World Library  
Flag as Inappropriate
Email this Article

Pyroxene

Article Id: WHEBN0000111194
Reproduction Date:

Title: Pyroxene  
Author: World Heritage Encyclopedia
Language: English
Subject: Basalt, List of rock types, Amphibolite, Geology of the Moon, Water on Mars
Collection:
Publisher: World Heritage Encyclopedia
Publication
Date:
 

Pyroxene

Figure 1: A sample of pyroxenite, a rock consisting mostly of pyroxene minerals.

The pyroxenes (commonly abbreviated to Px) are a group of important rock-forming inosilicate minerals found in many igneous and metamorphic rocks. They share a common structure consisting of single chains of silica tetrahedra and they crystallize in the monoclinic and orthorhombic systems. Pyroxenes have the general formula XY(Si,Al)2O6 (where X represents calcium, sodium, iron+2 and magnesium and more rarely zinc, manganese and lithium and Y represents ions of smaller size, such as chromium, aluminium, iron+3, magnesium, manganese, scandium, titanium, vanadium and even iron+2). Although aluminium substitutes extensively for silicon in silicates such as feldspars and amphiboles, the substitution occurs only to a limited extent in most pyroxenes.

The name pyroxene comes from the Greek words for fire (πυρ) and stranger (ξένος). Pyroxenes were named this way because of their presence in volcanic lavas, where they are sometimes seen as crystals embedded in volcanic glass; it was assumed they were impurities in the glass, hence the name "fire strangers". However, they are simply early-forming minerals that crystallized before the lava erupted.

Mantle-peridotite xenolith from San Carlos Indian Reservation, Gila Co., Arizona, USA. The xenolith is dominated by green peridot olivine, together with black orthopyroxene and spinel crystals, and rare grass-green diopside grains. The fine-grained gray rock in this image is the host basalt.(unknown scale)

The upper mantle of Earth is composed mainly of olivine and pyroxene. A piece of the mantle is shown at right (orthopyroxene is black, diopside (containing chromium) is bright green, and olivine is yellow-green) and is dominated by olivine, typical for common peridotite. Pyroxene and feldspar are the major minerals in basalt and gabbro.

Chemistry and nomenclature of the pyroxenes

Figure 2: The nomenclature of the calcium, magnesium, iron pyroxenes.

The chain silicate structure of the pyroxenes offers much flexibility in the incorporation of various cations and the names of the pyroxene minerals are primarily defined by their chemical composition. Pyroxene minerals are named according to the chemical species occupying the X (or M2) site, the Y (or M1) site, and the tetrahedral T site. Cations in Y (M1) site are closely bound to 6 oxygens in octahedral coordination. Cations in the X (M2) site can be coordinated with 6 to 8 oxygen atoms, depending on the cation size. Twenty mineral names are recognised by the International Mineralogical Association's Commission on New Minerals and Mineral Names and 105 previously used names have been discarded (Morimoto et al., 1989).

A typical pyroxene has mostly silicon in the tetrahedral site and predominately ions with a charge of +2 in both the X and Y sites, giving the approximate formula XYT2O6. The names of the common calcium – iron – magnesium pyroxenes are defined in the 'pyroxene quadrilateral' shown in Figure 2. The enstatite-ferrosilite series ([Mg,Fe]SiO3) contain up to 5 mol.% calcium and exists in three polymorphs, orthorhombic orthoenstatite and protoenstatite and monoclinic clinoenstatite (and the ferrosilite equivalents). Increasing the calcium content prevents the formation of the orthorhombic phases and pigeonite ([Mg,Fe,Ca][Mg,Fe]Si2O6) only crystallises in the monoclinic system. There is not complete solid solution in calcium content and Mg-Fe-Ca pyroxenes with calcium contents between about 15 and 25 mol.% are not stable with respect to a pair of exolved crystals. This leads to a miscibility gap between pigeonite and augite compositions. There is an arbitrary separation between augite and the diopside-hedenbergite (CaMgSi2O6 – CaFeSi2O6) solid solution. The divide is taken at >45 mol.% Ca. As the calcium ion cannot occupy the Y site, pyroxenes with more than 50 mol.% calcium are not possible. A related mineral wollastonite has the formula of the hypothetical calcium end member but important structural differences mean that it is not grouped with the pyroxenes.

Figure 3: The nomenclature of the sodium pyroxenes.

Magnesium, calcium and iron are by no means the only cations that can occupy the X and Y sites in the pyroxene structure. A second important series of pyroxene minerals are the sodium-rich pyroxenes, corresponding to nomenclature shown in Figure 3. The inclusion of sodium, which has a charge of +1, into the pyroxene implies the need for a mechanism to make up the "missing" positive charge. In jadeite and aegirine this is added by the inclusion of a +3 cation (aluminium and iron(III) respectively) on the Y site. Sodium pyroxenes with more than 20 mol.% calcium, magnesium or iron(II) components are known as omphacite and aegirine-augite, with 80% or more of these components the pyroxene falls in the quadrilateral shown in figure 2.

