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Philippine Revolutionary Army


Philippine Revolutionary Army

Philippine Revolutionary Army
Panghimagsikang Hukbong Katihan ng Pilipinas
Ejercito Revolucionario Filipino
Ejercito en la Republica de la Filipina Emblem, 1897
Founded March 22, 1897
Country Philippine Republic
Type Army
Role Military Force
Size 80,000 to 100,000 (1898)[1]
Garrison/HQ Kawit, Cavite
Nickname(s) "Republican Army"
"Philippine Army"
Colors Blue, Red, Gold and White
Anniversaries March 22
Engagements Philippine Revolution
Spanish–American War
Philippine–American War
Heneralisimo Emilio Aguinaldo
Artemio Ricarte
Antonio Luna
Pio del Pilar
Mariano Noriel
Gregorio del Pilar
Miguel Malvar
Marching Filipino soldiers during the inauguration of the First Philippine Republic in Malolos on January 23, 1899.

The Philippine Revolutionary Army (Filipino: Panghimagsikang Hukbong Katihan ng Pilipinas) or Ejercito Revolucionario Filipino was founded on March 22, 1897 in Cavite. General Artemio Ricarte was designated as its first Captain General during the Tejeros Convention.[2] This armed force of General Emilio Aguinaldo's central revolutionary government replaced the Katipunan military.[3]


  • History 1
  • Arsenal 2
  • Ranks/hierarchy 3
  • Recruitment and conscription 4
  • Flags and Banners 5
  • General officers 6
  • Other notable officers 7
  • Foreign officers and servicemen 8
  • See also 9
  • References 10
    • Bibliography 10.1
  • External links 11


uniforms are patterned after the Norfolk jacket.
Regular soldiers of the Philippine army stand at attention for an inspection.

The revolutionary army used the 1896 edition of the Spanish regular army's Ordenanza del Ejercito to organize its forces and establish its character as a modern army. Rules and regulations were laid down for the reorganization of the army, along with the regulation of ranks and the adoption of new fighting methods, new rank insignias, and a standard uniform known as the rayadillo. Filipino artist Juan Luna is credited with this design.[4][5] His brother, General Antonio Luna commissioned him with the task.[6] Juan Luna also designed the collar insignia for the uniforms, distinguishing between the services: infantry, cavalry, artillery, sappers, and medics.[7] At least one researcher has postulated that Juan Luna may have patterned the tunic after the English Norfolk jacket, since the Filipino version is not a copy of any Spanish-pattern uniform.[8] Infantry officers wore blue pants with a black stripe down the side, while Cavalry officers wore red trousers with black stripes.[9][10]


The main weapon of the new Filipino army was the Spanish M93, also the standard infantry arm of the Spanish, and the Remington Spanish rifle.[3] Crew-served weapons of the Philippine military included lantakas, Krupp guns, Hontoria guns, an Ordóñez gun, Hotchkiss guns, Nordenfelt guns, Maxim guns, and Colt guns. Also, there were improvised artillery weapons made of water pipes reinforced with bamboo or timber, which can only fire once or twice.[3]

Orders and circulars were issued covering matters such as building trenches and fortifications, equipping every male aged 15 to 50 with bows and arrows (as well as bolo knives, though officers wielded European swords), enticing Filipino soldiers in the Spanish army to defect, collecting empty cartridges for refilling, prohibiting unplanned sorties, inventories of captured arms and ammunition, fundraising, purchasing of arms and supplies abroad, unification of military commands, and exhorting the rich to give aid to the soldiers.[3]

Aguinaldo, a month after he declared Philippine independence, created a pay scale for officers in the army: Following the board, a brigadier general would receive 600 pesos annually, and a sergeant 72 pesos.

