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Queen of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland

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Title: Queen of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland  
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Queen of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland

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There have been 12 monarchs of Great Britain and the United Kingdom (see the Monarchy of the United Kingdom). A new Kingdom of Great Britain was formed on 1 May 1707 with the merger of the Kingdom of England and the Kingdom of Scotland, which had been in personal union under the House of Stuart since 24 March 1603. On 1 January 1801, Great Britain merged with the Kingdom of Ireland to form the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland. After most of Ireland left the union on 6 December 1922, its name was amended on 12 April 1927 to the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland.

House of Stuart

Main article: House of Stuart

Queen Anne had been queen of England, Scotland and Ireland since 8 March 1702, and so became Queen of Great Britain upon the Union of England and Scotland.

Name Portrait Birth Marriages Death Claim
Anne
1 May 1707–1 August 1714
6 February 1665
St. James's Palace
daughter of James II and VII and Anne Hyde
George of Denmark
St. James's Palace
28 July 1683
17 pregnancies, but no surviving children
1 August 1714
Kensington Palace
aged 49
Daughter of James II and VII (cognatic primogeniture; Bill of Rights 1689); Queen of England and Scotland upon the Union; (Treaty of Union and Acts of Union 1707)

House of Hanover

Main article: House of Hanover

The Hanoverian succession came about as a result of the Act of Settlement 1701, passed by the Parliament of England, which excluded "Papists" (that is, Roman Catholics) from the succession. In return for access to the English plantations in North America and the West Indies, the Hanoverian succession and the Union were ratified by the Parliament of Scotland in 1707.

After the death of Queen Anne with no living children, George I, the son of Sophia of Hanover, granddaughter of James VI of Scotland and I of England through his daughter Elizabeth of Bohemia, was the closest heir to the throne who was not a Roman Catholic.

Name Portrait Birth Marriages Death Succession right References
George I
George Louis
1 August 1714 –
11 June 1727
28 May 1660
Leineschloss
son of Ernest Augustus, Elector of Brunswick-Lüneburg and Sophia of Hanover
Sophia Dorothea of Brunswick-Lueneburg-Celle
21 November 1682
2 children
11 June 1727
Osnabrück
aged 67
Great-grandson of James VI and I [2]
George II
George Augustus
11 June 1727 –
25 October 1760
30 October 1683
Herrenhausen
son of George I and Sophia Dorothea of Brunswick-Lueneburg-Celle
Caroline of Ansbach
22 August 1705
8 children
25 October 1760
Kensington Palace
aged 76
Son of George I [3]
George III
George William Frederick
25 October 1760 –
29 January 1820
4 June 1738
Norfolk House
son of Frederick, Prince of Wales and Princess Augusta of Saxe-Gotha
Charlotte of Mecklenburg-Strelitz
St James's Palace
8 September 1761
15 children
29 January 1820
Windsor Castle
aged 81
Grandson of George II [4]
George IV
George Augustus Frederick
29 January 1820 –
26 June 1830
(Prince Regent since 1811)
12 August 1762
St James's Palace
son of George III and Charlotte of Mecklenburg-Strelitz
(1) Maria Anne Fitzherbert
Park Lane
15 September 1785
(2) Caroline of Brunswick
St James's Palace
8 April 1795
1 daughter
26 June 1830
Windsor
aged 67
Son of George III [5]
William IV
William Henry
26 June 1830 –
20 June 1837
21 August 1765
Buckingham Palace
son of George III and Charlotte of Mecklenburg-Strelitz
Adelaide of Saxe-Meiningen
Kew Palace
13 July 1818
2 children
20 June 1837
Windsor Castle
aged 71
Son of George III [6]
Victoria
Alexandrina Victoria
20 June 1837 –
22 January 1901
24 May 1819
Kensington Palace
daughter of Prince Edward, Duke of Kent and Strathearn and Princess Victoria of Saxe-Coburg-Saalfeld
Albert of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha
St James's Palace
10 February 1840
9 children
22 January 1901
Osborne House
aged 81
Granddaughter of George III [7]

House of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha

Although he was the son and heir of Victoria, Edward VII inherited his father's names and is therefore counted as inaugurating a new royal house.

Name Portrait Birth Marriages Death Succession right References
Edward VII
Albert Edward
22 January 1901 –
6 May 1910
9 November 1841
Buckingham Palace
son of Victoria and Prince Albert of Saxe-Coburg-Gotha
Alexandra of Denmark
St George's Chapel
10 March 1863
6 children
6 May 1910
Buckingham Palace
aged 68
Son of Queen Victoria [8]

House of Windsor

Main article: House of Windsor

The house name Windsor was adopted in 1917, during World War I. It was changed from Saxe-Coburg-Gotha because of wartime anti-German sentiment in the United Kingdom.

Name Portrait Birth Marriages Death Succession right References
George V
George Frederick Ernest Albert
6 May 1910 –
20 January 1936
3 June 1865
Marlborough House
son of Edward VII and Alexandra of Denmark
Mary of Teck
St James's Palace
6 July 1893
6 children
20 January 1936
Sandringham House
aged 70
Son of Edward VII [9]
Edward VIII
Edward Albert Christian George Andrew Patrick David
20 January –
11 December 1936 (abdicated)
23 June 1894
White Lodge
son of George V and Mary of Teck
Wallis Warfield Simpson
Château de Candé
3 June 1937
no children
28 May 1972
Neuilly-sur-Seine
aged 77
Son of George V [10]
George VI
Albert Frederick Arthur George
11 December 1936 –
6 February 1952
14 December 1895
Sandringham House
son of George V and Mary of Teck
Elizabeth Bowes-Lyon
Westminster Abbey
26 April 1923
2 children
6 February 1952
Sandringham House
aged 56
Son of George V [11]
Elizabeth II
Elizabeth Alexandra Mary
6 February
1952 – present
21 April 1926
Mayfair
daughter of George VI and Elizabeth Bowes-Lyon
Philip of Greece and Denmark
Westminster Abbey
20 November 1947
4 children
Incumbent Daughter of George VI [12]

Timeline of British Monarchs

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 from: 1714   till:    1901   color: h   text:Hanover
 from: 1901   till:    1917   color: sx  text:Saxe-Coburg-Gotha
 from: 1917   till:    end   color: w   text:Windsor
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 from: 1707 till: 1714 color:s text:"Anne"
 from: 1714 till: 1727 color:h text:"George I"
 from: 1727 till: 1760 color:h text:"George II"
 from: 1760 till: 1820 color:h text:"George III"
 from: 1820 till: 1830 color:h text:"George IV"
 from: 1830 till: 1837 color:h text:"William IV"
 from: 1837 till: 1901 color:h text:"Victoria"
 from: 1901 till: 1910 color:sx text:"Edward VII"
 from: 1910 till: 1936 color:w text:"George V"
 from: 1936 till: 1936 color:w text:"Edward VIII"
 from: 1936 till: 1952 color:w text:"George VI"
 from: 1952 till: end color:w text:"Elizabeth II"
 barset:skip

See also

Notes and references

External links

  • English Monarchs – A complete history of the Kings and Queens of England
  • Britannia: Monarchs of Britain
  • Archontology

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