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Periodic table (large cells)

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Periodic table (large cells)

Content
18-column layout 32-column layout

This page shows large-cell versions of the periodic table. For each element name, symbol, atomic number, and mean atomic mass value for the natural isotopic composition of each element are shown. The periodic table of the chemical elements is a tabular method of displaying the chemical elements.

The two layout forms originate from two graphic forms of presentation of the same periodic table. Historically, when the f-block was identified it was drawn below the existing table, with markings for its in-table location (this page uses dots or asterisks). Also, a common presentation is to put all 15 lanthanide and actinide columns below, while the f-block only has 14 columns. The fifteenth (rightmost) lanthanide and actinide are d-block elements, belonging to group 3, with scandium and ytterbium.

Although precursors to this table exist, its invention is generally credited to Russian chemist Dmitri Mendeleev in 1869. Mendeleev intended the table to illustrate recurring ("periodic") trends in the properties of the elements. The layout of the table has been refined and extended over time, as new elements have been discovered, and new theoretical models have been developed to explain chemical behavior.[1]

The periodic table is now ubiquitous within the academic discipline of chemistry, providing an extremely useful framework to classify, systematize and compare all the many different forms of chemical behavior. The table has also found wide application in physics, biology, engineering, and industry. The current standard table contains 118 confirmed elements as of 10 March 2010.

18-column layout

Periodic table (18-column layout)
Group → 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18
Alkali
metal
Alkaline earth metal Boron
group
Carbon
group
Pnictogen Chalcogen Halogen Noble gas
CAS: IA IIA IIIB IVB VB VIB VIIB VIIIB IB IIB IIIA IVA VA VIA VIIA VIIIA
old IUPAC: IA IIA IIIA IVA VA VIA VIIA VIII IB IIB IIIB IVB VB VIB VIIB 0
↓ Period
1
Hydrogen
1
H

1.00794(7)
→ name of element
atomic number
chemical symbol
relative atomic mass
Helium
2
He

4.002602(2)
2 Lithium
3
Li

6.941(2)
Beryllium
4
Be

9.012182(3)
Boron
5
B

10.811(7)
Carbon
6
C

12.0107(8)
Nitrogen
7
N

14.0067(2)
Oxygen
8
O

15.9994(3)
Fluorine
9
F

18.9984032(5)
Neon
10
Ne

20.1797(6)
3 Sodium
11
Na

22.98976928(2)
Magnesium
12
Mg

24.3050(6)
Aluminium
13
Al

26.9815386(8)
Silicon
14
Si

28.0855(3)
Phosphorus
15
P

30.973762(2)
Sulfur
16
S

32.065(5)
Chlorine
17
Cl

35.453(2)
Argon
18
Ar

39.948(1)
4 Potassium
19
K

39.0983(1)
Calcium
20
Ca

40.078(4)
Scandium
21
Sc

44.955912(6)
Titanium
22
Ti

47.867(1)
Vanadium
23
V

50.9415(1)
Chromium
24
Cr

51.9961(6)
Manganese
25
Mn

54.938045(5)
Iron
26
Fe

55.845(2)
Cobalt
27
Co

58.933195(5)
Nickel
28
Ni

58.6934(4)
Copper
29
Cu

63.546(3)
Zinc
30
Zn

65.38(2)
Gallium
31
Ga

69.723(1)
Germanium
32
Ge

72.63(1)
Arsenic
33
As

74.92160(2)
Selenium
34
Se

78.96(3)
Bromine
35
Br

79.904(1)
Krypton
36
Kr

83.798(2)
5 Rubidium
37
Rb

85.4678(3)
Strontium
38
Sr

87.62(1)
Yttrium
39
Y

88.90585(2)
Zirconium
40
Zr

91.224(2)
Niobium
41
Nb

92.90638(2)
Molybdenum
42
Mo

95.96(2)
Technetium
43
Tc

[98]
Ruthenium
44
Ru

101.07(2)
Rhodium
45
Rh

102.90550(2)
Palladium
46
Pd

106.42(1)
Silver
47
Ag

107.8682(2)
Cadmium
48
Cd

112.411(8)
Indium
49
In

114.818(3)
Tin
50
Sn

118.710(7)
Antimony
51
Sb

121.760(1)
Tellurium
52
Te

127.60(3)
Iodine
53
 I 

126.90447(3)
Xenon
54
Xe

131.293(6)
6 Caesium
55
Cs

132.9054519(2)
Barium
56
Ba

137.327(7)