When the Philippine–American War erupted on February 4, 1899, the Filipino army suffered heavy losses on every sector. Even Antonio Luna urged Apolinario Mabini, Aguinaldo's chief adviser, to convince the President that guerrilla warfare must be announced as early as April 1899. Aguinaldo adopted guerilla tactics on November 13, 1899, dissolving what remained of the regular army and after many of his crack units were decimated in set-piece battles.[11]

Gen. Emilio Aguinaldo, the Supreme Commander of the Philippine Revolutionary Army.
Group showing General Manuel Tinio (seated, center), General Benito Natividad (seated, 2nd from right), Lt. Col. Jose Alejandrino (seated, 2nd from left), and their aides-de-camp.


The picture of patterns for Officer (right) and Enlisted rank rifle man (left)
Antonio Luna, notable Chief Commander of the Philippine Revolutionary Army.
Artemio Ricarte, the Commander of the Philippine Revolutionary Army.
General Gregorio del Pilar, and his troops around 1898.

The evolution of Philippine revolutionary insignia can be divided into three basic periods; early Katipunan, late Katipunan and the Republican army.

Image Rank/Insignia Equivalent Rank(s) in English Image Rank/Insignia Equivalent Rank(s) in English
Ministro Minister
Tiniente Koronel Lieutenant Colonel
Kapitan Heneral Captain General
Komandante Major
Tiniente Heneral Lieutenant General Kapitan Captain
Gial De Division Major General Tiniente Lieutenant
Gial De Brigada Brigadier General Sarhento Sergeant
Koronel Colonel Kabo Corporal

Recruitment and conscription

During the revolution against Spain, the Katipunan gave leaflets to the people to encourage them to join the revolution. Since the revolutionaries had become regular soldiers at the time of Emilio Aguinaldo, they started to recruit males and some females aged 15 and above as a form of national service.

Conscription in the revolutionary army was in effect in the Philippines and military service was mandatory at that time by the order of Gen. Antonio Luna, the Chief Commander of the Army during the Philippine-American War.[12]

Flags and Banners

General officers

During the existence of the Revolutionary Army, over 100 individuals were appointed to General Officer grades. For details, see the List of Filipino generals in the Philippine Revolution and the Philippine–American War article.

Other notable officers

Manuel L. Quezon, a former president of the Philippines, rose to the rank of Major in the Army.
  • Colonel Agapito Bonzón
  • Colonel Felipe Salvador – Commander of the Santa Iglesia faction.
  • Colonel Apolinar Velez
  • Colonel Alejandro Avecilla
  • Colonel Francisco "Paco" Román – Aide to Lieutenant General Antonio Luna.
  • Colonel Manuel Bernal – Aide to Lieutenant General Antonio Luna.
  • Colonel Pablo Tecson – Leader, Battle of Quingua.
  • Colonel Alipio Tecson – Supreme Military Commander of Tarlac in 1900 and exiled to Guam.
  • Colonel Simon Tecson – Leader of Siege of Baler; signatory of the Biak-na-Bato Constitution.
  • Colonel Simeón Villa
  • Colonel Jose Tagle – Known for his role in the Battle of Imus.
  • Lieutenant Colonel Lazaro Macapagal – Commanding officer in-charge at the execution of the Bonifacio Brothers.
  • Lieutenant Colonel José Torres Bugallón – Hero of the Battle of La Loma.
  • Lieutenant Colonel Regino Diaz Relova
  • Captain José Bernal – Aide to Lieutenant General Antonio Luna.
  • Captain Eduardo Rusca – Aide to Lieutenant General Antonio Luna.
  • Captain Pedro Janolino – Commanding Officer of the Kawit Battalion.
  • Captain Vicente Roa
  • Major Manuel Quezon – Aide to President Emilio Aguinaldo. (later on became the 2nd President of the Philippines)
  • Major Juan Arce
  • Lieutenant Garcia (given name not specified) – one of Gen. Luna's favorite sharpshooters of the Black Guard units.

