthian shot  
Author: World Heritage Encyclopedia
Language: English
Subject: List of military tactics, Parthian Empire, Parthian, Peer review/Scratching/archive1, Diversionary tactics
Collection: Diversionary Tactics, Maneuver Tactics, Military History of the Parthian Empire
Publisher: World Heritage Encyclopedia

Parthian shot

Parthian horseman, Palazzo Madama, Turin

The Parthian shot was a military tactic made famous by the Parthians, an ancient Iranian people. The Parthian archers mounted on light horse, while retreating at a full gallop, would turn their bodies back to shoot at the pursuing enemy. The maneuver required superb equestrian skills, since the rider's hands were occupied by his bow. As the stirrup had not been invented at the time of the Parthians, the rider relied solely on pressure from his legs to guide his horse. The tactic also could be used during feigned retreat, with devastating effect.

You wound, like Parthians, while you fly,
And kill with a retreating eye.
— Samuel Butler, An Heroical Epistle of Hudibras to His Lady (1678)[1]

This tactic was used by most Eurasian nomads, including the Scythians, Huns, Turks, Magyars, and Mongols, and it eventually spread to armies away from the Eurasian steppe, such as the Sassanid clibanarii and cataphracts.

A notable battle in which this tactic was employed (by the Parthians) was the Battle of Carrhae. In this battle the Parthian shot was a principal factor in the Parthian victory over the Roman general Crassus.

Parting shot / Parthian shot

By way of metaphor, "Parthian shot" also is used to describe a barbed insult, delivered as the speaker departs.

A common opinion holds that, in a case of folk etymology, the term parting shot, used similarly, developed as an eggcorn-like re-interpretation of "Parthian shot", meaning the term was corrupted through common parlance, however, the two phrases have separate histories. The first record of the phrase "parting shot" was by John McCleod, surgeon on board His Majesty's ship Alceste, in A narrative of a Voyage to the Yellow Sea (1818):

The consort, firing a parting shot, bore up round the north end of the island, and escaped.

In 1828 records in "The Friend, or Advocate of Truth" (a publication of The Religious Society of Friends) used the phrase in the figurative sense:

I think it would be much more becoming..., if you could separate without giving each other a parting shot.

The two phrases have rather similar phonetic soundings, but are derived separately and at different times. Although the Parthian archers of old have been famous for their shooting, the term "Parthian shot" was recorded for the first time in 1832 by Captain Godfrey Charles Mundy, who served as aide-de-camp to Lord Combermere on a hunting trip in India, in his book Pen and Pencil Sketches, Being the Journal of a Tour in India:

...I made a successful Parthian shot with my favourite Joe Manton [a shotgun named after gunsmith Joseph Manton], and slew my determined little pursuer.

The figurative use of the phrase "Parthian shot" appeared later in The Times (April 20, 1842):

They have probably enough dealt a Parthian shot to British interests...

Chronologically, it would appear that the English use of "parting shot" preceded the use of the phrase "Parthian shot". "Parthian shot" is used less frequently. "Parting shot" is far more likely to be encountered.[2][3]

With which Parthian shot he walked away, leaving the two rivals open-mouthed behind him.
His Parthian shot reached them as they closed the doors. 'Never mind darlings', they heard him say, 'we can all sleep soundly now Turner's here.'

See also


  1. ^ An Heroical Epistle of Hudibras to His Lady, e-text, at
  2. ^ "parting shot". Unabridged. Random House, Inc. Retrieved 25 Mar 2010. 
  3. ^ Clarke, Sean (12 May 2006). "Backwards thinking". culture vulture blog.  
This article was sourced from Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License; additional terms may apply. World Heritage Encyclopedia content is assembled from numerous content providers, Open Access Publishing, and in compliance with The Fair Access to Science and Technology Research Act (FASTR), Wikimedia Foundation, Inc., Public Library of Science, The Encyclopedia of Life, Open Book Publishers (OBP), PubMed, U.S. National Library of Medicine, National Center for Biotechnology Information, U.S. National Library of Medicine, National Institutes of Health (NIH), U.S. Department of Health & Human Services, and, which sources content from all federal, state, local, tribal, and territorial government publication portals (.gov, .mil, .edu). Funding for and content contributors is made possible from the U.S. Congress, E-Government Act of 2002.
Crowd sourced content that is contributed to World Heritage Encyclopedia is peer reviewed and edited by our editorial staff to ensure quality scholarly research articles.
By using this site, you agree to the Terms of Use and Privacy Policy. World Heritage Encyclopedia™ is a registered trademark of the World Public Library Association, a non-profit organization.

Copyright © World Library Foundation. All rights reserved. eBooks from World eBook Library are sponsored by the World Library Foundation,
a 501c(4) Member's Support Non-Profit Organization, and is NOT affiliated with any governmental agency or department.