57–70
1 asterisk
Lutetium
71
Lu

174.9668(1)
Hafnium
72
Hf

178.49(2)
Tantalum
73
Ta

180.94788(2)
Tungsten
74
W

183.84(1)
Rhenium
75
Re

186.207(1)
Osmium
76
Os

190.23(3)
Iridium
77
Ir

192.217(3)
Platinum
78
Pt

195.084(9)
Gold
79
Au

196.966569(4)
Mercury
80
Hg

200.59(2)
Thallium
81
Tl

204.3833(2)
Lead
82
Pb

207.2(1)
Bismuth
83
Bi

208.98040(1)
Polonium
84
Po

[209]
Astatine
85
At

[210]
Radon
86
Rn

[222]
7 Francium
87
Fr

[223]
Radium
88
Ra

[226]

89–102
1 asterisk
Lawrencium
103
Lr

[266]
Rutherfordium
104
Rf

[267]
Dubnium
105
Db

[268]
Seaborgium
106
Sg

[269]
Bohrium
107
Bh

[270]
Hassium
108
Hs

[269]
Meitnerium
109
Mt

[278]
Darmstadtium
110
Ds

[281]
Roentgenium
111
Rg

[281]
Copernicium
112
Cn

[285]
Ununtrium
113
Uut

[286]
Flerovium
114
Fl

[289]
Ununpentium
115
Uup

[289]
Livermorium
116
Lv

[293]
Ununseptium
117
Uus

[294]
Ununoctium
118
Uuo

[294]

1 asterisk Lanthanum
57
La

138.90547(7)
Cerium
58
Ce

140.116(1)
Praseodymium
59
Pr

140.90765(2)
Neodymium
60
Nd

144.242(3)
Promethium
61
Pm

[145]
Samarium
62
Sm

150.36(2)
Europium
63
Eu

151.964(1)
Gadolinium
64
Gd

157.25(3)
Terbium
65
Tb

158.92535(2)
Dysprosium
66
Dy

162.500(1)
Holmium
67
Ho

164.93032(2)
Erbium
68
Er

167.259(3)
Thulium
69
Tm

168.93421(2)
Ytterbium
70
Yb

173.054(5)
1 asterisk Actinium
89
Ac

[227]
Thorium
90
Th

232.03806(2)
Protactinium
91
Pa

231.03588(2)
Uranium
92
U

238.02891(3)
Neptunium
93
Np

[237]
Plutonium
94
Pu

[244]
Americium
95
Am

[243]
Curium
96
Cm

[247]
Berkelium
97
Bk

[247]
Californium
98
Cf

[251]
Einsteinium
99
Es

[252]
Fermium
100
Fm

[257]
Mendelevium
101
Md

[258]
Nobelium
102
No

[259]
Legend
black=solid green=liquid red=gas grey=unknown Color of the atomic number shows state of matter (at 0 °C and 1 atm)
Primordial From decay Synthetic Border shows natural occurrence of the element
Background color shows subcategory in the metal–metalloid–nonmetal trend:
Metal Metalloid Nonmetal Unknown
chemical
properties
Alkali metal Alkaline earth metal Lan­thanide Actinide Transition metal Post-​transition metal Polyatomic nonmetal Diatomic nonmetal Noble gas

32-column layout

Periodic table (32-column layout)
Group → 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18
Alkali
metal
Alkaline earth metal Boron
group
Carbon
group
Pnictogen Chalcogen Halogen Noble gas
CAS: IA IIA IIIB IVB VB VIB VIIB VIIIB IB IIB IIIA IVA VA VIA VIIA VIIIA
old IUPAC: IA IIA IIIA IVA VA VIA VIIA VIII IB IIB IIIB IVB VB VIB VIIB 0
↓ Period
1 Hydrogen
1
H

1.00794
→ name of element
atomic number
chemical symbol
relative atomic mass
Helium
2
He