Foreign officers and servicemen

  • General Juan Cailles – French/Indian mestizo who led Filipino forces in Laguna[13]
  • General Jose Valesy Nazaraire – Spanish.[13]
  • Brigadier General Jose Ignacio Paua – Full-blooded Chinese general in the army.[14]
  • Brigadier General B. Natividad – Brigade Acting Commander in Vigan under General Tinio.[15]
  • Colonel Manuel Sitjar – Director of Academia Militar de Malolos (former captain in the Spanish colonial army)[16]
  • Colonel Sebastian de Castro – Spanish director of the military hospital at Malasiqui, Pangasinan.[13]
  • Colonel Damaso Ybarra y Thomas – Spanish.[13]
  • Lieutenant Colonel Potenciano Andrade – Spanish.[13]
  • Estaquio Castellor – French mestizo who led a battalion of sharpshooters.[13]
  • Major Candido Reyes – Instructor at the Academia Militar de Malolos (former sergeant in the Spanish colonial army).[17]
  • Major José Ignacio Paua – Chinese
  • Major – Instructor at the Academia Militar de Malolos (former sergeant in the Spanish colonial army).[17]
  • Major Jose Torres Bugallon – Spanish officer who served under General Luna.[13]
  • Captain Antonio Costosa – Former officer in the Spanish colonial army.
  • Captain Chizuno Iwamoto - Japanese officer who served in Emilio Aguinaldo's staff.[18] Went back to Japan after Aguinaldo was apprehended by the Philippine Scouts.[18]
  • Captain David Fagen – Captain who served under Brigadier General Urbano Lacuna. (Black American Corporal in U.S. Army 24th Colored Regiment).[19][20][21]
  • Captain Francisco Espina – Spanish.[15]
  • Captain Estanislao de Los Reyes – Spanish aide-de-camp to General Tinio.[15]
  • Captain Feliciano Ramoso – Spanish aide-de-camp to General Tinio.[15]
  • Captain Mariano Queri – Spanish officer who served under General Luna as an instructor in the military academy and later as the director general of the staff of the war department.[13]
  • Captain Camillo Richairdi – Italian.[13]
  • Captain Telesforo Centeno – Spanish.[13]
  • Captain Arthur Howard – American deserter from the 1st California Volunteers.[21]
  • Captain Glen Morgan – American who organized insurgent forces in central Mindanao.[21]
  • Captain John Miller – American who organized insurgent forces in central Mindanao.[21]
  • Captain Russel – American deserter from the 10th Infantry.[21]
  • Lieutenant Danfort – American deserter from the 10th Infantry.[21]
  • Lieutenant Maximino Lazo – Spanish.[13]
  • Lieutenant Gabriel Badelly Mendez – Cuban.[13]
  • 2nd Lieutenant Segundo Paz – Spanish.[13]
  • Lieutenant Alejandro Quirulgico – Spanish.[15]
  • Lieutenant Rafael Madina – Spanish.[15]
  • Lieutenant Arsenio Romero – Spanish.[15]
  • Lieutenant Rafael Madina – Spanish.[15]
  • Private John AllaneUnited States Army.[22]
  • Private Harry Dennis – United States Army.[22]
  • Private William Hyer – United States Army.[23]
  • Private Meeks (given name not specified) – United States Army.[22]
  • Private George Raymond – 41st Infantry, United States Army.
  • Private Maurice Sibley – 16th Infantry, United States Army.[24]
  • Private John Wagner – United States Army.[22]
  • Private Edward Walpole – United States Army.[22]
  • Henry Richter – American deserter from the 9th Cavalry.[21]
  • Gorth Shores – American deserter from the 9th Cavalry.[21]
  • Fred Hunter – American deserter from the 9th Cavalry.[21]
  • William Denten – American deserter who joined General Lukban in Samar.[21]
  • Enrique Warren – American deserter who served under Francisco Makabulos in Tarlac.[21]
  • Antonio Prisco – Spanish.[13]
  • Manuel Alberto – Spanish.[13]
  • Eugenia Plona – Spanish aide-de-camp to Baldermo Aguinaldo.[13]
  • Alexander MacIntosh – English.[21]
  • William McAllister – English.[21]
  • Charles MacKinley – Englishman who served in Laoag.[21]
  • James O'Brian – English.[21]
  • Captain Vicente Catalan – Chief of the Philippine Navy (former crewmember at the Spanish colonial navy).

