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Peng Zhen

Peng Zhen
彭真
Peng Zhen in 1956
Chairman of the Standing Committee of the National People's Congress
In office
June 18, 1983 – April 27, 1988
Preceded by Ye Jianying
Succeeded by Wan Li
1st Secretary of the Central Political and Legal Affairs Commission
In office
March 1980 – May 1983
Succeeded by Chen Pixian
First Secretary of the Beijing Committee of the Communist Party of China
In office
December 13, 1948 – May 1966
Preceded by Office created
Succeeded by Li Xuefeng
Personal details
Born (1902-10-12)October 12, 1902
Houma, Shanxi, China
Died April 26, 1997(1997-04-26) (aged 94)
Beijing, China
Nationality Chinese
Political party Communist Party of China
Spouse(s) Zhang Jieqing
Peng Zhen
Chinese 彭真

Peng Zhen (pronounced ; October 12, 1902 – April 26, 1997) was a leading member of the Chinese Civil War in 1949, but was purged during the Cultural Revolution for opposing Mao's views on the role of literature in relation to the state. He was rehabilitated under Deng Xiaoping in 1982 along with other 'wrongly accused' officials, and became the inaugural head of the CPC Central Political and Legislative Committee.

Contents

  • Biography 1
  • References 2
  • External links 3
  • Further reading 4

Biography

Born in 7th National Congress.

In September 1945 Peng was sent by Mao Zedong to take up overall leadership of the Communists in Northeast China. He was accompanied by Lin Biao who was to assist Peng with directing military operations against the Nationalists. Peng decided that the Communists could hold the 3 big cities of the Northeast: Shenyang, Changchun and Harbin. When the Nationalists under the command of Du Yuming attacked in November 1945, the Communists were forced back. Peng was removed as Communist leader in the northeast after further failure by Lin Biao's forces in March 1946 led to the Communists retreat back to Harbin.[1]

Peng was a member of the CPC Central Committee starting from 1944 as well as member of the Secretariat of the CPC Central Committee. He also held the positions of First Secretary of the Beijing Municipal Committee, and Mayor of Beijing (1951). He was a member of the Politburo from 1956 to 1966.

Peng was appointed head of the Five Man Group in charge of preparing a "cultural revolution", but he fell out of favor with Mao Zedong in April 1966 when he attacked Mao's belief that all literature should support the state. He was accused of being an associate to Wu Han's counter-revolutionary clique and deposed at a May 1966 conference in what became the opening act of the Cultural Revolution. Lu Dingyi, Luo Ruiqing and Yang Shangkun were also deposed.

Peng survived the Cultural Revolution, and was eventually rehabilitated under Deng Xiaoping. He subsequently became Secretary of the Central Political and Legal Affairs Commission, a post he already held from late 1950s in the capacity of leader of a Central Politics and Law Leading Group. Beginning in 1983, as Chairman of the Standing Committee of the Sixth National People's Congress, he sought to increase the NPC's power. Peng retired from his leading political positions in 1988.

Peng Zhen died on April 26, 1997, and was eulogized with high honours by the highest organs of the party and the state. His official obituary declared him a "great proletarian revolutionary, politician, and outstanding expert in the affairs of the state; unswerving Marxist, instrumental in laying the foundations of legal institution in our country, and excellent leader of the party and state." The obituary also curiously made mention of his support of Deng Xiaoping's 1992 "southern tour" which re-ignited economic reforms after relative stagnation following the Tiananmen Square protest of 1989.[2]

He was considered one of the Eight Immortals of the Communist Party of China.

References

  1. ^
  2. ^
  • Original text based on marxists.org article (GNU FDL)

External links

  • The Peng Zhen Reference Archive

Further reading

  • Pitman B. Potter , From Leninist Discipline to Socialist Legalism: Peng Zhen on Law and Political Authority in the PRC, Stanford University Press; 1 edition (March 13, 2003), hardcover: 272 pages, ISBN 0804745005 ISBN 978-0804745000
Political offices
Preceded by
Nie Rongzhen
Mayor of Beijing
1951–1966
Succeeded by
Wu De
Acting
New title Secretary-General of the Standing Committee of the National People's Congress
1954–1965
Succeeded by
Liu Ningyi
Preceded by
Ji Pengfei
Secretary-General of the Standing Committee of the National People's Congress
1979–1980
Succeeded by
Yang Shangkun
Preceded by
Ye Jianying
Chairman of the Standing Committee of the National People's Congress
1983–1988
Succeeded by
Wan Li
Party political offices
Preceded by
Chen Yun
Head of the Central Organization Department of the Communist Party of China
Acting from 1944–1945

1944–1953
Succeeded by
Rao Shushi
New title Secretary of the CPC Beijing Committee
1948–1966
Succeeded by
Li Xuefeng
Secretary of the CPC Central Political and Legislative Affairs Commission
1980–1982
Succeeded by
Chen Pixian
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