Table 1 shows the wide range of other cations that can be accommodated in the pyroxene structure, and indicates the sites that they occupy.

Table 1: Order of cation occupation in the pyroxenes
T Si Al Fe3+
Y Al Fe3+ Ti4+ Cr V Ti3+ Zr Sc Zn Mg Fe2+ Mn
X Mg Fe2+ Mn Li Ca Na

In assigning ions to sites the basic rule is to work from left to right in this table first assigning all silicon to the T site then filling the site with remaining aluminium and finally iron(III), extra aluminium or iron can be accommodated in the Y site and bulkier ions on the X site. Not all the resulting mechanisms to achieve charge neutrality follow the sodium example above and there are several alternative schemes:

  1. Coupled substitutions of 1+ and 3+ ions on the X and Y sites respectively. For example Na and Al give the jadeite (NaAlSi2O6) composition.
  2. Coupled substitution of a 1+ ion on the X site and a mixture of equal numbers of 2+ and 4+ ions on the Y site. This leads to e.g. NaFe2+0.5Ti4+0.5Si2O6.
  3. The Tschermak substitution where a 3+ ion occupies the Y site and a T site leading to e.g. CaAlAlSiO6.

In nature, more than one substitution may be found in the same mineral.

Pyroxene minerals

First X-ray diffraction view of Martian soil - CheMin analysis reveals feldspar, pyroxenes, olivine and more (Curiosity rover at "Rocknest", October 17, 2012).[1]
  • Clinopyroxenes (monoclinic; abbreviated CPx)
    • Aegirine (Sodium Iron Silicate)
    • Augite (Calcium Sodium Magnesium Iron Aluminium Silicate)
    • Clinoenstatite (Magnesium Silicate)
    • Diopside (Calcium Magnesium Silicate, CaMgSi2O6)
    • Esseneite (Calcium Iron Aluminium Silicate)
    • Hedenbergite (Calcium Iron Silicate)
    • Jadeite (Sodium Aluminium Silicate)
    • Jervisite (Sodium Calcium Iron Scandium Magnesium Silicate)
    • Johannsenite (Calcium Manganese Silicate)
    • Kanoite (Manganese Magnesium Silicate)
    • Kosmochlor (Sodium Chromium Silicate)
    • Namansilite (Sodium Manganese Silicate)
    • Natalyite (Sodium Vanadium Chromium Silicate)
    • Omphacite (Calcium Sodium Magnesium Iron Aluminium Silicate)
    • Petedunnite (Calcium Zinc Manganese Iron Magnesium Silicate)
    • Pigeonite (Calcium Magnesium Iron Silicate)
    • Spodumene (Lithium Aluminium Silicate)
  • Orthopyroxenes (orthorhombic; abbreviated OPx)

See also

References

  1. ^ Brown, Dwayne (October 30, 2012). "NASA Rover's First Soil Studies Help Fingerprint Martian Minerals".  
  • C.Michael Hogan. 2010. . eds. A.Jorgensen, C.Cleveland. Encyclopedia of EarthCalcium. National Council for Science and the Environment.
  • N.Morimoto, J. Fabries, A.K.Ferguson, I.V.Ginzburg, M.Ross, F.A.Seifeit and J.Zussman. 1989. "Nomenclature of pyroxenes" Canadian Mineralogist Vol.27 pp143–156 http://www.mineralogicalassociation.ca/doc/abstracts/ima98/ima98(12).pdf

External links

  • Mineral Galleries
This article was sourced from Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License; additional terms may apply. World Heritage Encyclopedia content is assembled from numerous content providers, Open Access Publishing, and in compliance with The Fair Access to Science and Technology Research Act (FASTR), Wikimedia Foundation, Inc., Public Library of Science, The Encyclopedia of Life, Open Book Publishers (OBP), PubMed, U.S. National Library of Medicine, National Center for Biotechnology Information, U.S. National Library of Medicine, National Institutes of Health (NIH), U.S. Department of Health & Human Services, and USA.gov, which sources content from all federal, state, local, tribal, and territorial government publication portals (.gov, .mil, .edu). Funding for USA.gov and content contributors is made possible from the U.S. Congress, E-Government Act of 2002.
 
Crowd sourced content that is contributed to World Heritage Encyclopedia is peer reviewed and edited by our editorial staff to ensure quality scholarly research articles.
 
By using this site, you agree to the Terms of Use and Privacy Policy. World Heritage Encyclopedia™ is a registered trademark of the World Public Library Association, a non-profit organization.
 



Copyright © World Library Foundation. All rights reserved. eBooks from World eBook Library are sponsored by the World Library Foundation,
a 501c(4) Member's Support Non-Profit Organization, and is NOT affiliated with any governmental agency or department.