See also


  1. ^ Deady 2005, p. 55 (page 3 of the PDF)
  2. ^ "The Philippine Army History". Archived from the original on December 25, 2013. Retrieved 2014-01-09. 
  3. ^ a b c d "Philippine-American War, 1899-1902". Retrieved 2012-01-28. 
  4. ^ Alejandrino, Jose (1949). The Price of Freedom. 
  5. ^ Opiña, Rimaliza (2004-11-14). "Military academy sheds West Point look". Sun.Star Baguio. Retrieved 2008-05-19. 
  6. ^ Jose, Vivencio R. (1986). The Rise and Fall of Antonio Luna. Solar Publishing. p. 106. 
  7. ^ "Uniformology II". Retrieved 2008-05-20. 
  8. ^ Combs, William K. "Filipino Rayadillo Norfolk-pattern Tunic". Retrieved 2008-05-18. 
  9. ^ "Filipino Rayadillo Norfolk Pattern Tunic". Retrieved 18 October, 2015. 
  10. ^ "Uniformology I". Retrieved 2008-05-20. 
  11. ^ Linn 2000a, pp. 186–187
  12. ^ Gregorio F. Zaide (1968). The Philippine Revolution. Modern Book Company. p. 279. 
  13. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p Tan 2002, p. 249.
  14. ^ Linn 2000b, p. 97.
  15. ^ a b c d e f g h Tan 2002, p. 108.
  16. ^ Tan 2002, pp. 108, 249.
  17. ^ a b Halili 2004, p. 169.
  18. ^ a b Ambeth R. Ocampo. "Japanese with a different face". 
  19. ^ Bowers, Hammond & MacGarrigle 1997, p. 12.
  20. ^ Fantina 2006, p. 88.
  21. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o Tan 2002, p. 250.
  22. ^ a b c d e Scott 1986, pp. 36–37
  23. ^ Scott 1986, pp. 36–37, 195
  24. ^ Vic Hurley (2011-06-14). Jungle Patrol, the Story of the Philippine Constabulary (1901-1936). Cerberus Books. p. 169.  


  • Bowers, William T.; Hammond, William M.; MacGarrigle, George L. (1997). Black Soldier, White Army: The 24th Infantry Regiment in Korea. DIANE Publishing.  
  • Deady, Timothy K. (Spring 2005). "Lessons from a Successful Counterinsurgency: The Philippines, 1899–1902" (PDF). Parameters' (US Army War College) 35 (1): 53–68. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2009-03-26. 
  • Fantina, Robert (2006). Desertion and the American Soldier, 1776-2006. Algora Publishing.  
  • Halili, Christine N. (2004). Philippine History. Rex Bookstore, Inc.  
  • Linn, Brian McAllister (2000a), The Philippine War, 1899–1902, University Press of Kansas,  
  • Linn, Brian McAllister (2000b). The U.S. Army and Counterinsurgency in the Philippine War, 1899-1902. UNC Press Books.  
  • Scott, William Henry (1986). Ilocano responses to American aggression, 1900-1901. New Day Publishers.  
  • Tan, Samuel K. (2002). The Filipino-American War, 1899-1913. University of the Philippines Press.  

External links

  • Philippines Independence Armies: Insignia 1896 - 1902
  • "Artemio Ricarte". Archived from the original on 2011-08-09. Retrieved 2012-01-28. 
  • tunicsrayadilloImages of Filipino Republican Army
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