4.002602
2 Lithium
3
Li

6.941
Beryllium
4
Be

9.012182
Boron
5
B

10.811
Carbon
6
C

12.0107
Nitrogen
7
N

14.0067
Oxygen
8
O

15.9994
Fluorine
9
F

18.9984032
Neon
10
Ne

20.1797
3 Sodium
11
Na

22.98976928
Magnesium
12
Mg

24.3050
Aluminium
13
Al

26.9815386
Silicon
14
Si

28.0855
Phosphorus
15
P

30.973762
Sulfur
16
S

32.065
Chlorine
17
Cl

35.453
Argon
18
Ar

39.948
4 Potassium
19
K

39.0983
Calcium
20
Ca

40.078
Scandium
21
Sc

44.955912
Titanium
22
Ti

47.867
Vanadium
23
V

50.9415
Chromium
24
Cr

51.9961
Manganese
25
Mn

54.938045
Iron
26
Fe

55.845
Cobalt
27
Co

58.933195
Nickel
28
Ni

58.6934
Copper
29
Cu

63.546
Zinc
30
Zn

65.38
Gallium
31
Ga

69.723
Germanium
32
Ge

72.63
Arsenic
33
As

74.92160
Selenium
34
Se

78.96
Bromine
35
Br

79.904
Krypton
36
Kr

83.798
5 Rubidium
37
Rb

85.4678
Strontium
38
Sr

87.62
Yttrium
39
Y

88.90585
Zirconium
40
Zr

91.224
Niobium
41
Nb

92.90638
Molybdenum
42
Mo

95.96
Technetium
43
Tc

[98]
Ruthenium
44
Ru

101.07
Rhodium
45
Rh

102.90550
Palladium
46
Pd

106.42
Silver
47
Ag

107.8682
Cadmium
48
Cd

112.411
Indium
49
In

114.818
Tin
50
Sn

118.710
Antimony
51
Sb

121.760
Tellurium
52
Te

127.60
Iodine
53
 I 

126.90447
Xenon
54
Xe

131.293
6 Caesium
55
Cs

132.9054519
Barium
56
Ba

137.327
Lanthanum
57
La

138.90547
Cerium
58
Ce

140.116
Praseodymium
59
Pr

140.90765
Neodymium
60
Nd

144.241
Promethium
61
Pm

[145]
Samarium
62
Sm

150.36
Europium
63
Eu

151.964
Gadolinium
64
Gd

157.25
Terbium
65
Tb

158.92535
Dysprosium
66
Dy

162.500
Holmium
67
Ho

164.93032
Erbium
68
Er

167.259
Thulium
69
Tm

168.93421
Ytterbium
70
Yb

173.054
Lutetium
71
Lu

174.9668
Hafnium
72
Hf

178.49
Tantalum
73
Ta

180.94788
Tungsten
74
W

183.84
Rhenium
75
Re

186.207
Osmium
76
Os

190.23
Iridium
77
Ir

192.217
Platinum
78
Pt

195.084
Gold
79
Au

196.966569
Mercury
80
Hg

200.59
Thallium
81
Tl

204.3833
Lead
82
Pb

207.2
Bismuth
83
Bi

208.98040
Polonium
84
Po

[210]
Astatine
85
At

[210]
Radon
86
Rn

[222]
7 Francium
87
Fr

[223]
Radium
88
Ra

[226]
Actinium
89
Ac

[227]
Thorium
90
Th

232.03806
Protactinium
91
Pa

231.03588
Uranium
92
U

238.02891
Neptunium
93
Np

[237]
Plutonium
94
Pu

[244]
Americium
95
Am

[243]
Curium
96
Cm

[247]
Berkelium
97
Bk

[247]
Californium
98
Cf

[251]
Einsteinium
99
Es

[252]
Fermium
100
Fm

[257]
Mendelevium
101
Md

[258]
Nobelium
102
No

[259]
Lawrencium
103
Lr

[266]
Rutherfordium
104
Rf

[267]
Dubnium
105
Db

[268]
Seaborgium
106
Sg

[269]
Bohrium
107
Bh

[270]
Hassium
108
Hs

[269]
Meitnerium
109
Mt

[278]
Darmstadtium
110
Ds

[281]
Roentgenium
111
Rg

[281]
Copernicium
112
Cn

[285]
Ununtrium
113
Uut

[286]
Flerovium
114
Fl

[289]
Ununpentium
115
Uup

[289]
Livermorium
116
Lv

[293]
Ununseptium
117
Uus

[294]
Ununoctium
118
Uuo

[294]
Legend
black=solid green=liquid red=gas grey=unknown Color of the atomic number shows state of matter (at 0 °C and 1 atm)
Primordial From decay Synthetic Border shows natural occurrence of the element
Background color shows subcategory in the metal–metalloid–nonmetal trend:
Metal Metalloid Nonmetal Unknown
chemical
properties
Alkali metal Alkaline earth metal Lan­thanide Actinide Transition metal Post-​transition metal Polyatomic nonmetal Diatomic nonmetal Noble gas

References

  • IUPAC periodic table (Retrieved 20 June 2005)
  • WebElements Periodic table (professional edition) (Retrieved 20 June 2005)
  • Atomic Weights of the Elements 2001, Pure Appl. Chem. 75(8), 1107–1122, 2003
  • IUPAC Standard Atomic Weights Revised (2005).

Notes

  1. ^ "The periodic table of the elements".  
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