World Library  
Flag as Inappropriate
Email this Article

Red shirts (Mexico)

Article Id: WHEBN0012515322
Reproduction Date:

Title: Red shirts (Mexico)  
Author: World Heritage Encyclopedia
Language: English
Subject: Fascism in North America
Collection:
Publisher: World Heritage Encyclopedia
Publication
Date:
 

Red shirts (Mexico)

The Red Shirts (Spanish: Camisas Rojas) were a paramilitary organization, existing in the 1930s, founded by the virulently anti-Catholic, atheist and anticlerical Governor of Tabasco, Mexico, Tomás Garrido Canabal during his second term.[1] As part of their attempt to destroy the Church, they systematically destroyed church buildings.[2] The group, created to carry out the governor's orders, takes its name from its uniform of red shirts, black pants, and black and red military caps and it consisted of men aged 15 to 30.[1]

Apart from religion, the Red Shirts also attacked other things they considered to be detrimental to progress, most notably alcohol. They have been described as "fascist",[3] however, the anthem of the Red Shirts was the Internationale, widely considered to be the socialist anthem, and Garrido named one of his sons after Vladimir Lenin, a Marxist and anti-fascist[1] and also considered himself a Marxist Bolshevik.[4][5][6][7][8] Some scholars have argued that Garrido's authoritarian policies were more akin to European right-wing dictatorships,[9] though he wished to turn the traditionally conservative state of Tabasco into a socialist model and fought for socialist causes.[10][11][12] Tabasco has been called a "socialist tyranny" by Martin C. Needler, Dean of the School of International Studies at the University of the Pacific in California.[13] Garrido also invited the First Congress of Socialist Students to meet in the state of Tabasco and created a form of socialist education which he termed "Rationalist".[14][15]

The Red Shirts have been described as "shock troops of indoctrination for the intense campaign against 'God and religion.'"[16] The Red Shirts were also used against the Cristeros revolt, an uprising against the persecution of Catholics by the government of Plutarco Calles.[17] The Red Shirts practice socialist marriages, and two Red Shirt members, José Correa and Victoria Ley, pronounced their own vows:

Before society, before Comrade Tomas Garrido Canabal, and all present, we declare that we have united in matrimony by our express will[18]

And another two members sent out invitations:

J. Felix Gutierrez and Amalia Gonzalez have the honor to invite you to the civil and socialist matrimonial act, to take place at 21 o' clock the 17th of this month at 305 Gomez Farias Street. Please honor us...[18]

The Red Shirts celebrated the death of Christ on Good Friday 1935[18] and the connected League against Religious Fanaticism had their own radio show call "Anti-Fanatic Hour", which was made up of 12 parts, including the "Hymn To The Socialist School", the song "Anti-Alcoholic Protest" and six speeches (including one on "The Class Struggle").[18]

In 1934 Garrido was named secretary of Agriculture by the new president Lázaro Cárdenas, hoping to contain the Red Shirts that way. However, Garrido took the Red Shirts with him to Mexico City at the National Autonomous University of Mexico to intervene in student politics.[1]


On December 30, 1934, the Red Shirts opened fired on Catholic exiles who were seeking to return to Tabasco as they were leaving Mass at the Immaculate Conception Church in Coyoacán, killing five and wounding many others.[18] Garrido sent the murderers a case of Champagne in jail and declared that they were under his protection.[18] In 1935, after he ordered his Red Shirts to kill Catholic activists in Mexico City who were seeking to return to Tabasco, Canabal was forced to step down and into exile in Costa Rica.[16] His paramilitary groups, including the Camisas Rojas, were subsequently disbanded.

The Red Shirt regime in Tabasco is the setting for Graham Greene's 1940 novel The Power and the Glory.

References

External links

This article was sourced from Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License; additional terms may apply. World Heritage Encyclopedia content is assembled from numerous content providers, Open Access Publishing, and in compliance with The Fair Access to Science and Technology Research Act (FASTR), Wikimedia Foundation, Inc., Public Library of Science, The Encyclopedia of Life, Open Book Publishers (OBP), PubMed, U.S. National Library of Medicine, National Center for Biotechnology Information, U.S. National Library of Medicine, National Institutes of Health (NIH), U.S. Department of Health & Human Services, and USA.gov, which sources content from all federal, state, local, tribal, and territorial government publication portals (.gov, .mil, .edu). Funding for USA.gov and content contributors is made possible from the U.S. Congress, E-Government Act of 2002.
 
Crowd sourced content that is contributed to World Heritage Encyclopedia is peer reviewed and edited by our editorial staff to ensure quality scholarly research articles.
 
By using this site, you agree to the Terms of Use and Privacy Policy. World Heritage Encyclopedia™ is a registered trademark of the World Public Library Association, a non-profit organization.
 



Copyright © World Library Foundation. All rights reserved. eBooks from World eBook Library are sponsored by the World Library Foundation,
a 501c(4) Member's Support Non-Profit Organization, and is NOT affiliated with any governmental agency or department.